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From the Lihrary of the 



FoggJA 



uscum 



of Art 



Harvard University 



3*C 




i 



f 



BRYAN'S DICTIONARY 



OF 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



yoL. II. 






DICTIONARY 



OF 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS, 



BIOGRAPHICAL AND CRITICAL, 



BY 



MICHAEL BRYAN. 



NEW EDITION, REVISED AND ENLARGED, 



EDITED BY 



WALTER ARMSTRONG, B.A. Oxon.. 

AUTHOR OF "SCOTTISH PAINTERS" AND " PETER DE WINT," 

AND 

ROBERT EDMUND GRAVES 

OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 



VOLUME II : L— Z. 



THE 
"WILLIAM HAYES FOGQ. 

ART MUSEUM OF 
HARVARD UNIVIC««tTY. 



LONDON: GEORGE BELL AND SONS, 

4, YORK STREET, COVENT GARDEN. 

1889. 




THE 
WILL-TAM HAYES FOGG 

AKT MUSEUM OF 
HARVARD UNIVERSITY. 



He>CJL.6<bvxTTV orvx). 2.\ 




\^A--'^ ' 



A 



Richard Clay & Sons, Limited, 
London & Bungay. 






PKEFACE. 



FOR the present edition of Bryan's " Dictionary of Painters and Engravers," the two editors 
tlins divide the responsibility : for the general form of the work, as well as the whole 
of the first volume and the letter L in the second volume, Mr. E. E. Graves is responsible; 
for the rest, Mr. Walter Armstrong. 

Since the appearance of the last edition in 1849, the development of connoisseiuship, chiefly 
through the help of photography; and the publication of many valuable works on art and 
artists, embodying the results of careful research among city records, guild books, and church 
legistersi particularly in Italy and in the Netherlands, has furnished much new material for 
the correction and enlargement of such a dictionary as this. More especially are the Editors 
indebted to the invaluable works of Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle, Burckhardt, Milanesi, and 
Morelli on the Italian painters, of Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle, Weale, Bredius, Bode and 
Eiamm on Elemish and Dutch art, and of the late Sir William Stirling Maxwell and D. 
Pedro de Madrazo, on the artists of Spain. 

Dealing, as a dictionary does, with facts rather than with criticism, the labours of preceding 
writers must necessarily be used with a frequency which makes special acknowledgment in 
every case impossible, but the Editors trust they will not be found to have placed themselves 

under any obligations that may not be frankly acknowledged. 

« 

Besides the addition of a large number of names, new authority has been given to every one 
of the old entries by a careful revision, and in most instances by important changes. In several 
cases the notices have been supplied by contributors specially qualified for the task ; a list of 
these, with their distinguishing initials, is given below. 

Among the improvements is a more scientific arrangement of the names, of which the 
following is the plan : — 



VI 



PREFACE. 



I. Every artist having a Bamame is placed under that samame. Assumed 



e» g» The artist commonly known as — 






Correggio trill be/ound under 




Allbgbi, Antonio 


Giorgione „ „ 




Babbabklli, Giorgio 


Pinturicchio „ „ 




Buoio, Bernardino 


Sebastiano del Piombo „ 




LnciAKi, Sebastiano 


Tintoretto „ „ 




RoBUSTi, Jacopo 


Titian ,, „ 




Vecelli, Tiziano 



(a) When the prefix to a name is an artiolb it is retained, because it is an integral 
part of the name; but when a prsposition it is rejected. Thus, the French Le 
and Za, the Spanish Los and Las, and the Dutch and Flemish De are accepted ; 
while the French de^ the Italian da and di, the German von, and the Dutch van 
are rejected. 



e. g. Charles Le Brun trill be/ound under 
Jan David De Heem ,, 
Jean Francois de Troy „ 
Heinrich von Hess 
Isaac van Ostade 



9) 






Lb Bbun, Charles 
De Hebm , Jan David 
Tbot, Jean Fran9ois de 
Hess, Heinrich von 
Ostade, Isaac van 



(5) When an article is joined to or preceded by a preposition, as in the French du, 
de la, and des, the Italian del, delta, dai, dalle, and degli, the Spanish del and de la, 
the Portuguese dal, and the Dutch Van de and Van der, they are together treated as 
an article : for, in order to retain the article, we are forced to retain the preposition 
as welL 



e. g. Alphonse du Fresnoy trill be found under 
Laurent de La Hire 
Niccol6 deir Abbate 
Alonso del Barco 
WiUem van de Velde 



II 



II 



II 
II 



II 
II 

f I 



II 



Du Fbesnot, Alphonse 
De La Hibb, Laurent 
Dell* Abbate, Niccol6 
Del Babco, Alonso 
Van de Velde, WiUem 



(c) English artists bearing foreign names are placed under the prefix whether it be a 

preposition or not. 

e, g. TeteTDeWint trill be/ound under ... De Wint, Peter 

(d) Proper names with the prefix St. are placed as though the word were written in full^ 
Saint ; and BT and M^ are arranged as Mac. 

(e) Foreign compound names are arranged under the first name. 



e. g, Baptiste Aubry-Lecomte will be/ound under 
Juan Cano de Arevalo ,, „ „ 



Aubby-Lbcomte, Baptiste 
Cano de Abevalo, Juan 



XL An artist having no surname is placed under the name of the place from which 
he is known. 



e, g. Andrea da Bologna will be/ound under 



Bologna, Andrea da 



PREFACE. 

Or, foiling that» under his own Christian name. 

e. g, Andrea del Sarto wiU he found under 
Fra Bartolommeo 



Vll 



» 



fi 



)i 



Andrea d'Agnolo 
Bartolommeo di Pagholo 



m. Anonymous artists known as the Master of the Crab, the Master of the Die, Hie 
Master of the Bat4rap, will be found under the common title of Master. 



CONTRIBUTORS OF INITIALED ARTICLES. 



W.A. 


Walter Armstrong. 


0. J. D 


0. J. DuUea. 


RE.G 


Robert Edmund Graves 


M. M. xi. ... 


Mary M. Heaton. 


J. P. R 


J. P. Richter. 


W. B. S, 


William Bell Scott 


F. 8 


Florence Simmonds. 






COEEIGENDA. 



VOLUME II. 



Page 20, under 






}l 



93, „ 



,. 110. „ 
„ 116, 

II 121, „ 



„ 123, „ 

99 123, „ 

„ 127, „ 

II 131, „ 



„ 136, „ 

„ 166, „ 
>i 181) >i 



LAPO, ToMM. Di. At end add See 

also QlOTTINO. 

LEUX,/or LuYX read Luycx. 

LOVELL, Pkbegrinb, for 16th 
read 17tli. 

MA CEDO, /or Olovis read Clovio. 

MAES, Jan Baptist, for MAES, 
Jan Baptist, read MAES, Jan 
Baptist Lodewyk. 

Do. After from 1821 to 1826 read 
He aied at Rome in 1856. 

MAES-CANNINI,/or MAES-CAN- 
NINI, Jan Baptist Lodewyk, 
read MAES, Canini. 

Do. For born at Ghent in 1794 read 
bom at Ghent about the middle 
of the 18th century. 

Do. For He died at Rome in 1856 
read He settled in Italy, where he 
died. 

MAITRE ROUX, for DE' ROSSI, 
Rosso, read Dei Rossi. 

MARNE. Add [Supplement]. 

Delete artidey Martis, Ottaviano. 

MASTER OF THE CANDLESTICK, 
/or Hopfer, Jan, read Hopfer, 
Daniel, Hieronymus, and Lam- 
bert. 

MATHAM, Theodor, f(yr bom at 
Haarlem in 1569 read bom at 
Haarlem 1606. 

Do. For He died about 1677 read 
He died in 1660. 

MAZZOCCHI,/ar Doni, Paolo, read 
DoNO, Paolo di. 

MEER, for Johannes (of Utrecht) 
and N.,8ee Van der Meer; Jan (of 
Delft), see Ver Meer ; Gerard 
and Jan the younger (of Ghent 
and of Haarlem), read: and N., 
see Van der Meer; Jan (of 
Delft), see Ver Meer ; Gerard 
and Jan (both of Ghent). 

MELLAN, f<yr bom at Abbeville 
about 1601 read bom at Abbe- 
ville about 1598. 

MONT, for See Delmont read See 
Van der Mont. 

MOUCHERON, Frbderik, /or bom 



Page 181, under 



>• 

» 

>i 
>i 

» 
11 

»» 



214, „ 

218, „ 

218, „ 

269, „ 

263, „ 

278, „ 

390, 

397, 

401, „ 

426. „ 
429, 

442, „ 

443, 

475, „ 

481, „ 

496» „ 

628, „ 

529, „ 

535, „ 
589, 



at Embden in 1663 read bom at 

Embden in 1633 or 1634. 
Do. For The year of his death is not 

known, but there is a picture by 

him at Dresden with the date 

1713 upon it, read He died at 

Amsterdam, where he was buried 

January 5, 1686. 
NONZIO, for 18th century read 

16th century. 
NUTI, f(yr under Marini, Ant. read 

Supplement. 
NUTSCHIDEL, for Neufchatel 

read Neuchatel. 
PAT AVINUS, /or See Otello rcoc^ 

See Osello. 
PADTRE, for Lepautre read Le 

Paultre. 
PETHER, Abr, Delete the son of 

William Pether, 
DelHe cross reference, ROBERTO da 

CIVITELLA, see Robertus. 
Delete cross referetvce^ RODERIGO, 

see SiciLiANL 
ROMANO, Vincenzo, /or Aribmolo 

read Aniemolo. 
RUET, /or Dervet read Deruet. 
Delete cross rc/er«n<;c, RUSSI, Fran- 
co de', see Crivelli, Taddeo de'. 
SALVIATINO, /or Rossi read Dei 

Rossi. 
Delete cross refere/ux, SAMMI- 

CHELI, see San Micheli. 
SCHONGAUER, Martin. Add at 

end of article^ Martin's brother 

LuDWiG was also an engraver. 
SCIAMERONI, for Filippo read 

Francesco. 
SIEGERT, after dioramas read He 

died in 1883. 
STEEVENS, for Stievens read 

Stevens 
STEFANO, ToMM., for Stefano 

read Di Stefano, and after 1356 

add See also Giottino. 
STIMMER, JoHANN Christoph. 

At end add See also Le Suisse. 
Transfer Troso da Monza to p. 587. 



BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 



OF 



PAINTEKS AND ENGRAYEES. 



LAAK, Maria van der. See Van dbr Laak. 

LAAN, Van der. See Van dbr Laan. 

LAAR, J. 0. VAN, the youngest brother of Pieter 
▼an Laar, is said to have accompanied his brother 
to Italy, and to have perished by falling into a moun- 
tain torrent while crossing a bridge near Borne. 

LAAR, PiBTER VAN, called Bambogcio and Snttf- 
FKLAER, was bom at Haarlem, in 1582. His 
parents were in easy circumstances, and so were 
able to indulge the inclination which he early 
showed for art, by having him instructed in the 
elements of design by Jan van Campen, and after- 
wards by Adam Elsheimer. He went when young 
to Italy, and resided for sixteen years in Bome, 
where he was distinguished by the uncommon 
vivacity of his genius and the amiability of his 
disposition. He lived in habits of intimacy with 
Kicolas Poussin, Claude Lorrain, and Sandrart, in 
whose company he made drawings of the most 
interesting monuments in the neighbourhood of 
Rome. These studies were of use to him in the 
composition of his pictures, as forming the back- 
grounds. He acquired the name of ' Bamboccio ' 
most probably from his usually painting such sub- 
jects as the Italians call ^ bambocciate,* such as 
fairs, rural festivals, huntings, and masquerades, 
rather than from any deformity of his body. In 
1639 he left Rome and settled at Haarlem, where 
his pictures were not less admired than in Italy. 
His works are scarce, and are deservedly held in 
high repute. He died at Haarlem in 1642. The 
following paintings by him are in European gal- 
leries: 



Brnnswxck. 


Jfuseum. 


Scene before a Tavern. 


Casael. 


Gallery. 


A Qaack Doctor. 


»» 


«» 


Italian Peasants dancing. 


Dresden. 


GalUry. 


Italian Peasants. 


Florence. 


Ukzi. 
GaUery. 


His own Portrait. 


ttunich. 


Two Horses in a Stall. 


ft 


n 


Italian Porters playing under 
the wall of a Fortress. 


FtoiB. 


Louvre, 


The Departure. 


w 


M 


The Shepherds. 


Petenibnzg. 


Hermitage. 


Halt of the Travellers. 


Vienna. 


GaiUry. 


Peasant Scenes. 


VOL. 11 


• 


B 



LAAR, RoELAND VAN, 8 younger brother of 
Pieter van Laar, was born at Haarlem in 1610. He 
painted in the style of his brother, with whom he 
travelled in Italy. He died young at Genoa in 1640. 
LABACCO, Antonio. See Abacco. 
LABACCO, Mario, was an Italian engraver, 
who flourished from 1661 to 1667. He engraved 
some of the plates to a work on architecture by his 
father, Antonio Labacco, published at Rome in 
1669; and also copied Martin Schongauer's print 
of the * Temptation of St. Anthony,' and Beatri- 
zet's print, after Giotto, of * Peter walking on 
the Sea.' No particulars of his life are recorded. 
Both this artist and his father are sometimes called 
Abacco. 

LABADIE, Andreas, a German painter and 
sculptor, was bom at Bautzen in 1731, and was 
instructed in art by Schwarzenberg at Leipsic. In 
1763 he went to Berlin, where he was appointed a 
professor in the Academy, and where he died at the 
beginning of the present century. 
LA BAER, Johannes db. See De la Baer. 
LABAES, Jakob, was a Flemish painter, who 
flourished at Ypres about 1388, and executed some 
portraits for the magistracy of his native city. 

LABAS'A, Tomas, was a Spanish amateur painter, 
who flourished at Madrid in the reign of Philip IV. 
(1621—1666). 

LA BAUMB, , was a French painter, who 

flourished in 1673, and executed some pictures for 
the Castle of Loo by command of Prince Frederick 
Henry of the Netherlands. 

LABBE, Nicolas, a French historical painter, 
flourished in Paris in 1670, in which year, on the 
king's entry into Paris, he and his son Caraille 
were commissioned by the municipality of Paris to 
paint sixteen historical and allegorical pictures in 
the Reception Hall. 

LABENSKY, F. X., a Russian painter, and con- 
servator of the Royal Gallery at St. Petersburg, 
was bom about 1765. In 1806 he published in 
two quarto volumes the * Galerie de 1' Hermitage,' 
containing plates in outline of many of the best 
pictures in the collection. 

1 



Labeo 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Laconr 



LABEO, TiTlDlus, or Ateius, praetor and pro- 
consul of the province of Narbonne, a.d. 69, painted 
small historical pictures. He died at an ajdvanced 
age in the rei^ of Vespasian. 

LA BERGE, Charles Auqustb de. See De 

LABILLE.^DES VERTUS, Ad^aidb. See 
Vincent. 

LA BOISSIERE, Simon de. See De la Bois- 
bi^re. 

LABORDE, LiioN Emmanuel Joseph Simon de, 
Marquis, was bom in Paris in 1807. He distin- 
guished himself as a lithographer, wood-engraver, 
and archaeologist He visited Arabia and the East 
in company with his father, and on his return was 
appointed secretary to the French Embassy in 
Home, which post he subsequently held in London, 
the Hague, and Cassel. In 1841 he was elected a 
deputy, and in 1842 a member of the Academy. 
He was afterwards appointed Keeper of the Sculp- 
ture in the Louvre, and in 1856 Keeper of the 
Archives of the Empire and Senate. He published 
an account of his travels in the East, and also a 
history of engraving in mezzotint. He died at the 
ch&teau of Beauregard, Eure, in 1869. 

LABOUCHERE, Pierre Antoine, a French 
painter, was bom at Nantes in 1807. After study- 
ing in Germnny and England he was placed in a 
house of business at Antwerp. In 1827 he made 
a voyage to the United States, and in 1832 to China. 
His residence at Antwerp had fostered the great 
love he hud for art, and so in 1836 he definitely 
abandoned his commercial career, and after a year's 
travel in Italy, he went to Paris, and studied under 
his friend Paul Delaroche. He afterwards travelled 
in Africa, whence he brought back with him a large 
number of water-colour sketches. He died in Paris 
in 1873. His most important productions were : 

Lather at Wittenberg in 1520. 1855. 

Lather at the Diet of Worms. 1857. 

Lather's Family at Prayer. 1865. 

Lucas Cranach painting Luther's portrait. 1865. 

Lather's Death at Eisleben. 1866. 

Charles V. at the Battle of Muhlberg. 1855. 

Erasmas at the hoase of Sir Thomas More. 1855. 

A Huguenot. 1859. 

Albrecht Durer painting the Emperor Maximilian. 

1848. 
Olympia Morata at Ferrara. 1860. 
Penserosa. 1870. 

LABRADOR, Juan, a Spanish painter, bom at 
Badajoz about 1530, was a pupil of Morales. He 
painted fruit and flower pieces, which were admired 
for their truth and brilliancy of colour. He was 
also very successful in representing drops of water. 
He died at Madrid in 1600. 

LABROUE, Alphonsb de, a French miniature 
painter, was born in 1792, and died at Metz in 1863. 

LABRUZZI, Cablo, was born at Rome about 
1765. He painted several large landscapes, and 
also had a reputation as a figure draughtsman. 
Most of his etchings are in outline, and among 
them may be mentioned those after the works of 
Masaccio and Michelangelo. 

LABRUZZI, ToMMASO Pictro, the son of Pietro 
Labruzzi, an historical painter, lived at Rome in 
the latter part of the 18th century, and painted 
several historical pictures. He died about 1808. 

LABY, AuGUSTB FRANgois, a French historical 
and portrait painter, was born in Paris in 1784, and 
studied under David. He was engaged on a picture 
for the church at £tale, in Belgium, when he died 
in Paris in 1860. Amongst his works are : 

2 



Miracle of St. Leu. (Church of Vxlle-Thierry.) 
Passage of the Pass of St. Bernard. 
The Cracifixion. 1827. {Church of Vtllemomye.) 
Portrait of Louis XVIII. (Societi de V Union, UUe.) 
Portrait of Charles X. {Hdtd-de- Ville, Biziers.) 

LA CALLEJA, Andreas de. See De la Cal- 

LEJA. 

LACEPEDE, AMjfiLiE DE, a French miniature 
painter, whose maiden name was Kautz, was 
bom in 1796, and died in Paris in 1860. 

LA CHAPELLE, George de. See De la Cha- 

FZLLE. 

LACHAUME DE GAVAUX, Jean Louis, called 
CbArbt, a French landscape and decorative painter, 
was bom at New Orleans in 1820. He was the son 
of a French musician, and a pupil of Joseph Thierry. 
He exhibited landscapes at the Sulon from 1835, 
but his best work was the scenery for ' Les Hugue- 
nots,' * Le Roi de Lahore,' * Michel Strogoff,' * Paul 
et Virginie,' ' Aida,' * Le Roi Carotte,' * Le Tribut do 
Zamora,' * Le Prophete,' * Quatre-vingt-treize,' and 
other famous pieces. He died in 1882. 

LACHENWITZ, F. Sibgmund, bom at Neuss in 
1820, was a student at the Diisseldorf Academy 
from 1840 to 1867, studying mostly by himself 
with animal life for his subjects. He died at 
Diisseldorf in 1868. The following are some of 
his best works : 

Horses frightened b^ a Bear. 1848. 

A Family of Lions disturbed by Tigers. 1850. 

A Skirmish. 

Illustrations of the Stoiy of Reynard the Fox. 

LACHNER, Hans, was a German painter and 
engraver, who flourished about 1580. 

LACKMAIK, Melchior, was a native of Munich, 
who died in 1625. He was a pupil of Sigmund 
Hebenstreit. 

LACOMA, FRANnsco Ho^t Pablo, a Spanish genre 
painter, was bom at Barcelona in 1780. He entered 
the Academy, where he carried off all the prizes 
and received a pension for five years, with which* 
he visited Paris, and studied under Spaendonck, 
David, and Gros. In 1810 he received a gold 
medal in Paris, and in 1819 was appointed court 
painter. He painted portraits, among which was 
one of the Kmg of Spain, engraved by Blan of 
Barcelona, and fruit and flower pieces. 

LACON, , was a portrait painter, who died 

about 1757. He painted water-colour portraits, 
and set up a puppet-shx)w at Bath. 

LA CORTE. See De la Corte. 

LACOSTE, Jean Louis Joseph Camille, a 
French engraver on wood, was bom at Toulouse 
in 1809, and died in Paris in 1866. 

LACOUR, Pierre, the elder, an historical 
painter, bora at Bordeaux in 1745, was a pupil 
of Vien. After studying at Rome he Kettled at 
Bordeaux, and was appointed professor in the 
Academy of that city, and it is there that the 
greater number of his pictures are to be found in 
the churches and the collections of amateurs. 
Among his principal works are, * St. Paulin, Arch- 
bishop of Bordeaux, opening his Palace to the 
Afflicted,' * Orpheus bringing Eurydice from the 
Infernal Regions,' 'A Miser sleeping on his Trea- 
sure,' and *A Mendicant.' He also painted por- 
traits, landscapes, and marine subjects. He aied 
at Bordeaux in 1814. 

LACOUR, Pierre, the younger, son of Pierre 
Lacour the elder, was bom at Bordeaux in 1778. 
He was a painter, and succeeded his father as pro- 
fessor in the Academy of Bordeaux, though hp is 



La Croce 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Laegli 



better known as an archsBologist and engraver. 
He died at Bordeatiz in 1859. 

LA CROCE, JoHANN Nepohuk. See De la 
Cbock. 

LACROrX, Gaspabd Jean, a French landscape 
painter, was bom at Turin in 1810. He studied 
under Corot, and died in Paris in 1878. Amongst 
his chief works are : 

Catalan wishers. 1842. (yanUs 3fu$eum.) 
Labourers. 1849. (Grenoble Mueeum.) 
A green Bath near lieaax. 
View in Aavergne. 

LACROIX, Pierre, a Frencli historical painter, 
was born at Nimes in 1783. He afterwards went 
to Paris and studied under David and Gros. ^ In 
the castle at Rosny is a picture by him of 'the 
Duchess de Berry and her children, which he also 
dithographed. In the church at Valence is * The 
Preaching of St. Francis Xavier.' He died in 1856. 

LA CRUZ. See De la Cruz. 

LADAM, Ghislain Francois, was a Flemish 
historical painter, who flourished in 1659. He 
was made free of the Corporation of St. Luke at 
Toumai in 1659. In the cathedral of Toumai is a 
picture by him of ^ Christ giving the Keys to St 
Peter.' 

LADAME, Gabriel, flourished at Frankfort 
about 1650. Florent Le Comte mentions this artist 
as the engraver of several plates, representing Holy 
Families, and other devotional subjects, in the style 
of Claude Mellan. 

LADBROOEE, Hrnrt, a landscape painter, bom 
at Norwich in 1800, was the second son of Robert 
Ladbrooke. He received a good education, and 
was brought up for the church, but at his father's 
wish he devoted himself to art. He did not 
exhibit at the Royal Academy, but his works 
appeared at the Norwich Society of Artists, in the 
catalogue of which he is described as " writing and 
drawing master." His works were faithful tran- 
scripts of nature, and his representations of moon- 
light effects were very successful. He died in 1870. 

LADBROOEE, John Berney, a landscape painter, 
the third son of Robert Ladbrooke, was born at 
Norwich in 1803. His attention was early devoted 
to art, for he exhibited at the Norwich Society of 
Artists as early as 1817. He was then described 
as ^ Master J. Ladbrooke," and was represented by 
two works after Morland and a flower piece. His 
style was jshiefly based on that of Crome, and he 
excelled in depicting foliage. He did not often 
exhibit — he only appeared at the Royal Academy 
once or twice in the early part of his career:^ — but 
be is said to have received good prices for his 
works. He died at Norwich in 1879. 

LADBROOEE, Robert, a landscape painter of 
the Norwich school, was bom in 1770. He began 
life as a printer, but his love for art triumphed, and 
he was content to commence the profession of an 
artiBt by painting portraits at Ave shillings each. 
He early became acquainted with " Old " Crome, 
and they married sisters. Together they were the 
moving spirits in the foundation of the Norwich 
Society of Artists in 1805, but later in life he 
quarrelled with Crome, and they headed opposition 
societies. Ladbrooke was a large contributor to 
the exhibitions of the Society. His works were 
chiefly views in Norfolk and on the Norfolk coast, 
with an occasional portrait. In the catalogues he is 
described as " drawing-master." He also exhibited 
pictures in London at the Royal Academy between 

B2 



1809 and 1816, and published * Views of Norfolk 
Churches ' in tive volumes. He died at Norwich 
in 1842. 

LADD, Anne, who was bom in London in 1746, 
and died in 1770, painted portraits and fruit pieces. 

LADDER, , was an English painter of the 

18th century, who painted genre pictures in the 
style of Morland. 

LADENSPELDER, Johann, or Hans von Essen, 
an engraver, was bom at Essen, a frontier city of 
the duchy of Berg, about the year 1512, according 
to the inscription on his portrait; but nothing 
further is known of his life, or of the time of his 
death. Bartsch and Passavant describe sixty-one 
prints by this master, the latest date on any one of 
these being 1554, some of them bear monograms 
composed of the letters J, L, K. E. S., which 
he interprets Johann Ladenspdder von Essen 
sculpsit. Bartsch thinks he was a painter as well 
as an engraver, and that all the prints specified 
by him were after his own pictures, or designs ; at 
least, there are several on which he put his name, 
with the word in, or inveTtUyry besides the mono- 
grams mentioned. Among his prints are : 

His own Portrait. 

The Descent from the Cross. 

The Man of Sorrows. 

The Trinity. 

The Four Evangelists. 

Tbe Conversion of St. Paul. 

Allegory of the Christian Virtues. 

The Planets. 

LADEY, Jean Marc, a French painter of fruit 
and flowers, bom in Paris in 1710, was a pupil of 
Belin de Fontenay. He became an acacfemician 
in 1741, and died in Paris at the Gobelins Tapestry 
Manufactory in 1749. There is in the Louvre a 
painting by him of a ' Vase surrounded by Flowers 
and Fruit,* dated 1743. 

L'ADMIRAL, Jakob, was bom in 1699, and 
accompanied his brother Jan on his travels. He 
was employed in engraving insects. 

L'ADMIRAL, Jan, a Dutch engraver, was bom 
at Leyden of French parentage in 1680. He came 
to London, where he worked for Le Blon, and then 
went to Amsterdam, where he engraved the por- 
traits for Van Mander*s * Livre des Peintres.' He 
also executed in colours many prints of anatomical 
subjects and natural history, and was much em- 
ployed by the celebrated Frederik Ruysch. He 
died at Amsterdam in 1773. 

LADRON Y GUEVARA, Felipe de, a scion of 
the noble house of Onate, was no less distin- 
guished for his valour than for his love of art. He 
accompanied the Emperor Charles V. to Bologna 
in 1530, and acquired there the friendship of Titian 
and other Italian and Flemish masters. From this 
intercourse and a careful study of their works he 
became an excellent amateur. He died at Madrid 
in 1563. He wrote a * Commentary on Painting,' 
which after long neglect was published by Pony at 
Madrid in 1788. 

LADURNER, Adolphe, was a French historical, 
portrait, and battle painter, who was bom in 1798. 
He was a pupil of Horace Vemet. In 1829 he 
went to St. Petersburg, where he became painter 
to the Emperor Nicholas, and where he died in 
1865. 

LAECK, Reinier van, or van der, was an his- 
torical and mythological painter, who flourished 
about 1640. 

L AEGH, WiLLEM VAN DER. See Van deb Laegh. 

3 



Ziftoii 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



liagrende 



LAEN, Thiebrt van der. See Van der Laen. 

LAETHEM, Jakob van, was a Flemish portrait 
painter of the 16th century, who in 1517 painted 
a portrait of the Emperor Charles V. 

LAETHEM, Jan Alexander, was a Belgian 
Dainter of genre subjects, whose works appeared 
at the exhibitions of Antwerp, Ghent, and Brussels, 
between the years 1825 and 1836. 

LA FABRIQUE, Nicolaes, a Flemish painter, 
was bom about 1649 at Namur, where he was a pupil 
of Bouge. He went to Rome when quite young, 
and on his return settled at Li^ge, where he prac- 
tised and died in 1736. There is a picture of * The 
Money Counter ' by him in the Brussels Gallery. 

LA FAGE. See De la Faoe. 

LA FARGUE, Maria, sister of Paul Constantin 
La Fargue, practised painting in various subjects, 
which are well composed and highly finished. 

LA FARGUE, Paul Constantin, a Dutch 
painter, was bom at the Hague. His pictures are 
generally small, representing views of tne environs 
of his native city. His drawings are, however, 
more esteemed than his paintings in oil. He had 
considerable skill in copying the works of the 
older Dutch masters. He died at Leyden in 1782. 
There exist several etchings by him. 

LA FERTE, M. de. See De la FkrtA. 

LAFITTE, Louis, a French historical painter, 
was bom in Paris in 1770, and studied under Des- 
marteau and J. B. Regnault. In 1791 he obtained 
the first prize with his work entitled ' Regulus 
returning to Carthage,' and was sent to Rome. 
After studying some time there he settled in Paris, 
and under the Restoration was appointed painter 
to the king, and became a member of the Institute 
and of the Academies of Rome and Florence. 
The French Revolution and Napoleon I. provided 
him with plentiful materials for his drawmgs and 
paintings. He died in Paris in 1828. 

LA FLEUR, Nicolas Guillaume de. See De 
LA Fleur. 

LAFOND, Charles Nicolas Raphael, was bora 
in Paris in 1774. He was a pupil successively of 
Barth^Iemi, of Suv^e, and of Kegnault, and holds a 
distinguished rank among the modem French 
painters of historical and poetical subjects. His 
works are numerous, and are to be found in the 
Versailles and other public galleries, as well as in 
private collections. His pictures of the *Good 
Samaritan,' * Jacob blessing his Sons,* and ' Charles 
VII.' obtained for him the gold medal. He died in 
Paris in 1836. 

LAFOND, Daniel, a native of France, was bom 
in 1760. During the religious troubles he removed 
from France to Switzerland, and settled at Berne. 
He was a pupil of Siegmund Freudenberger. He 
excelled chiefly in landscapes, and executed several 
Swiss views. He died at Berne in 1831. 

LA FONTAINE, Pierre Joseph, was bom at 
Courtrai in 1758. He was first instructed by 
Kaplau van Neste, who assisted him to enter the 
Academy at Courtrai, and afterwards by Jean 
Douelle. Interiors of churches were his favourite 
subjects. He went to Paris, and in 1782 was elected 
a member of the Academy. The figures in his 
works were often painted by Taunay, De Mame, 
Swebach, or Drolling. To the profession of an 
artist he joined the business of a picture-dealer. 
He died in Paris in 1835. 

LA FOSSE. See De la Fosse. 

LAFRENSEN, NicoLAUS, (or Lavreince), bom at 
Stockholm in 1737, was instmcted in the rudiments 



of painting by his father, a miniature painter. At 
first he devoted himself to the same branch, and in 
1771 visited Paris, where he painted portraits of a 
small size in water-colours and in oil. After return- 
ing to Sweden he became a member of the Academy 
at Stockholm in 1773, and was appointed court 
painter. On his second visit to Pans in 1774 he 
painted very pleasing rococo scenes. His last 
productions represent portraits, historical scenes, 
festivals, &c. He painted the figures in Bellanger's 
works, and his paintings have been engraved by 
Benossi, Delaunay, Helman, Br^a, Vidal, Mariage, 
and Pierron. He left Paris in 1791, and died at 
Stockholm in 1807. Among his works may be 
mentioned : 

The Happv Moment. 

Le Billet doax. 

The Danciog-School. 

Preparations for the Ball. 

EblMi Brahe, writing on a window. 

Brahe and Gyllenstjeroa. 

Erick Xiy . and his Wife. 

Catharine Jagellonia and her Favonrite. 

LAFRERY, Antoine, a French engraver, was 
bom at Salins in 1512. In 1540 he went to Rome, 
and with his uncle, Claude Duchet, established a shop 
which had a great reputation for prints and maps. 
Among his engravings are * Jupiter slaying the 
Giants,* after Raphael, and * The Birth of Adonis,' 
after Salviati. He died about 1580. 

LA FUENTE. See De la Fdente. 

LAGEMAN, Hendrik, a Dutch engraver, was 
bora at Amsterdam in 1765. He was instructed 
by Karel Eons6 and J. G. Holtzhey, and he en- 
graved several portraits. He died in 1816. 

LA6NIET, Jacques, was a French engraver of 
the 17th century, of whose life there are no details, 
but his works are rare and much sought after. 

LAGOOR, JOHAN, was a painter and engraver of 
the 17th century at Haarlem, who entered the Guild 
there in 1645, and was living in 1649. His genre 
paintings are generally attributed to other artists. 
There are six very rare plates by Lagoor, among 
which are * The Square Tower * and * The Rotunda.* 

LA GOURDAINE, Jean Pierre Norblin de. 
See Norblin de la Gourdaine. 

LAGRENliJE, Anthelme FRANgois, a French 
historical, genre, portrait, and miniature painter, 
was bora in Paris m 1774. He was a son of^Louis 
Jean Fran9ois Lagrenee, and studied under Vincent. 
In 1793 he served in the army, but on his release 
from military service he returned to art. He was 
patronized by the Emperor Alexander, on whose 
invitation he paid a visit to Russia in 1823. His 
latter j'ears were entirely devoted to miniature 
painting. lie died of cholera in Paris in 1832. 

LAGRENEE, Jean Jacques, a French historical 
and portrait painter, was born in Paris in 1739. He 
studied under his brother, Louis Jean Fran9oi3 
Lagrenee, and also in the Academy, where he 
obtained the second prize in 1760. After con- 
tinuing his studies at Rome, he followed his 
brother to Russia. On his return he was received 
into the Academy in 1775, becoming assistant- 
professor in 1776, and professor in 1781. He 
was engaged on the decorations of the Louvre, 
and was also attached to the manufactory at Sevres, 
where he did much good work. A process for pro- 
ducing designs on marble was invented 'by him. 
He died in Paris in 1821. Amongst his works are : 

Angers. Museum. The Betrothal. 

Auxerre. Cathedral. The Baptism of GhriHi. 

M ., St. Michael and the DeviL 



Lagren6e 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Lairesse 



OhaloD-flor-SaOne. Jfu», Venas and Vulcan. 

Grenoble, Museum, St. John preaching. 

Orleans. JIuseum, Artemisia. 

Palis. Louvre, Winter. 

„ „ Melancholy. 

LAGRENlllE, Louis Jean FRANgois, was boni 
in Paris in 1725. He was a scholar of Carle van 
Loo. In 1749 his picture of * Joseph interpret- 
ing the Dream of Pharaoh' obtained the great 
prize from the Academy of Painting, and he was 
sent as a pensioner to Rome. He returned to 
Paris in 1753, and was admitted a member of the 
Academy in 1755. His picture of admission was 
the * Rape of Deianeira by the Centaur Nessus.* This 
and his ^ Justice and Clemency/ painted in 1765, 
are in the Louvre. His reputation induced the 
Empress Elizabeth to appoint him to the office 
of director of the Academy at SL Petersburg, and 
to that of her principal painter. In 1781 he was 
made director ox tlie French school at Rome ; and 
there he painted some of his best pictures. They 
are chiefly from sacred and profane history, and 
the ancient poets, and the greater part have been 
engraved. He- was professor-rector of the School 
of Fine Arts, and honorary conservator and ad- 
ministrator of the Mus^e, when he died in Paris 
in 1805. He etched several small plates from his 
own designs and others, with great spirit*; among 
which are the following : 

The Virgin, with th» Infant >sleeping; after Guido. 
St. Peter and St Jerome ; two prints ; from his own 

designs. 
The Virgin and Child. 

Charity and Justice ; two emblematical subjects. 
The Sacrifice 4>f Noidi. 
A Sacrifice to Pan. 

LAGUERRE, * John, called *Jack Laguerre,* 
was the son of Louis Laguerre. He was born in 
London, and was instructed in painting by his 
father, and worked also under Hogarth, but having 
a talent for music and singing, he had recourse to 
the stage, where he met with considerable success. 
Towards the latter part of his Uf e he painted scenes 
and decorations for the theatre. He etched a plate 
representing Falstafi^ Pistol, and Doll Tearsheet, 
with other theatrical characters, in allusion to a 
quarrel between the players and patentees. He 
also engraved a set of prints to the farce of ' Hob 
in the Well,' which had a great sale, though in- 
differently executed. As a caricaturist he is con- 
sidered the founder of a school. He was one of 
the class of pleasant, clever, and careless fellows 
whose disposition and habits preclude any great 
attainment He died in poverty in 1748. 

LAGUERRE, Louis, called * Old Laguerre,* was 
bom in Paris in 1663, and had Louis XIV. for 
his godfather. His father was a Catalan who 
settlai in France, and became master of the Mena- 
gerie at Versailles. He placed his son to be in- 
structed in literature in the college of the Jesuits, 
where he acquired sufficient learning to be of use 
to him in his historical subjects and allegories. He 
was for some time a scholar of Charles Le Brun, 
and frequented the Academy in Paris. In 1683 ho 
came to England with one Ricard, a painter of 
architecture, and was first employed by Antonio 
Verrio to assist him in the numerous decorative 
works in whichJie was engaged. Laguerre painted 
the greater part of Verrio' s work in St. Bartholo- 
mew s Hospital, and when he was little more than 
twenty years of age, got into very extensive busi- 
ness in painting saloons, ceilings, &c. in the man- 
sions of the principal nobility. King William 



employed him at Hampton Court, where he repaired 
Mantegna's cartoons of the * Triumphs of Julius 
Caesar,^ and painted, in chiaroscuro, the 'Labours of 
Hercules.' Horace Walpole states, that he was at 
first chosen unanimously by the commissioners for 
rebuilding St Paul's, to decorate the cupola, but 
was set aside by the paramount interest of Sir 
James Thornhill Sir Godfrey Kneller employed 
him to paint the staircase of his house at Whitton. 
where he distinguished himself beyond his usual 
performances. There is an etching by Louis 
Laguerre of the ' Judgment of Midas.' He died in 
1721 whilst witnessing a performance in Drury 
Lane Theatre. Pope has immortalized him and 
his employer Verrio in the line, "Where sprawl 
the saints of Verrio and Laguerre." This, how- 
ever, m unjust to Laguerre's ability. In tlie 
National Portrait Gallery is a portrait by him of 
William, first Earl of Cadogan. 

LA GUERTI&RE, FBANgois DS. See Db la 

GUERTIERE. 

LA HA YE. See De la Hayb. 

LAHDE, Gerhard Ludwiq, bom at Bremen in 
1765, studied at the Academy at Copenhagen, and 
distinguished himself as a designer and engraver. 
He obtained several medals, and was painter at the 
court of Denmark. He died at Copenhagen in 1820. 

LA HELE, Isaak de. See Db la H&lb. 

LA HIRE. See Dk la Hire. 

LA HUERTA. See De la Huerta. 

LA IGLESIA, Francisco Iqmacio Ruiz de. See 
Ruiz dr la Iqlesia. 

LAINATI, Marco, a painter of the Parmese 
school, was born at Piacenza, and flourished about 
1777. He was a pupil of Louis de La Forest. He 
worked at Carpi, where he executed several pictures. 

LAING, John Joseph, a Scottish wood engraver, 
was born at Glasgow in 1830. He practised for 
some time in his native city, but afterwards came 
to London, where he was chiefly employed on 
architectural subjects for the * Builder.' He died 
at Glasgow in 1862. 

LAIR, Jean Louis C^sar, a French painter of 
historical subjects and of portraits, was born at 
Janville (Euro et Loire) in 1781, and died there in 
1828, after passing the greater part of his life in 
Paris. He was a scholar of Regnault and David. 
He painted many religious subjects of large dimen- 
sions for churches, and a multitude of portraits 
and smaller pictures. 

LAIRE, SiQMiTND, a German miniature painter, 
was bom in Bavaria about 1553. He studied 
painting under the Flemish painter, Francisco de 
Castello, at Rome, during the pontificate of Pope 
Gregory XIII. The greater part of his Madonnas 
went to India. He died at Rome in 1639, aged 86. 

LAIRESSE FAMILY. 



Kenier de LairesM 
UfiM?— 1067.) 



Ernest 
(1636?-1676n 



Qorard 

(iwi-iru). 



Jacob. 



Jan. 



Abraham 
(1681-173Q.) 



Jan. 



Gerard. 



LAIRESSE, Abraham de, bom at Amsterdam 
in 1681, was a son of Gerard de Lairesse, in whose 
style he painted. He died at Amsterdam in 1739. 

LAIRESSE, Ernest db, the elder brother of 
Gerard de Lairesse, was born at Li^ge about the 
year 1635, and was instructed in design by his 
father. He painted animals and hunting scenes in 
distemper, and was sent to Italy to study, by his 
patron, the Elector Maximilian Heinrich of Colocme, 

6 



Lairesse 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Lalleinant 



who, on hie return, appointed him liis painter, and 
in whose service he died at the age of forty. His 
best work perished at the bombardment of Bonn. 

LAIRESSE, Gerard de, was born at Li^ge in 
1641. He was the son of Renier de Lairesse, an 
artist of some celebrity, who had him instructed in 
the belles-lettres, poetry, and music, and taught him 
the principles of design. He afterwards studied 
under Bertholet Flemalle, and at the age of sixteen 
had made himself known as a portrait painter. He 
was soon after employed in some historical works 
for the Electors of Cologne and Brandenburg, and 
these established his reputation. Unfortunately an 
expensive and dissolute course of life kept him in 
indigence, although his gains were considerable. 
Not finding sufficient employment in his native 
city, he settled at Utrecht, and soon afterwards 
removed to Amsterdam, where he was regarded as 
the greatest historical painter of his time. Lairesse 
was afflicted with loss of sight in 1690, when he 
was only fifty years of age ; but so great was his 
love for art, that he continued till his death to 
communicate his ideas on its theory and practice, 
in discourses from which were collected the ma- 
terials for the treatise on design and colouring, 
published after his decease. He died at Amsterdam 
in 1711. His style is grand and poetical, he was 
perfectly acquainted with history and fable, pos- 
sessed a lively and ready invention, and was attent- 
ive to propriety of costume. In his composition and 
design he nas been compared to Nicolas roussin, but 
he has very slender pretensions to Poussin's classic 
elevation of thought, profound acquaintance with 
the antique, elegance of taste, and purity of design. 
He painted with an extraordinary facility, and is said 
to have finished in one day a picture of ^ Mount 
Parnassus, with Apollo and the Nine Muses ; ' an 
achievement which Poussin would not have been 
ambitious of performing. His backgrounds are 
enriched with architecture, the principles of which 
he perfectly understood. A visit to Italy might have 
given more elegance and delicacy to his figures, 
which are occasionally ungraceful and too short. It 
is, however,, surprising that he could arrive at so 
accomplished a style as is generally visible in his 
works, without the advantages of travel, and with 
no better models to consult than those he met with 
in his own country. Among his paintings are : 

A Festival of Bacchanals. 

Legitimate Power. 

Kevolution. 

Venus, Mars, and Cnpid. 

Venus, Mars, Cupid, and Mer- 
cury. 

Diana and Endvmion. 

The Baptism of Achilles. 

Satyr and N3rmph. 

The Death of F^rrhus. 

The Death of Oermanicus. 

Achilles recognized by Ulysses. 

Institution of the Eucharist. 

Disembarkation of Cleopatra at 
Tarsus. 

Dance of Children. 

Hercules between Vice and 
Virtue. 

Achilles made known by 
Ulysses. 

Neptune and Ampbitrite. 

Others are to be met with at Augsburg, Bruns- 
wick, Christiania, Dresden, Munich, &c. 

As an engraver, Gerard de Lairesse claims par- 
ticular notice. He etched a large number of plates 

6 



Amsterdam. 


Museum. 


»» 


>♦ 


;» 


»» 


»> 


»» 


yt 


n 


Berlin! 


GaUery. 


11 
Brussels. 

Cassel. 

Hague. 

Paris. 


Gallery. 

Gallery. 

dfuseum. 

Louvre. 


»» 


M 


M 


V 


M 


» 


Stockholm. 


Gallery, 


Vienna. 


Gallery. 



from his own designs, executed with great freedom 
and spirit: the lights are broad and powerful, and 
the eye is carried at once to the principal figures 
of the composition. He sometimes marked his 
works with tlie initials G de L ; Q L ; G: D : L: 
pinx. ;G L; G Lfecetexc.: G L F ; G L f ; G. 
Laire ; G. Laires. The following are engraved 
by himself : 

The Fall of onr first Parents 

Adam and Eve driven from Paradise. 

Joseph and his Brethren. 

Solomon consecrated by the High Priest. 

The Infant Jesus ezpluning to his Parents the Divine 

Will. 
The Incredulity of St. Thomas. 
Saint Theresa. 

The Parting of Hector and Andromache. 
Antony and Cleopatra. 
A March of Amazons. 
A large Bacchanalian subject. 
Venus lamenting the Death of Adonis. 
The Four Seasons ; designs for ceilings. 
Diana and Endymlon. 
Bacchante, with Silenns asleep. 

LAIBESSE, Jacob de and Jan de, were the 
younger brothers of Gerard de Lairesse, who dis- 
tinguished themselves in painting flowers, fruit, 
and bas-reliefs. Their chief residence was at 
Amsterdam. 

LAIBESSE, Renter de, a Dutch painter, was 
bom at Li6ge about 1596. He was a pupil of Jan 
Taulier, whose daughter he married. He was 
principal painter to Ferdinand of Bavaria, Elector 
of Cologne and Prince Bishop of Lidge. Among 
his historical pictures are, ' The Martyrdom of the 
Eleven Thousand Virgins,' *The Martyrdom of St 
Lawrence,* * The Death of Seneca,' and * The Rape 
of Helen.' He afterwards abandoned painting, and 
took to paintin^^ on wood to resemble marble and 
jasper and precious stones, in which art he specially 
excelled. He died at Vitry-le-Fran9ais in 1667. 

LA JOUE, Jacques de. See De la J cub. 

LALA was a female portrait painter of Cyzicus, 
who flourished at Rome about b.c. 74. She painted 
in encaustic on ivory, and obtained a great re- 
putation. 

LA LIVE DE JDLLY, Ange Laurent de. See 
De la Live de Jully. 

L'ALLEMAND, Fbiedrich, or more usually 
Fbitz, who was born at Hanau in 1812, studied at 
the Vienna Academy, and became a good painter 
of military subjects, for which he was very popular. 
He died at Vienna in 1866. An ' Episode in the Battle 
of Znaim,' dated 1845, is in the Vienna Gallery. 

L'ALLEMAND, Georges, a French historical 
painter, who was a native of Nancy, executed in 
1630 and 1633 the first and fourth ^mais ' for the 
cathedral of Notre- Dame. 

LALLEMAND, Jean Baftiste, a French land- 
scape and marine painter, was bom at Dijon about 
1710. He was originally a tailor, but abandoned 
the shears for tlie brush. He came over to England, 
then returned to France, and after a visit to Italy 
again came back to his own country, where he died 
about 1805. 

L'ALLEMAND, Thierry, a portrait draughts- 
man, was bom at Hanau in 1809, and died at 
Hanover in 1881. He studied at the Academy 
of Vienna. 

LALLEMANT, Philippe, who was born at 
Rheims in 1629, and died in 1716, was a painter 
residing in Paris. In 1672 he was received into 
the Academy, on which occasion he painted the 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



I«amberts 



portraits of Perrault and Barbier du Metz, which 
are now at Versailles. He was the master of De 
La Hire, and the second master of Nicolas Poussin. 
LAMA, Giovanni Bebnabdo, the son of an artist 
of little celebrity, named Matteo Lama, was born at 
Naples in 1508. After learning the first principles 
of design from his father, he was placed under the 
tuition of Giovanni Antonio d' Amato. In 1527 the 
memorable sacking of Rome drove from that city 
the greater part of the inhabitants ; among others, 
Polidoro da Caravaggio, who took refuge at Naples, 
and Lama had the advantage of his instruction. 
He, however, followed rather the style of Andrea 
Sabbatini, and his paintings are sometimes weak 
and affected. He died at Naples in 1579. Many 
of his works are to be found in the churches of that 
city ; amongst them the following are noteworthy : 

S, Snerino. The Entombment. 

& Gretforio Armeno. The Aaoension. 

S. Lorenzo 3faff^iore. The liarriage of St. Catharine. 

& Jf. Sella Sc^ienza. Christ amongst the Doctors. 

LAMA, Giovanni Battista, was born at Naples 
about the year 1660, and was k fellow-student with 
Paolo de Matteis, under Luca Giordano. He 
painted history, and was much employed in easel 
pictures of mythological subjects, some of which 
were in the gallery of the Duke of San Niccola 
Gaeta, at Naples, and were admired for the elegance 
of their style and the sweetness of their colouring. 
Others are to be met with in the environs of the 
same city. He died after 1740. 

LAMA, GiULiA, wa^ an historical painter of 
Venice, who flourished in the 18ili century. 

LA MAIR, , was a pauiter of serpents, 

lizards, and other reptiles, in the manner of Otlio 
Masseus, or Marcellis, as he is frequently named. 
He particularly excelled in the representation of 
butterflies ; and his works are generally attributed 
to Masseus, but they are painted on a lighter 
ground. Neither the year ox his birth nor that of 
his death is known, but he lived at Nymwegen in 
the 18th century. 

LA MAISON, Nicolas db. See Dblla Casa. 

LAMANNA, Girolamo, an historical painter and 
poet, was bom at Catania, in Sicily, about 1580, and 
died in 1640. 

LA MARE-RICHART, Florent I. de. See De 
LA Mars-Richart. 

LAMARS, D., was a Flemish histoncal painter, 
who flourished about 1621. In the Augustine Con- 
vent at Ghent is a picture by this artist of the 
* Circumcision.* 

LAMBERT, George, was bom in Kent in 1710, 
and was a scholar of William Hassell, and after- 
wards of Wootton, to whom he was greatly superior. 
His first employment was as a theatrical seene- 
nsinter, in which line he worked for the Lincoln's 
inn Fields Theatre, but in 1736 he obtained the 
post of principal painter at Co vent Garden, where 
his productions were numerous and important, but 
many of them perished in the fire of 1808. He has 
the credit of being one of the first of the English 
painters who treated landscape with a pleasing and 
picturesque effect. In conjunction with Samuel 
Scott, ho painted some views of the settlements of 
the East India Company, for their house in Leaden- 
hall Street, which has since been demolished. The 
Foundling Hospital possesses a landscape by him. 
Some of his English landscapes have been engraved 
by Vivares, Mason, &c. George Lambert etched, 
in a coarse but painter-like manner, two prints, 
now become scarce, one of which represents an 



upright landscape, with ruins, and three small 
figures. He died in 1765. 

LAMBERT, James, was a landscape painter, who 
gained a premium at the Society of Arts in 1770, 
and exhibited at the Society of Artists, the Free 
Society of Artists, and the Royal Academy from 
1761 to 1778. He died near Lewes in 1779. His 
son, also named James, was a genre, fruit, and 
flower painter, who exhibited at the Free Society of 
Artists and the Royal Academy from 1769 to 1778. 

LAMBERT, Jean, was a painter of Li^ge, who 
flourished about 1427. 

LAMBERT, John, was born about 1620. He was 
of good family, and rose to the rank of major- 
general in the service of the Commonwealth. On 
the Restoration he was banished to Guernsey, where 
he employed himself in flower painting, having in 
his youth been a pupil of Jan Baptist Gaspers. 
He died in Guernsey in 1683. His son John was 
a portrait painter, who died at his estate in Yorkshire. 

LAMBERT, Josse, was a Flemish engraver, who 
died at Ghent in 1556 or 1557. There is a curious 
engraving by him representing *Tlie Triumph of 
Christ,* after Titian, which is engraved on wood in 
ten pieces. 

LAMBERT, Mark, a wood engraver,- was one of 
Bewick's assistants. He was bom in 1781, and 
died at Newcastle in 1855. 

LAMBERT, Martin, who was bom in Paris in 
1630, was a portrait painter and a pupil of the 
cousins Beaubrun. He was elected an Academician 
in 1663 ; his picture of reception represented *The 
Cousins Beaubrun working at the same easel : * it is 
now in the Louvre. He died in Paris in 1699. 

LAMBERT the LOMBARD. See Susterman. 

LAMBERTI, Buonaventura, was bora at Carpi 
in 1652, and after residing some time at Modena, 
he established himself at Rome. He is said to 
have been one of the last and ablest scholars of 
Carlo Cignani. He painted some pictures for St. 
Peter's, which have been executed in mosaic by 
Ottaviani, and his fine picture of * St. Francis of 
Paola resuscitating a dead Child,' in the church of 
the Spirito Santo de' Napolitani, has been engraved 
by Jacob Frey. His * Virgin showing the Infant 
Saviour to St. Jerome ' was engraved by Dorigny. 
There are several of his easel pictures in the Palazzo 
Gabrielli, which are deservedly admired. He died 
at Rome in 1721. 

LAMBERTI, Niccol6, a painter of the Florentine 
school, was living in 1382. He was a pupil of the 
Orcagnai, and painted in company with Jacopo in 
the palace at Vol terra a fresco representing the 
* Annunciation * with Saints. 

LAMBERTINI, Michelb di Matteo, was a 
painter of Bologna, who in 1447 painted in the 
church of San Giovanni at Siena the twelve articles 
of the Apostles' Creed. There are a * Pieti ' between 
SS. John, Mark, Roch, and Anthony Abbot, dated 
1462, and a * Virgin and Child,' dated 1469, by 
him in the Academy of Bologna. The churches 
of San Petronio and San Giacomo in the same 
city also possess specimens of his work ; whilst 
the Academy of Venice has an altar-piece of the 
'Virgin and Child,' with Saints and scenes from 
the life of St. Helena. No dates can be given of 
his birth or deatli. 

LAMBERTS, Gerard, a Dutch landscape and 
architectural painter, was born at Amsterdam 
in 1776, and died in 1850. He was a conservator 
of the Amsterdam Museum and a member of the 
Academy. 

7 



Zjambinet 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF. 



Lamsvelt 



Amiens. 
Avignon. 
Besau^on. 
Gambrai. 



♦♦ 



LAMBINET, Smilb Chables, a French land- 
scape painter, was born at Versailles in 1815, and 
studied under Drolling, Boisselier, and Horace 
Vernet. He died at Bougival in 1877, Amongst 
his works are : 

Museum, Lea Baigneuses. 1849. 

Museum, The Banks of the Gardon. 1840. 

Museum, The Course of the Ivette. 1865. 

Museum, Interior of a Cottage. 1835. 

„ View of Senlisse. 1836. 

Montpellier. Museum, Landscape. 

LAMBORNE, Peter Spendelowb, an engraver, 
was born in London in 1722. He was chiefly 
engaged on architectural and antiquarian works, 
and practised at Cambridge. He also painted 
miniatures, and belonged to the Incorporated 
Society of Artists. He died at Cambridge in 1774. 

LAMBRECHTS, C, was a Dutch historical and 
genre painter, who flourished in the 17th century. 

LAMBRI, Stefano, an Italian historical and 
portrait painter, who flourished about 1620, was 
a pupil and imitator of Malosso. He painted in 
1623, for the Dominican Church of Cremona, a 
picture representing *St. William and SU Louis 
Bertrand.* 

LAME, BiAGio DALLE. See Pupini. 

LAMEN, Van deb. See Van der Lambk. 

LAMINIT, Paul Jakob, a German engraver, 
was bom at Augsburg in 1773, and studied under 
Ignaz Sebastian Klauber. His plates represent : 

Several Towns and Landscapes, in lipowsky's Almanao. 
Several Views, for the Emperor of Russia. 

LAMINOT, Simon de, a French battle and land- 
scape painter, was bom at Noyon in 1623, and was 
maae an Academician in 1663. He died at Verrines 
(Loiret) in 1683. 

LAMION, Jean, was a distinguished French 
miniature painter, who flourished at Troyes in 1336. 

LAMMA, Agostino, an Italian battle painter, was 
bom at Venice about 1636. He was instructed by 
Antonio Calza, and his chief production is the 
* Siege of Vienna by the Turks,' painted in the style 
of M. Stom. He died in Venice about 1700. 

LAM ME, Arib, a Dutch landscape painter, was 
born at Heerensjanndam in 1748. He studied under 
J. Ponse at Ulrecht, and practised in the style of 
Cuyp. He was much engaged on decorative work, 
and was also a poet. His daughter Cornelia was 
the mother of Ary Scheffer. He died in 1801. 

LAMM^, Arnoldus, a Dutch animal^ landscape, 
and battle painter, the son of Arie Lamme, was a 
native of Dordrecht. He established himself as a 
fine-art dealer at Rotterdam, where he died in 1856. 

LAMME, Cornelia. See Schefper, 

LAMM LE IN, Alexandre, was bom at Hohenfels, 
Bavaria, in 1813. At the early age of ten he was 
sent to Paris and placed under an engraver ; sub- 
sequently he entered the ^cole des Beaux- Arts and 
studied under Regnault and Picot. He distin- 
guished himself as a portrait painter, but also 
executed religious and mythological subjects. 
With Alaux he restored the Primaticcio Gallery 
at Fontainebleau in the years 1835-39. Many 
etchings and paintings on enamel by him are to be 
met with. He was naturalized in France, and died 
in 1871. Among his paintings may be mentioned : 

The Chastity of Joseph. 

The Awakening of Adam. 

Job. 

Jacob*8 Ladder. 

The Vision of Zechariah. (Roche/ort Museum.) 

The Awakening of Tabitha. 

Diana and Endymion. 

8 



LAMO, Pierre, was an historical painter, who 
died at Bologna in 1578. He was a pupil of Inno- 
cenzo da Imola. 

LA MONCE, Raimond Ferdinand db. See Dk 

LA MoNCE. 

LAMORLET, Joseph, was a Flemish historical 
painter, who flourished about 1655. In 1651 he waa 
made free of the Guild of St. Luke at Antwerp, 
and became its deau in 1672-3. He died between 
1C80 and 1688. 

LAMOTTE, , was a French historical painter 

of the 18th century. In 1721 he took the second 
prize at the French Academy for his picture of 
* Gideon's Sacrifice.* 

LAMPARELLI, Carlo, an Italian portrait and 
historical painter, who flourished about 1680, was 
a native of Spello. He was a pupil o£ Giacinto 
Brand i. 

LAM PI, Franz von, a painter of portraits and 
battle pieces, was born at Klagenfurt in 1783, 
and instructed in the art by his fatlier, Johann 
Baptista Lampi the elder. He died at Warsaw in 
1852. There are by him : 

Portrait of the Empress Catharine II. of Bosna. 
Portrait of the Princess of liechtenstein. 
Portrait of the Dancer Heberle. 

LAMPI, Johann Baptist von, the elder, a 
Tyrolese historical and portrait painter, was bom 
at Romeno in 1751. He became a professor at the 
Vienna Academy in 1786, but subsequently he 
resided in Russia, where he devoted himself to 
portrait painting, and amassed a large fortune. 
He died at Vienna in 1830, There are by him : 

Darmstadt. Museum, The Portrait of a young Painter. 
Petersbdrg. Hermitage. Portrait of the Empress Maria 

Fedorowna. 
Vienna. Gallery. Bepose of Venus. 

„ „ Portrait of Himself. 

LAMPI, Johann Baptist von, the younger, an 
Austrian portrait painter, was bora at Trent in 1775, 
and studied under his father, Johann Baptist Lampi 
the elder, and at the Academy at Vienna. He 
went afterwards to St Petersburg, where he stayed 
thirteen years, and became a member of the Acad- 
emy at that city as well as of that at Vienna in 
1813. He painted many of the most distinguished 
personages of his time. Among his other works is 
to be mentioned a ' Venus ' in the style of Fiiger. 
He died at Vienna in 1837. 

LAMPSONIUS, DoMiNicus, a Flemish historical 
painter, was bom at Bruges in 1532. He was a 
pupil of Lambert Lombard, whose life he after- 
wards wrote. He went in the suite of Cardinal 
Pole to England, and after his death in 1558 he 
settled at Li^ge, and was secretary to several 
Bishops in succession. He was also a sculptor and 
a poet, and wrote an elegy in Latin verse on the 
painters of Lower Germany, published in 1572. 
He died at Li^ge in 1599^ 

LAMSIN was a Fiendish painter, who flourished 
at Ypres in 1290. 

LAMSVELT, Jan, a Dutch engraver, was bora / 
at Utrecht about the year 1660. His style resembles i 
that of Romeyn De Hooghe. There are by liim 
some portraits, which are scarce, and some other < 
subjects, of which the following are the principal : 

Oliver Cromwell ; an oval. 
Jan De Wit, pensionary of Hollands 
Cornells Pieterszoon Hooft. 
Jons Cassander. 
Hubert Daishuis, of Rotterdam. 
The Siege of Toumay, by the Duke of Marlborough and 
Prince Eugene. 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Lanconello 



LAMSWEERDE, Simon Anton van, a Dutch 
designer and engraver, was born at Utrecht about 
1626, and was living up to 1683. He engraved 
several portraits in the style of Suyderhoef, Uiough 
very inferior ; among which are the following : 

Franz Gomarins, prof eflsor of theology at Groningen. 

Heinrich Alting, professor of theology at Heidelberg. 

Anna Maria van Scharman. 1657. 

Cyprian Regnier, jurist of Utrecht. 

Karel De Maets, professor of theology at Utrecht. 1 059. 

LA MURA, Fbancesoo, (or Ds Mura,) called 
JPbanceschiello, was born at Naples in 1699. He 
was one of the numerous scholars of Francesco 
Soiimena, and was much employed in ornamenting 
the churches and other public edifices in his native 
city. In the royal palace of Turin he painted, 
in competition with Claudio Beaumont, frescoes 
representing the Olympic Games, and the Life of 
Achilles. He died in 1782. The following frescoes 
by him are at Naples : 

S.Chuira, 



n 



MonU Cassino. 



St. Clara patting the Saracens to Flight. 
The Adoration of the Sacrament. 
Solomon building the Temple. 
Scenes from the Old and New Testaments, 
lives of the Saints. 

LAMY, Chables, a French historical painter, was 
bom at Mortagne (Orne) in 1699, and became an 
academician in 1735. He died in Paris in 1743. 
An ' Assumption of the Virgin ' by him is in the 
Museum at Tours. 

LAMY, Jean Auquste, a French painter of still- 
life, was the son and pupil of Louis Auguste Lamy. 
He was bom at Marseilles in 1773, and died there 
in 1844. Some of his works are in the Museum at 
Marseilles. 

LAMY, Louis Augusts, a French landscape 
painter, was bom at Marseilles in 1746. He was 
received into the Academy in 1788, and died in his 
native city in 1831. Many of his works are in the 
Museum at Marseilles. 

LAN A, Lodovico, a painter and engraver, was 
bom at Modena in 1597, and was educated at 
Ferrara under Ippolito Scarsellino, but afterwards 
studied under Guercino at Bologna. The theatre 
of his triumph is, however, at Modena, where there 
are many admirable productions of his pencil ; par- 
ticularly his celebrated emblematical picture of the 
city of Modena delivered from the horrors of the 
plague, in the Ghiesa Nuova; a production with 
which few works of art at Modena can be com- 
pared. Lana was a successful imitator of Guercino, 
and exhibits the vigorous opposition of his masses, 
to which he united something of the spirited move- 
ment of Tintoretto. He was the rival of Giovanni 
Battista Pesari, who appears to have yielded to him 
the superiority, by retiring to Venice w^hen Lana 
established an Academy at Modena, which became 
famous through Italy. He died at Rome in 1646. 
^mong his best etchings are : 

The Bmpress Irene binding up the Wounds of St. 

Sebastian. 
Six Laboars of Hercules. 
The Holy Family. 
The Virgin. 
The Death of Seneca. 

There is a list of his prints in Bartsch's ' Peintre- 
Graveur,' vol. xviii. 

LANCASTER, Hume, was a painter of marine 
subjects and coast scenery. He was a member of 
the Society of British Artists, and exhibited also 
at the Royal Academy. Some of his views o£E the 



coast of Holland are among his best paintings. 
He died at Erith, in Kent, in 1860. 

LANCE, George, a still-life painter, was born at 
Little East on, Essex, in 1802. It was originally 
intended that he should follow a mercantile life, 
but hfs distaste for trade, as well as delicate health, 
induced his parents to consent to his pursuing art, 
and he accordingly, by his own introduction, became 
a pupil of Haydon, with whom he remained seven 
years. He also studied in the schools of the Royal 
Academy, where he exhibited from 1828 to 1862, 
contributing in all only thirty-eight works. His 
contributions more frequently appeared at the 
British Institution. Although it was in the repre- 
sentation of flowers and fruit tliat Lance won his 
greatest reputation, for some years he produced 
many subject pictures, and one of these, * Melanc- 
thon's First Misgivings,' won the prize of the 
Liverpool Academy in 1836. In his later years, 
however, he gave the preference to still-life pic- 
tures. He died at Sunnyside, near Birkenhead, in 
1864. Amongst his chief works are : 

Captain Rolando showing Gil Bias the Treasures of the 

Cave. 1839. 
The Village Coquette. 1843. 

Portrait of Himself . 1830.)/e^,#jL ir*».;-y.#*« xr«mM,,^\ 
Two Fruit Pieces. ) ('*^'* Kensington Ifuseum,) 

Three Fruit Pieces. (Blenheim Palace.) 
A Basket of Fruit, Pineapple, \ 

and Bird's Nest. 1834. / 

Red Cap. 1847. > {National Gallery.) 

Fruit ; Pineapple, Grapes, and V 

Melon. 1848. ' 

The Biron Conspiracy. 1845. 
The Lady-in-Waiting. 
Two Fruit Pieces. ( Woburn Ahbey.) 

LANCE, Michel, a French fruit and flower 
painter, was bom at Rouen in 1613, and died in 
1661. 

LANCHARES, Antonio, was bom at Madrid in 
1586. He entered the school of Patricio Caxes, 
where he acquired a style so like that of his 
master's son, Eugenio, that it is difficult to dis- 
tinguish between their works. He was employed to 
paint various pictures for the Jesuit Convent at 
Madrid, and for the Carthusians at Paular, all of 
which have perished. In 1625 he was commissioned 
to paint some pictures for the Convent of the Order 
of Mercy at Madrid, the subjects being taken from 
the life of Pedro Nolasco, a zealous redeemer of 
Christian captives in the 13th century. He also 
executed a lar^e composition for the choir. He 
died at Madrid m 1658. 

LANCILAO, one of the best masters of miniature 
painting, lived in the 16th century at Padua, and 
studied under Bartolommeo della Gatta. 

LANCILOTTO. See Blondeel. 

LANCISI, ToMMASo, was an historical painter, 
who was bom at Citta San Sepolcro in 1603. He 
was a pu^ il of Sciaminosso. Two of his brothers 
also were painters. He died in 1682. 

LANQON, AuQUSTB, a French water-colour 
draughtsman and sculptor, was a native of Sainte- 
Claude (Jura), and first exhibited at the Salon in 
1872. His etchings of episodes in the war of 1870-71, 
published in V6ron*s ' Troisieme Invasion,' and his 
two albums, 'La Rue &Londres,' and 'Les Animaux/ 
show considerable ability. He died in 1885. 

LANCONELLO, Cristofobo, was a native of 
Faenza, who flourished about the year 1587. From 
his style, Lanzi thinks it probable that he was a 
disciple of Federigo Barocci. In the Palazzo 
Ercoiani, at Bologna, is a picture by him of the 

9 



Lancrenon 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP 



' Madonna and Child,' with a glory of angels, 
and St. Francis, St. Clara, and other Saints below. 
LANCRENON, Joseph Ferdinand a French 
historical painter and lithographer, was bom at 
Locls (Doubs) in 1791. He entered the Ecole 
des Beaux- Arts in 1814, and after studying under 
Girodet-TrioBon, was in 1836 apnointed Director 
of the Museum at Besan^on. He died in his native 
village in 1874. Amongst his works are : 

Tobit restoring his Father's Sight. 1819. ) {Beaanqon 
Portrait of M. CoorvolBier. j Museum. 

Boreas earryiog off Oreithyia. 1822. {Ceiling in the 

TutlerieSf destroyed bpjire in 1871.) 
A yoxing Girl fiiiding the River Scamander. 1824. 

{Amiens Museum.) 
The Apotheosis of St. Genevieve. 1827. {St. Laurenty 

Fans.) 

LANCRET, Nicolas, a French painter of *f6tes 
galantes,' was bom in Paris, Januaiy 22nd, 1690. 
His parents were in a humble position, and his 
father died when he was quite young. Intended 
for an engraver, he early received elementary in- 
struction m drawing, but, becoming ambitious of 
higher things, he entered the studio of Pierre D'Ulin, 
one of the professors of the Academy. It was, 
however, to Gillot that he chiefly owed his art 
education. With him he remained some years, 
and there he came under the influence of Watteau. 
His friendship with the chief of the * f 6tes galantes ' 
school was not long-lived. According to Ballot de 
Sovot, the success obtained by two works exhibited 
by him, and which were attributed to Watteau, 
caused a rupture between the two painters. Doubt 
has been expressed as to this account of the origin 
of the quarrel. Whatever may have been the 
cause, the estrangement lasted till the closing year 
of Watteau*s life. Lancret was a thorough ^ bour- 
geois,' and passed his time chiefly in Paris. He 
was a re^lar frequenter of the opera and the 
* Comiqne, and was a friend of \he dancers La 
Camargo and La Sa]l§, whom he frequently repre- 
sented in his works. Such time as he did not spend 
in Paria was passed in sketching excursions in the 
country, and in the winter he drew much in the 
life school of the Academy. In 1719 he was 
received into the Academy as a painter of * f&tes 
galantes.* Lancret long remained a bachelor : he 
appears to have appreciated the Parisian life * en 
gar^on * too much to enter early into the state of 
matrimony. It was not till 1740 that he married 
A grand-daughter of the comic poet Boursault 
His married life did not, however, last long, for he 
died in Paris on the 14th September, 1743. Lancret 
has sometimes been called the art-child of Watteau, 
but he lacks his warmth, and he fails to invest 
his works with the airy gracefulness which con- 
stitutes the great charm of that master. The fol- 
lowing is a list of his pictures in the chief public 
collections of Europe : 



London. Nat. Gallery. 



Angers. 

Berlin. 

j» 

M 

n 

»» 

Besan^on. 



Museum. 

>» 
Gallery. 

Royal Palace. 

» 
n 

♦» 

Museum. 



»» 



Dresden. Gallery. 

London. Buckingham 
Falace, 
„ Xaiianal Gallery. 



10 



n 



Wedding Breakfast. 1787. 

Wedding Dance. 1787. 

Fdte galante. 

Honting Scene. 

Bustic Scene. 

Oonversation galante. 

Blind-man's Buff. 

A Game at Skittles. 

Puss in the Oomer. 

A Minuet. 

Three ' Danses cfaamp^tres.' 

j- Pastoral Scene. 

Infancy. 
Youth. 



Nantes. 



M 



Museum. 



n 



Orleans. 


Museum. 


Paris. 


Louvre. 


»T 


»» 


M 


»» 


>» 


»» 


»♦ 


»t 


If 


*» 


»l 


>» 


l» 


f) 


n 


>» 


Perpignan. 
Petersburg. 


Museum. 
Hermitage. 


»» 


»» 


>» 


»> 


tf 


»» 


rt 


»» 


>» 


>» 


i» 


»» 


r 

Rouen. 


n 

Museum. 


Schleissheim. 
Stockholm. 


Gallery. 
Gallery. 



»> 



» 



ft w 

Valenciennes. Museum. 



Landerer 

Manhood. 

Age. 

Columbine in Carriage drawn 

by Dogs. 
Bal C08tum6. 
Portrait of La Camargo. 
Conversation galante. 
D6jeuner au jamben. 
Spring. 
Summer. 
Autumn. 
Winter. 

The Bird's Nest. ' 
The Turtle-doves. 
The Gascon punished. 1738. 
The Actors of the Italian 

Comedy. 
Couyersation galante,^ 
^The Cage. 
Promenade at Longchamps. 
The Concert. 
The young Bird-catchers. 
A Kitchen. 
Kitchen Courtship. 
Portrait of La Camargo. 
The Earl of Essex. 
The Philosopher married. 

1739. 
Scene from ' Le Glorieux.' 1739. 
Girls bathing. 
F^te champdtre. 
The Swing. 
Skating. 

Blind-man's Buff. 
Nest of Turtle-Doves. 

Further details as to Lancret can be obtained from 
Charles Blanc's ' Peintres des F^tes galantes,' 1854, 
and the * ISloge de Lancret,' by Ballot de Sovot, 
edited, with catalogues of his, pictures and of 
prints engraved after his works, py J. J. Quiffrey, 
Paris, 1874. OJ-D. 

LANDA, Juan db, was a Spanish painter of 
frescoes and historicnl subjects, who flourished at 
Pampelunafrom 1570 to 1630. In 1599 he painted 
the hi^h altar of Santa Maria de Taf alia, and in the 
f ollowmg year a * St. Michael ' and a * St. Catharine ' 
for the church of Caseda. 

LANDELLS, Ebbnezbr, a wood engraver, was 
born at Newcastle-on-Tyne in 1808. He was a 
pupil of Bewick, and came to London about 1829. 
He was much employed on the illustrated journals, 
contributing to * Punch ' and the * Illustrated 
London News * from their commencement, as well 
as to the ^ Illuminated Magazine ' and the * Ladies' 
Newspaper.' He died at Brompton in 1860. 

LANDELLS, Robert Thomas, the son «of 
Ebenezer Landells, was bom in 1833. He was 
a special artist on the staff of the ' Illustrated 
London News,' for which he depicted the Crimean, 
Danish, Austro-Prussian, and Franco-German Wars. 
In his later years he reproduced in oil and water- 
colours many of the' scenes he had witnessed. 
He died in 1877. 

LANDERER, Ferdinand, a German engraver,, 
was bom at Stein, in Austria, in 1743. He studied 
under Jacob Schmutzer, and became a member of 
the Academy at Vienna, as also a professor at the 
Imperial Military Academy. He died in 1796. He 
engraved severed plates, both as etchings and in the 
crayon manner ; among them are the following : 

PORTRAITS. 

Franz Moris, Oount Lacy ; after KonoUtz 
Joseph Kurs, actor; from hts ovm design. 

SUBJECTS. 

Sammn and Delilah ; after Rembrandt. 

Two Landscapes, with ruins and animals -, after Dietrich. 



(I 



XiSadfeld 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Landseer 



Two moantainoQS Landacapes ; after Pillement. 

Two large Landscapes, with figores and cattle ; after De 

Loutherbourff. 
Sixteen plates of Heads ; after M, J, Schmidt, 

LANDFELD, Assuerus van. See Londebseel. 

LANDI, Gaspabo, was bom at Piacenza in 1756. 
He was a pupil of Pompeo Batoni and Corvi. 
Tfaongh brought up in the school of the Mannerists 
at Rome, he did not follow their principles. His 
stddy of the great artists of the 16th century 
caused him to paint in a style in which he united 
the broad colouring of the Venetians with the 
pleasing chiaroscuro of the Lombards. He is con- 
sidered the founder of the modem Italian school. 
He was Director and President of the Academy of 
8u Luke at Rome, imd obtained the first prize at 
the Academy at Parma in 1781. He died at Rome 
in 1830. There are by him : 

The Ascent to Calvary. 
Florence. Fitti Palate. The Maries at the Tomb. 
Cathedral, The Burial of the Virgin. 



LANDI, Giuseppe Antonio, was an architectural 
painter of the 18th oentur}*. He was a pupil of 
Ferdinando Galli, and was received as an Acade- 
miciau of Bologna. 

LANDI, Nbboccio di Bartolommeo, was a 
partner of Francesco di Giorgio, from whom he 
parted in 1475. He was bom in 1447, and followed 
the professions of painting and sculpture ; his death 
occurred in 1500 at Siena. The * Hellespontic Sybil ' 
in the pavemet^t of the cathedral at Siena was 
designed by him in 1483, and the Academy of 
that city possesses several pictures by him. 

LANDING, Jacopo, called Jacopo di Casentino, 
w^ a member of the family of Cristuf oro Landino, 
of Prato Vec^bio, whence he is sometimes known 
as ' Jacopo dk Prato Vecchio.* He was bom in 
the first yean of the 14th century, at Arezzo, and 
was the pupiFof Taddeo Gaddi, whom he followed 
to Florence, where he founded in 1349 the Company 
of Painters under the patronage of the Virgin and 
<^S. John the Bapt^t, Zenobio, Reparata, and Luke. 
He appears to Rave remained at Florence until 
1354, and then returned to Arezzo, where he super- 
intended the rebuilding of the waterworks of the 
Fonte de' Guinizzelli. He is recorded as having 
executed a large number of frescoes in that city, the 
greater portion of which have now disappeared. 
Portions of the Duomo Vecchio, the Vescovado, 
and the church of San Bartolommeo, at Arezzo, 
were decorated by Casentino; the last-named 
building still contains a fresco by him of the 
'Dead Christ bewailed by the Virgin and St. 
John the E van^list.' He was the master of Ag^olo 
Gaddi and Spinello Aretino. Little now remains 
of this artist 8 work, although it is known that he 
executed very many frescoes, both in Florence and 
in Arezzo. According to Vasari his death occurred 
at Prato Vecchio at the age of eighty, and he was 
buried in the Camaldolese church of Sant' Agnolo. 
The following are some of his paintings: 

Flarence. Vffiti. Coronation of the Virgin. 

„ „ Predellawith scenes from the 

lif» of St. Peter and eight 

Saints. 
London, yiat. Gallery. St. John the Evangelist lifted 

up into Heaven. 

LANDOLT, Salomon, a German battle, land- 
scape, and sporting painter, was bom at Zurich in 
1741. He entered the military profession, and 
studied painting in Paris with Le Paon. In 1776 
he went to Berlin and raised for Frederick II. a 



corps of Swiss troops. In 1784 he went to Eglisen 
on the banks of the Rhine in command of a body 
of volunteers, and in 1799 he was fighting with 
the Archduke Charles. In 1803 he retumed to 
Zurich, and was made a member of the Council. 
He died at Andelfingen in 1818. 

LANDON, Charles Paul, a French historical 
painter, was bom at Nonant (Orae) in 1760. He 
was a pupil of Vincent and of Kegnault, and 
obtained the * grand prix' in 1792. In 1816 he 
was appointed Curator of the Louvre Gallery, and 
also became a corresponding member of the Insti- 
tute. He died in Paris in 1826. Amongst his 
chief pictures are : 

Daedalos and learns. 1799. 
Leda. 1806. (Louvre.) 
Venus and Oupid. 1810. 
Paul and Virginia. 1812. 

He is, however, better known as a writer on art : 
his contributions to literature amounting to more 
than a hundred volumes. His chief works ar^ : 

' Annales da Mus^/ 42 vols. 1800—22. 

' Vies et CEuvres des Peintres les plus c^ldbres,' 25 vols. 

1803—17. 
' Galerie Historiqne des Homines les plus c^ldbres,' 13 

vols. 1805—11. 
' Orandes Vues pittoresqnes do la Grece, et de la Sidle, 

et des Sept Collines de Rome.' 1813. 

* Numismatiqae da Voyage da jeune Anacharsis.' 1818. 

* C9ioix de l^leaox et Statues des plus cllebres Mos^s 

et Cabinets strangers/ 2 vols. 1819— 2L 

LANDRIANI, Paolo, bom at Milan in 1737, ' 
was a painter and architect, who studied under 
Gonzaga. He was employed at the Seal a theatre, 
and became reputed as a decorator. He followed 
especially the principles of Bibiena, Bemardin, and 
Galleavi. Perego and Sanquirico w^ere his pupils. 
He died at Milan in 1839. 

LANDRIANI, Paolo Camillo, called Duohino, 
was bom at Milan about 1570. He was a scholar 
of Ottavio Semini, and painted history with con- 
siderable success. There are several altar-pieces 
by him in the churches at Milan, of which that 
of <Tire Passion' is dated in 1602. One of his 
best performances is his picture of * The Nativity,* 
in the church of Sant' Ambrogio. He died at Milan 
in 1619. 

LANDRY, PlERBE, a French engraver, was bom 
in Paris about the year 16d0, and died there in 
1701. He was much employed by the booksellers, 
and engraved a variety of frontispieces, portraits, 
and other subjects. His best prints are his por- 
traits, some of which possess considerable merit. 
Among other plates, the following are by him : 

POBTRAITS. 

Louis XIV. of France ; after J, Franqoit, 
Louis de Boorbon, Prince of Oonti ; after Gribelin, 
. Charles de Bourbon, Bishop of Soissons. 1660. 
Abel Branier, Physician to the Duke of Orleans. 1661. 
Charles Brulart, Marquis of Genlis. 
Eustache de La Salle ; afUr C. Le Fehre. 
Antoine GkMlean, an ecclesiastic ; after Arditson. 
Francois Leseuyer. 

BUBJEGTS. 
St. Jerome. 
The Virgin and Child. 

Christ and the Woman of Samaria; after Alham. 
The Head of St. John the Bapt.Bt; after Annibale 
Carraeei, 

LAND8EER, Charles, a subject painter, was 
bom in 1799. He received his early instruction 
from his father, John Landseer, the engraver, nTid 

11 



^andseer 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Landseer 



from Haydon. In 1816 he entered the schools of 
the Royal Academy, where he first exhibited in 
1828. He went to Portugal with Lord Stuart de 
Rothesay, and also to Rio de Janeiro, where he 
made a large number of sketches. He was elected 
an Associate of the Academy in 1837, and an 
academician in 1845. From 1851 to 1874 he 
conducted the instruction in the antique school of 
the Academy, as Keeper. He died in London 
in 1879, leaving £10,000 to the Royal Academy 
for the foundation of 'Landseer Scholarships.' 
Amongst his chief works are : 

London. Nat. Gallery, Clarissa Harlowe in the Spong- 
ing House. 1833. 

The Sacking of Basing House. 
1836. (Lent to the Corporation 
of Sheffield.) 

Bloodhound Bitch and Pups. 
1839. (Lent to the Walker 
Art Gallery y Liverpool.) 

The Pillaging of a Jew's House. 
1839. (Lent to the Corporation 
of Dundee.) 
South Kensington ) The Temptation of Andrew 
Museum. f Marrell. 1841. 

Sterne's * Maria.' 

The Hermit. 1841. 



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LANDSEER, Sir Edwin Henry, the eminent 
animal painter, was the youngest son of John 
Landseer, A.R.A., and was bom at 83, Queen Anne 
Street East, London, on the 7th of March, 1802. 
His artistic education was begun by his father at a 
very early age, but not before his innate genius 
had shown itself in sketching and drawing, and tlie 
boy was sent into the fields to sketch from nature 
sheep, goats, and donkeys. In the South Kensing- 
ton Museum are nine drawings, executed at a very 
early period of his life, some of them having been 
made when he was but five ^ears old. He also 
produced several etchings. His first appearance in 
public occurred in 1815, when on the walls of the 
Koyal Academy Exhibition appeared a 'Portrait 
of a Mule/ and * Portraits of a Pointer Bitch and 
Puppy*' In the same year he was advised by 
Haydon to study the Elgin Marbles, and to dissect 
animals, though he does not seem to have studied 
under him, as did his brothers Thomas and Charles. 
In 1817 he exhibited the portrait of 'Brutus,' 
having in the preceding year entered the Royal 
Academy as a student. In 1818 he exhibited 
' Fighting Dogs getting Wind,' at the Exhibition of 
the Society of Painters in Oil and Water-Colours ; 
and at the Academy a 'Portrait of a Donkey.' 
In 1819| at the British Institution was ' The Cat 
disturbed ; ' in 1820, ' Alpine Mastiffs reanimating a 
distressed Traveller ; ' and in 1821, * The Seizure of 
a Boar,' and * Pointers To-ho.' In 1822 he re- 
ceived a premium of £150 from the directors of 
the British Institution for *The Larder invaded.' 
In 1824 he exhibited the ' Cat's Paw,' and in the 
same year he paid his first visit to the Highlands 
in company with Leslie. They visited Glasgow, 
Loch Lomond, Loch Katrine, and Loch Earn, and 
paid a visit to Sir Walter Scott at Abbotsford. In 
1825 * Taking a Buck,' and *The Widow,' were his 
contributions to the Academy, and * The Poacher ' 
to the British Institution. In 1826 appeared * The 
Dog and the Shadow ; ' and in the same year he 
became an Associate of the Royal Academy, being 
then twenty-four, the earliest age at which the 
laws of that institution admitted of his election. 
Ill 1827 were exhibited *The Chief's Return from 
Deer-stalking,* 'The Monkey who had seen the 
12 



World,' now the property of Lord Northbrook, and 

* Chevy Chase.' . In 1829 he produced *The High- 
land Whiskey-Still,' the property of the Duke 
of Wellington, aud *A Fireside-Party.' In 1831 
he was elected a Royal Academician, and in the 
same year he exhibited at the British Institution 

* High Life ' and * Low Life,' of which latter Ruskin 
says, '4t is the intensest rendering of vulgarity 
absolute and utter with which I am acquainted." 
In this year appeared also * Poachers deer-stalking ; ' 
and 'Too Hot.' In 1832 was exhibited 'Spaniels 
of King Charles's Breed,' or ' The Cavalier's Pets,' 
and in 1833 'The Harvest in the Highlands,' and 
'Jack in Office.' In 1834 appeared * Suspense,' 
*The Highland Shepherd Dog rescuing a Slieep 
from a Snow-drift;' * Bolton Abbey in the Olden 
Time,' the property of the Duke of Devonshire, 
and 'Highland Breakfast.' In 1835 came 'The 
Highland Drovers' Departure,' 'A Sleeping 
Bloodhound,' and 'Comical Dogs.' *The Sports- 
man's Annual' was published in 1836, with illus- 
trations by Edwin Landseer, A. Cooper, and G. 
Hancock. In 1837 came ' The Highland Shep- 
herd's Chief Mourner,' which Ruskin in his 
'Modem Painters' praises so highly, and 'The 
Shepherd's Grave.' The portraits of the Mar- 
xjuis of Stafford and Lady Evelyn Gower, one 
of Landseer's best portrait pictures, appeared in 
1838, together with * There's Life in the old Dog 
yet,' and ' A distinguished Member of the Humane 
Society.' 'Dignity and Impudence,' with the title 
' Dogs,' was first shown at the British Institution 
in 1839, in which year was exhibited also 'Vaa 
Amburgh and his Animals,' now in the Royal 
Collection at Osborne House. In 1840 ' The Lion 
Dog from Malta,' 'Laying down the Law,' and 
' Roebuck and Rough Hounds,' appeared at the 
Academy. ' Otter and Salmon,' in 1842, was tho 
fruit of one of those visits to the Highlands 
which had become annual. In the same year 
were exhibited the ' Highland Shepherd's Home ; ' 
* Pair of Brazilian Monkeys ; ' ' Breeze,' a re- 
triever; 'Eos,' a greyhound belonging to Prince 
Albert; and 'The Sanctuary.' In 1844 he ex- 
hibited ' The Otter speared,' ' Coming Events cast 
their Shadows before,* sometimes called 'The 
Challenge,' and 'Shoeing.' 'Peace' and *War' 
appeared in 1846, as did also 'The Stag at Bay.' 
'The Drive,' produced in 1847, was a hunting- 
piece, representing the shooting of deer in a pass 
of Glenorchy Forest The pictures of 1848 were 
'A Random Shot,' one of the most pathetic of 
Landseer's works ; ' The old Cover Hack ; ' Alex- 
ander and Diogenes ; and the 'Sketch of my Father.' 
These were accompanied by a series of etchings by 
C. G. Lewis, styled ' The Mothers,' firom drawings 
made by Landseer in 1837. In this year also he 
received a commission to paint three subjects con- 
nected with the chase for the Peers' Refreshment 
Room in the new Houses of Parliament, but the 
matter came to nothing, as the House of Commons 
refused to vote the money. In 1849 Landseer paid 
his first visit to Belgium to collect materials for 
the ' Dialogue at Waterloo,' which appeared in 
1850, in which year he was knighted. 'The Mon- 
arch of the Glen,' ' The Last Run of the Season,' 
and ' Titania and Bottom,' were the chief pictures 
of 1851. To 1853 belong ' The Combat,' ' Night and 
Morning,' and * Children of the Mist.' In 1856 he 
contributed ' Saved ' to the Academy Exhibition. In 
1857 came ' Scene in Braemar,^ a magnificent stag ; 
' Rough and Ready,' a portrait of a favourite mare.; 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Landseer 



and * Uncle Tom and his Wife for sale.' In 1858 
appeared ^ The Moid and the Magpie ; ' and ' Deer 
browsing,' an immense cartoon in coloured chalks. 
In the British Institution of the same year were 
• Twa Dogs,' and a portrait of Sir Walter Scott. 
The year 1860 produced 'A Flood in the Highlands ; ' 
1861, ' The Taming of the Shrew ; ' and 1864, ' Man 
proposes, God disposes,* an Arctic incident, sug- 
gested by the finding of the relics of Sir John 
Franklin. In 1865 was exhibited * The Connoisseurs ' 
(his own portrait) ; in 1867, * Her Majesty at 
Osborne ;' and in 1869 his last great picture, * The 
Swannery invaded by Sea Eagles.* In 1869 the 
Lions at the four corners of the Nelson Monument 
were uncovered. On the death of Sir Charles 
Eastlake Landseer declined the Presidency of the 
Royal Academy, and in 1855 he received the large 
gold medal at the Paris Universal Exhibition. His 
later years were clouded by fits of depression, and 
be died at St. John's Wood, London, on the 1st 
of October, 1873, and was buried in St. Paul's 
CathedraL ^ The Winter Exhibition of the Royal 
Academy in 1874 was entirely devoted to his 
works, when 461 pictures, drawings, and sketches 
were exhibited, besides many touched proofs of 
engravings after his works. A complete catalogue 
o£ Landseer's works and of the engravings after 
them has been compiled by Algernon Graves. 
Cliief among the engravers are his brother Thomas 
Landseer, Charles George Lewis, Charles Heath, 
Robert Graves, John Burnet, William Finden, 
Samuel Cousins, Francis HoU, James Stephenson, 
John Outrim, and Thomas L. Atkinson. A uniform 
series of small engravings in mezzotint has been 
in course of publication since 1880 by Messrs. 
Henry Graves and Co. 

The following are the principal pictures by him 
in public and private collections : 

Cbateworth. House, Bolton Abbey in the Olden 

Time. 
„ „ Laying down the Law. 1840. 

Sdinbnrgfa. Nat, Gallery, Rent Day in the Wilderness. 
licmdon. Nat.Gcdltry, Low Life— High Life. 1831. 

Highland Music. 1830. 
The Hunted Stag. 1833. 
Peace. 1846. 
War. 1848. 
Spaniels of King Charles's 

Breed. 
The Sleeping Bloodhound. 
Dignity and Impudence. 
The Defeat of Comus. {Sketch.) 
Shoeing. 
Highland Dogs. 
Alexander and Diogenes. 
The Maid and the Magpie. 
A Dialogue at Waterloo. (Lent 
to the National Gallery, 
JDubltn.) 

" '^^^^S"""]^ Highland BnMikfast. 

„ „ The Highland Drovers' De- 

parture. 
The Dog and the Shadow. 
A Fireside Party. 
There's no place like Home. 
The Twa Dogs. 
A Jack in Office. 
The Old Shepherd's Chief 

Mourner. 
Tethered Bams. 
Sancho Panza and Dapple. 
The Angler's Guard. 
A Kaughty ChUd. 
Suspense. 
Gomical Dogs. 
The Eagle's Nest. 



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London. South Kensing- \ Young Boeback and Bough 

ton Museum. ) Hounds. 

National Portrait 1 «• "en- li. o ax 
Gallery, j Sir Walter Scott. 

„ John Allen, M.D. 

„ Buckingham Palace, The Defeat of Gomus. (Freico.) 
„ Apsley House, The Highland Whiskey-Still. 

,, „ Van Amburgh and his Animals. 

Osborne. House, Van Amburgh and his Animals. 

Windsor. Castle, Eos. 

The Sanctuary. 

Dash, Hector, Nero, and Lorie. 

LANDSEER, Grorqe, the only son of Thomas 
Landseer, was born about 1834. When about 
twenty years of age he went, to India, and whilst 
there he painted a great many portraits of 
Bajahs and other distinguished natives, and also 
made a large series of water-colour drawings of 
views in Cashmere and the hill country, which he 
brought back with him on his return to England 
about 1870, after which date he was an invalid and 
did little or no work. He died in London in 1878. 

LANDSEER, Henrt, a landscape painter, was a 
brother of John Landseer, and a frequent contributor 
to the Exhibitions, especially to that of the Society 
of British Artists. His name appears at the British 
Institution Exhibitions of 1821, 1822, and 1823. 

LANDSEER, Jessica, a daughter of John Land- 
seer, who died at Folkestone in 1880, also used 
the painter's brush and the etching-needle. She 
etched a few designs after her brother Edwin. 

LANDSEER, John, a line-engraver, was born 
at Lincoln in 1769. He was the son of a jeweller, 
and was apprenticed to William Byrne, the land- 
scape engraver. The earliest works on which he was 
engaged were the illustrations after DeLoutherbonrg 
for Macklin's Bible, and Bowyer's * History of 
England.' These were followed in 1796 by Moore's 
* Twenty-five Views in the Southern Part of Scot- 
land.' He devoted considerable attention to a 
series of engravings of animals after the great 
masters, which were afterwards published in a 
collected form. In 1806 he delivered a course of 
lectures on engraving at the Royal Institution, 
and in 1802 he was elected an Associate Engraver 
of the Royal Academy. He had previously 
attacked the Academy on account of the total 
exclusion of engravers from its honours, and his 
election did not prevent his continuing to urge 
their claims to full membership. Antiquarian 
pursuits had a great attraction for him, and he 
published * Observations on the Engraved Gems 
from Babylon' (1817), and * Sab«an Researches' 
(1833). He continued to exhibit at the Academy up 
to 1851. He died in London in 1852, and was buried 
at'Highgate Cemetery. Two of his sons, Edwin and 
Charles, became Royal Academicians, and a third, 
Thomas Landseer, followed in his father's foot- 
steps, and became an eminent engraver. 

LANDSEER, Thomas, the eldest son of John 
Landseer, was born in London in 1795, and was 
brought up by his father to the profession of an 
engraver ; he also studied, with his brother Charles, 
under Haydon, by whose instruction he made chalk 
drawings from the cartoons of Raphael. His first 
engraving on copper was, it is said, a * Study of 
the Head of a Sibyl,' after Haydon, which ap- 
peared in 1816; and from that time he continued 
to engrave diligently through a long life, the labours 
of which were somewhat tardily recognized by the 
Royal Academy in 1868, when he was elected an 
Associate Engraver. He died in London in 1880. 
Thomas Landseer *8 engravings are for the most 

13 



Landtsheer 



A BIOaRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP 



Lanfranco 



part from the workb of his brother Edwin, and it 
is no disparagement to the latter to say that his 
pictures owe much of their popularity and public 
appreciation to the faithful and sympathetic ren- 
dering which they have received at the hands of 
the engraver. The following are after Sir Edwin 
Landseer : 

A Bull ; an etching. 1811. 

To-Ho ; an etching. 1823. 

Eatcatchers. 1823. 

Bratua 1824. 

Neptune. 1824. 

iDtruding Puppies. 1827. 

The Sleeping Bloodhound. 1837. 

Odin {the hwd only engraved). 1839. 

A Forest JooBt (a portion of the picture 'None but the 

Brave deserve the Fair '). 1839. 
A Distinguished Member of the Boyal Humane Society. 

1839. 
Dignity and Impudence. 1841. 
Eos. 1843. 

lion Doff from Malta. 1843. 
Laying down the Law. 1843. 
Not caught yet. 1845. 
The Combat ; an etching. 1845. 
The Stag at Bay. 1848. 
Alexander and Diogenes. 1852. 
The Monarch of the Glen. 1852. 
Dear Fuss. 1854. 
Children of the Mist. 1856. 
Doubtful Crumbs. 1862. 
Man proposes, Qod disposes. 1867. 
The Sanctuary. 1869. 
The Challenge. 1872. 
Deer Family. 1873. 
Indian Tent, Mare and Foal . 1875. 
The Font. 1875. 

Besides these must be mentioned his engraving 
of the * Horse Fair/ after Rosa Bonheur; *Ten 
Etchings illustrative of Coleridge's * Devil's Walk,* 
1831; * Monkey ana,' 1827; and * Characteristic 
Sketches of Animals,* 1832. 

LANDTSHEER, Jan de, a Flemish painter, bom 
at Baesrode in 1750, was a pupil of the Antwerp 
Academy in 1779. He painted portraits, and his- 
torical and genre subjects. At Brussels is a picture 
of * Venus clipping the Wings of Love;* and at 
Haarlem *Two Cliildren seated.* He died in 1828. 

LANDULFO, Pompeo, a Neapolitan painter, 
was born about the year 1615. According to 
Dominici, he was of ancient family, and showing 
an early disposition for art, was placed under 
the care of Gian Bernardo Lama, where he dis- 
covered a superior genius, and whilst he was yet 
very young, painted an altar-piece for the church 
of San Matteo, at Naples, representing the * Virgin 
w^ith the Infant Jesus in the clouds, surrounded by 
angels.' He afterw^ards painted a fine picture for 
the church of La Pieti, of the * Holy Family, with 
St. Francis, St. Catharine, and St. Lucia.' He died 
at Naples in 1590. 

LANE, John Brtant, an historical painter, was 
bom in Cornwall towards the end of the 18th 
century. Originally intended for the medical pro- 
fession, he was enabled to study art through the 
patronage of Lord de Dunstanville. He exhibited 
some pretentious works at the Rbyal Academy from 
1808 to 1813, and then went to Rome, where during 
the next fifteen years he was chiefly employee! on 
an ambitious picture, * The Vision of Joseph,* which 
proved a failure. He last exhibited at the Academy 
from 1831 to 1834. 

LANE, Richard James, an engraver, was bom 
in 1800. His mother was a niece of Gainsborough, 
and his father a prebendary of Hereford. At the 

14 



age of sixteen he was apprenticed to Charles 
Heath, under whom he made good progress, but 
owing to the decadence of line engraving, he 
devoted himself to lithography, which he practised 
with much success. Among his works were a 
series of sketches by Gainsborough, followed by 
'Imitations of British Artists,' and * Sketches by 
Sir Thomas Lawrence.' He was appointed litho- 
grapher to the Queen, for whom he executed many 
portraits after Winterhalter and Chalon. In 1827 
ne was elected an Associate Engraver of the Royal 
Academy. He died at Kensington in 1872. 

Lane, Samuel, a portrait painter, was bom at 
King*s Lynn in 1780. From his childhood he was 
deaf and almost dumb. His instructors in art were 
Farington and Sir Thomas Lawrence. The fidelity 
of his likenesses procured him a large practice, and he 
contributed many portraits to the Royal Academy 
from 1804 to 1867. He retired in 1863 to Ipswich, 
where he died in 1869. Amongst his works are: 

G. Orompe. 1813. {Clothworkeri Hall, London.) 

Thomas Clarkson. ( Wisbeaeh Town Hall.) 

Lord De Saumarez. 4838. {United Service Club, 

London.) 
John Kaye, Bishop of Lineoln. (Riaeholme Palace.) 
Lord George Bentmck. {King's Lynn Town Hall.) 

LANE, Solomon de. See De Lane. 

LANE, Theodore, a subject painter, was bom 
at Isleworth in 1800. He origmally studied en- 
graving, which he early quitted for portrait paint- 
ing, exhibiting at the Royal Academy from 1816. 
His forte, however, was in humorous subjects, and 
he was attaining some position when his death 
occurred in 1828 through lallinffthrough a skylight 
in Gray's Inn Road, London. His best works are : 

The Christmas Present. 1827. 

The Gouty Angler. 1828. {National GaUery ; but lent 

to the Corporation of Stockport.) 
Disturbed by the Nightmare. (1828.) 

LANE, William, a portrait painter, was born 
in 1746. He for some years practised as a 
gem engraver, but afterwards devoted himself 
to portraits in crayons. He had a large circle of 
sitters, and exhibited at the Royal Academy from 
1786 to 1816. He died at Hammersmith in 1819. 

LANEN, Van der. See Van deb Lanen. 

LANETTI, Antonio, a painter, was a native of 
Bugnato. He was a pupil of Gaudenzio, and had 
a reputation in Ferrara. He died about 1630. 

LANEUVILLE, Jean Louis, a French portrait 
painter, was a native of Paris, and a pupil of 
David. He exhibited at the ' Exposition de la 
Jeunesse ' in 1783 and 1789, and at the Salon from 
1791 to 1817. He died in 1826. 

LANFRANCO, Giovanni, called Cavaliere 
Giovanni di Stefano, was bom at Panna, on the 
same day with Domenichino, in 1681. His parents 
placed him, when a boy, as page to the Count 
Scotti at Piacenza. While in the service of that 
nobleman he was perceived drawing with a piece of 
charcoal the frieze of one of the apartments ; and 
the Count, desirous of encouraging his apparent 
disposition for art, introduced him to Agostino 
Carracci, who was at that time employed by the 
Duke Ranuccio at Ferrara. The young pupil 
made rapid progress under so able an instructor, 
and before he was sixteen he painted a picture of 
the ^ Virgin and several Saints,' which was deemed 
worthy of being placed in the church of Sant' 
Agostino at Piacenza. By the advice of Agostino 
Carracci, he studied with particular attention the 
works of Correggio; but though he attained to 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Lao fir 



some approach to bis model in the grandeur of I 
his conceptions and the bold variety of his fore- 
shortening, he could not imitate the tender beauty 
of his expression and the graceful turn of his 
forms, the peculiar characteristics of the works of 
Correggio. Lanfranco was twenty years old when 
death deprived him of the lessons of Agostino. 
He then went to Rome, and became a student under 
Ajinibale Carracci, who employed him in the Far- 
nese Qallery, and in the church of St. Giacomo, 
where he executed some frescoes from Annibole^s 
designs. The works of Raphael were also the 
objects of his attentive admiration. In conjunc- 
tion with his compatriot and fellow-student, Sisto 
Badalocchio, he etched the history of the Bible, 
from Raphael's Loggie in the Vatican, which they 
dedicated to Annibale. After the death of that 
master, Lanfranco was employed by Cardinal 
Sannese in some works, which first brought him 
into public notice at Rome, and he increased his 
reputation by his fresco paintings in the chapel of 
Biion Giovanni in the church of Sant' Agostino, 
the principal picture representing the ' Assumption 
of the Virgin.* He was taken under the protection 
of Paul v., who employed him in his chapel in 
Santa Maria Maggiore, and in the great saloon at 
the Quirinal, where he painted * Moses striking 
the Rock,* * Abraham sacrificing Isaac,* and ' The 
Flight into Egypt.' It was about this time that, 
by the death of Cardinal Montalto, the patron of 
Domenichino, he procured, through intrigue, the 
commission to paint tlie cupola of Sant* Andrea 
della Valle, which had been promised to Domeni- 
chino, who had previously painted the four angles. 
However one may lament that the work was not 
completed by that master, it is but justice to 
acknowledge that on this occasion Lanfranco sur- 
passed himselL In wrestling with so formidable 
an antagonist, he assembled and put forth all his 
powers. This celebrated work represents the 
' Virgin seated in the Clouds, contemplating the 
figure of our Saviour,' which is in the upper part of 
the composition ; on one side are St Peter and St. 
Gaetan ; and on the other, St. Andrew and other 
Saints, the principal light emanates from a lumin- 
ous glory surrounding the body of Christ, and 
spreads itself in tender and harmonious suffusion 
over the whole composition. The grandeur of the 
arrangement, the boldness of the design, the 
admirable disposition of the groups, and the 
intrepid daring of the Mi sotto in su,* rank this 
performance among the most extraordinary 
achievements of the art of that description, after 
Correggio's cupola at Parma. The increasing fame 
of Lanfranco spread to Naples, whither he was 
invited, in 1646, to paint the cupola of San Gen- 
naro, which occupied him a year and a half ; he 
there depicted the • Ascension of the Virgin,* with 
a countless host of Saints. This great work has 
been destroyed by an earthquake, except the 
angles, which remain. In the church of San 
Martino also he decorated the cupola with ' The 
Ascension,' the Apostles, and the Miracles of 
Christ. Lanfranco was at Naples when Domeni- 
chino was engaged to paint the cupola of the 
Treasury, in which he had made considerable pro- 
gress when the cabals of Lanfranco and some of 
the Neapolitan artists occasioned the work to be 
suspended. After the death of Domenichino, Lan- 
franco was employed to finish it: he destroyed 
all that had been done except the angles, which 
are still the admiration of the intelligent observer, 



n 
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and loudly proclaim the transcendent superiority 
of their author over his malevolent competitor. 
The troubles which soon after took place at Naples 
occasioned Lanfranco to return to Rome during the 
pontificate of Urban VIII., who employed hiin to 
paint a picture for the basilica of St Peter, repre- 
senting that apostle walking on the sea, which has 
been engraved by Gerard Audran ; and in a series 
of pictures of the 'Passion of Christ,* for the 
chapel of the Cnicitix. These productions were so 
much to the satisfaction of the Pope that he con- 
ferred on the painter the order of knighthood. The 
last works of Lanfranco were his pictures in the 
tribune of San Carlo ai Catinari, and they are tlie 
feeblest of his performances. He died at Rome in 
1647. The following are some of his principal 
pictures : 

AmBterdam. Museum. St. John the Baptist. 
Berlin. GalUiy. Mary Magdalene. 

Brunswick. Gallery. The Finding of Moses. 

n ,) Head of a young Man. 

Dresden. Gallery, The Repentance of St. Peter. 

n ,» Four old Magicians. 

Edinburgh. Nat. Gallery. St. Christopher. 
Florence. Uffizi. The Magdalene. 

>, „ His own Portrait. 

„ Pltti Palace, The Martyrdom of St. Margaret 

of Cortona. 
London. Nat. Gallery. Head of Saint. 

ft „ St. Peter and St. Jude. 

Madrid. Gallery. The Burial of Julius Caesar. 

Banquet of the Patricians. 
A Roman Sea-Fight. 
Consulting the Auspices. 
Roman Soldiers receiving 
Wreaths. 
Gallery, The Angel visiting Hagar. 
„ Mater Dolorosa. 

n H ^ Christ On the Mount of Olives. 

Naples. Gesii. Frescoes in the cupola. 

Anostoli. The Pool of Bethesda. {Fresco. ) 
S, Martino, Frescoes. 

Museum, Virgin glorified, rescuing a 
ChUd. 
fi Herminia with the Shepherds. 
S. Chiara, Crudfixion. * 
Cathedral. The Glory of the Blessed. 
{Fresco.) 
Paris. Louvre, Hagar in the Desert. 

„ „ St. Peter. 

ti n The Separation of St. Peter 

and St. Paul bv the Soldiers. 
Parma. Ognissanti, Christ surrounded by Saints. 

Piacenza. Cathedral. Death of St. Alexis. 
Rome. S. Andrea della ) <o_^ 

Valle. I Frescoes. 

S. Agostino. Frescoes. 

Quirinal, History of Moses. 

„ The Last Supper. 

Corsini Palace. St. Peter succouring St. Agnes. 

„ Colonna Palace, The Deliverance of St. Peter. 

Stockholm. Gallery. St. Peter. 

Vienna. Gallery, Virgin and Child appearing to 

St. Paul and St. Ajathouy. 

There are several etchings hy this master, which 
are executed in a slight, spirited manner. The 
following are by him, and they are variously signed, 
Z. F,, Gio L.y Gio Lafo^ Giovanni la, etc. : 

Twenty-eight plates of Biblical subjects ; after Raphael. 
The Messengers of Moses returning from the Land of 

Canaan. 
An Emperor haranguing his Soldiers. 
Part of the plates engraved conjointly with Sisto 

Badalocchio, from Raphael's Paintings in the Vatican. 

LANG, Gborq Jakob, a painter of Nuremberg, 
was bom about 1680. He painted historical sub* 
jects, and landscapes with animals. He became 
director of the Art Academy of Nuremberg, and 
died in 1740. 

15 



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Munich. 



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Lang 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Langer 



LANG, MORITZ, a German engraver, flourished 
about 1670. Ho chiefly resided at Vienna, and 
-^as much employed by the booksellers, for whom 
he engraved a number of frontispieces, book- 

Elates, and portraits, of which the last were the 
est He worked with the graver, and executed 
several of the plates for Priorato*8 * History of the 
Emperor Leopold.* 

LANGE, Ange Louis Janbt. See Janbt 
Langs. 

L'ANGE, FRAN9018, who was bom at Annecy 
in Savoy, in 1676, was a pupil of Andr^ Cheville 
at Turin, where he was much patronized. He also 
painted with much success at Bologna, where he 
joined the Society of St Philip Neri in 1735, and 
died in 1756. His* chief merit, as an artist, was 
in small Scriptural pieces, which Lanzi saw at 
Vercelli, and of which he speaks in terms of 
commendation. 

LANGE, Fbiedrich, a German painter of Scrip- 
tural subjects, was bom at Plau, m Mecklenburg, 
in 1834, and painted under the influence of 
Cornelius. His ^ Christ on the Cross ' and * Faith, 
Love, and Hope * are in the Schwerin Gallery. He 
died at Strassburg in 1875. 

LANGE, Jan Ubndrik, was a Flemish historical 
painter, who was a pupil of Van Dyck, and died at 
Brussels in 1671. 

LANGE, Joseph, an Austrian painter, was bom 
at Wiirzburg in 1751. On the death of his father 
he went to Vienna in 1767, and attended the Art 
School. He was better known as an actor, and 
painted several portraits of dramatic celebrities. 
He died at Vienna in 1831. 

•LANGE, Julius, was bom at Darmstadt in 
1817. He was instructed in the rudiments of art 
by Miiller, the Inspector of the Gallery, and at the 
age of fifteen he made designs for a work of his 
brother Ludwig, entitled * Views of the Chief 
Towns in Germany,* which was published at 
Darmstadt m 1834. In this year he w^ent to 
Munich, ana studied historical painting at the 
Academy. In 1835 he went to Dusseldorf, and 
visited Switzerland with J. W. Schinner. In 
1840 Rottmann persuaded him to return to Mimich, 
where he became highly esteemed for his mountain 
landscapes. In 1854 he visited Upper Italy, where 
he made a number of sketches for the Academy of 
Venice, of which he was made a member. In 

1857 he was appointed drawing-master to the 
Archduchess Charlotte, Empress of Mexico. In 

1858 he entered the service of King Maximilian of 
Bavaria, and in 1867 Tvas appointed court painter 
to Louis II. He was a famous draughtsman in 
crayons. He died at Munich in 1878. Some of 
his principal works are : 

Landscape in Upper Italy. 

Two Views of the Gossaa Lake. {New Pinakothek, 

Munich.) 
View near Partenkirchen. (The same.) 
The G611, 
Watzmann in the Tyrol. 

LANGE, LuDWiQ, bom at Darmstadt in 1808, 
was an architect and painter. He studied land- 
scape painting under Kottmann, w^ith whom he 
visited Greece, where he stayed three years as 
master of design at Athens. He executed a series 
of Greek landscapes which are of considerable 
merit. He died at Munich in 1868. 

LANGE, S0REN L-KSS0E, a Danish painter, was 
bora at Faaborg, in the island of Funen, in 1760. 
He entered the Academy at Copenhagen in 1781. 

16 



and his merit was deservedly rewarded with several 
medals of the Academy, and the gold medal of 
the court His landscapes and portraits are dis- 
tinguished for their beauty. He also etched on 
copper. He died in 1828. 

LANGE JAN. See Bockhorst, Johann von. 

LANGE PEER. See Aartsrn. 

LANGENDYK, Dirk, bom at Rotterdam in 
1748, was a scholar of D. A. Bisschop. He 
designed and painted combats and battles, in the 
composition of which he showed extraordinary 
skill. He depicted the passions with great truth, 
and gave to the smallest details of his subject the 
highest degree of finish. His drawings are par- 
ticularly admired, and some of his landscapes w^ith 
cows and horses have been engraved. His paint- 
ings in oil are not numerous ; they are, like his 
drawings, skirmishes and battles, by sea and land. 
In the Rotterdam Museum are pictures of 'A 
Camp,' *A Cavalry Charge,' and *A Wounded 
General,' and twenty-one etchings. He died at 
Rotterdam in 1805. 

LANGENDYK, Jak Antonie, son of Dirk 
Langendyk, was bom at Rotterdam in 1780. He 
went a voyage to St. Domingo, but afterwards 
returned to his own country, where he lived suc- 
cessively at Rotterdam, The Hague, Brussels, and 
Amsterdam, at which latter place he died in 1818. 
He painted in the style of his father, and has left 
some good engravings. 

LANGENHOFFEL, Johann Joseph, was bom 
at Diisseldorf in 1750. After receiving his educa- 
tion in his native city, he made several etchings 
after the Italian masters, in which he displayed 
great proficiency. ^He became court painter at 
Mannheim, and afterwards director of the Gallery 
at Vienna, where he died in 1807. Among his 
historical paintings and portraits are: 

The Rape of the Sabines. 

Venas binding Cupid apprentice to Bion. 

Portrait of the Emperor Leopold II. 

Portrait of Augiuta Wilhebmna, Queen of Bavaria. 

His etchings are entitled : 

' Recneil des Densins grav^ d'apres les famenx Maitres 
k Dusseldorf/ 1780. 

LANGER, Johann Petkr von, was born at 
Calcum, near Dusseldorf , in 1766. He studied at 
the Dusseldorf Academy under Krahe, and became 
professor in 1784, and director in 1789 ; as well us 
director of the Gallery. He visited Holland and 
Paris, and was afterwards appointed director of 
tlie Academy, which was founded at that time at 
Munich. He died at Munich in 1824. He was 
the follower of a stiff classicism, and though his 
religious and historical subjects are of excellent 
colouring, his compositions are cold and too 
studied. Many of his works are in the Gallery at 
Schleissheim. Among his best paintings are : 

8ix subjects from the fable of Psyche. (A Saloon at 

Barmen.) 
'Let the Little Children oome onto Me.' (School-Chapel 

at Munich.) 
Portrait of Queen Theresa of Bavaria. 

There are fifty-six etchings by him, of which the 
most important are : 

Mercury cutting off the Head of Argus ; after Annihale 

Carracci. 
The Saviour with the Apostles : after Marc^Anionio, 
The same subject ; after his own design. 

LANGER, Robert von, a German historical 
painter, bom at Diisseldorf in 1783, was instructed 
oy his father Johann Peter von Langer, whom he 



lAnger 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



!Laiigloi8 



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mccompanied to Paris, from whence he went 
afterwards to Italy, and stayed there one year. 
On his re tarn to Munich he became professor of 
the Academy in 1806 ; in 1827, director of the 
Boyal Cabinet of Design ; and in 1841, director 
of the Central Gallery. He executed a series of 
pen and ink drawings for Dante's * Divina 
Commedia.* He died at Haidhausen in 1846. 
Among his paintings are : 
HaidluMiaeii. Jhtke Max- \ tj._^jj-,^ 

Monich. Dueal Palace, Freaooes. 

M Frauenkirche. The Descent from the Cross. 

" ^^O^fh^ \ ^*- *'"«^«« o' ^^^< 

y. Hospital Church. The Seven Works of Kercy. 
ft<*M^Mhf>ini. Gallery. The Education of Bacchus. 

The Entombment. 
The Adoration of the Kings. 
Madonna, St. Gordianus and 
Epimachus. 
Stuttgart. Gallery. Yirgilleading Dante into Hell . 

Among his best etchings is that of * St. Jerome,* 
after Correggio. 

LANGERy Sebastian, an Austrian engraver, was 
bom at Troppau in 1772, and was educated in the 
Academy of Vienna. The year of his death is not 
known. He worked chiefly for the booksellers, 
though he also executed some plates, among which 
were : 

The Betnm of the Prodigal ; after Batoni, 

The Qoack ; after G. Don. 

Hie Old Jew ; after Hooyttraeteru 

St. Francis ; e^fUr Carraeei, 

The Prophet Isaiah ; after BaphaeL 

The Dentist ; after I. van Ostade. 

LANGETTI, Giovanni Battista, was bom at 
Genoa in 1635. He was first a scholar of Pietro 
da Cortona, but afterwards studied under Giovanni 
Francesco Cassana. Although celebrated by the 
poet Boschini, his powers appear to have been 
chiefly confined to heads and busts of old men, 
of which there are many in private collections in 
the Venetian States, and in Lombardy. Lanzi 
notices a picture by him of * The Crucifixion,' in 
the chorch of Santa Teresa at Genoa. In the 
Dresden Gallery is a picture of * The Punishment 
of Marsyas/ and in the Brunswick Gallery is one 
of ' Archimedes.' He died* at Venice in 1 676. 

LANGEVELT, Rutgbr van, was born at Nym- 
wegen in 1635, and was a pupil of the Academy of 
that town. Frederick William, Elector of Branden- 
burg, sent for him to Berlin, where he appointed 
him painter, architect, and mathematician to the 
coart, and director of the Academy. In the Court 
House at Nymwegen is a historical picture by this 
artist. He died at Berlin in 1695. He had a son 
Wilhelra, who was a portrait painter at Berlin. 

LANG J AN, Rbhigius, a painter of the 17th 
century, was one of the best pupils of Van Dj'ck. 
In the Vienna Gallery is a picture by him of ' Herse 
going with her sisters to the Temple of Minerva/ 
He died in 1670, or 1671. 

LANGLACi, Jean Baftiste Gabriel, a French 
landscape painter, was bom in Paris in 1786. He 
exhibited at the Salon from 1817 to 1845, and also 
painted upon porcelain at the manufactory at 
Sevres. He died at Versailles in 1864. 

LANGLEY, Thomas, a brother of Batty Langley 
the architect, resided in London during the first 
part of the last century. There are some plates of 
antiquities by him, and he published, in oonjunc- 
tion with his brother, several works on Gothic 

VOL. II. 



architecture, with the plates designed and engraved 
by himself. He died in 1751. 

LANGLOIS, Charles, a battle and panorama 
painter, was born at Beaumont, Calvados, in 1789. 
He first attended the Polytechnic School, and after- 
wards studied under Girodet, Gros, and Horace 
Vemet. He travelled in Algeria and the Crimea, 
and died in Paris in 1870. At Versailles are pictures 
of the ' Battles of Castella,' ' Smolensk,' ' Polotsk,' 
and ' Borodino,' and * The Taking of Morea.' His 
beat panoramas were the * Battle of Eylau,' the 
' Battle of the Pyramids,' the * Battle of Solferino,' 
and the * Burning of Moscow.' 

LANGLOIS, Claude Louis, called Langlois db 
Sezanne, a French portrait painter, was bom at 
Sezanne in 1757. He was instructed by Beaufort, 
and painted the portraits of several famous French 
generals, many of which were engraved by Voissart 
for different publications. He was director of the 
Drawing School at Sens till 1830, when he removed 
to Paris. He died in 1845. 

LANGLOIS, EusTACHB Htacintiie, a French 
landscape painter, draughtsman, and engraver, was 
born at Pont-de-l'Arche in 1777. His art training 
was due to Lemonnier and David. During the 
Revolution he was imprisoned, and was also drawn 
for military service, but owed his escape to the 
Empress Josephine. He afterwards settled at 
Rouen, where he taught in the Academy. He 
devoted great attention to archaeology, and pub- 
lished many works in connection with it, which he 
illustrated himself. He died at Rouen in 1837. 
His chief publications were : 

* Description historique des Mainons de Boueu.' 1821. 
' Essai BUT la Peinture sar verre.' 1832. 

' Esaai sur PAbbaye de Footenelle.' 1834. 

* Stalles de la CathMrale de Rouen.' 1838. 

'Essai sur la Calligrapbie des Manoscrits du Moyen- 
Age.' 1841. 

* Esrai historique sur les Danses des Morts.* 1851. 

LANGLOIS, FRANgois, called Ciartres, was a 
French engraver and printseller, who died in Paris 
in 1748. He has left tlie * History of Psyche,' a 
series of tliirteen plates after Raphael, and the 
'Theological and Cardinal Virtues,' after the pic- 
tures at Fontainebleau. 

L'ANGLOIS, GuiLLERMO, a French artist, with 
whom Alexander Gonzalez Velazquez painted from 
the designs of Mengs a ceiling in tne Palace at 
Madrid about 1750. 

LANGLOIS, Jean, a French engraver, was bom 
in Paris in 1649. After learning the rudiments 
of design in his native city under Vien, he went 
to Rome, and became a member of the French 
Academy there. He died about 1712. He engraved 
several plates from the antique statues, and some 
architectural subjects from Andrea Palladio. There 
are also bv him a few portraits, 'and other prints, 
among which are the following : 

portraits. 

Guillaame Brunetiere, Bishop of Saintonge ; after 

Bon de Boullongne. 
Pierre Loisel, Doctor of the Sorbonne. 

Jalien Oardeau, Cur6 of St. Etienne-du-Mont ; after 

Lombard. 
John Law, of Lauriston ; after J. Uubert. 

SUBJECTS. 

St. Luke painting the Virgin ; after Raphael. 
The Stoning of Stephen ; after Pteim da Cortona. 
ToWt and the Angel ; after Jnnifiale Carraeei. 
The Martyrdom of St. Paul ; after L. de Boullongne. 
Christ caring the Paralytic ; after Bon de Boultongne, 

17 



liangloifl 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Lankzink 



Bordeaux. 
Maneilles. 

Paris. 



Toulouse. 



Louvre, 



Museum. 



LANG LOIS, JiR6MB Martin, a French historical 
and portrait painter, was born in Paris in 1779. He 
studied under David, whom he assisted in many of 
his works, and obtained the second prize in 1805, 
and the grand priz ' in 1809. After his period of 
study at Rome, he returned to France in 1815, 
and in 1824 went to Brussels to paint the portrait 
of his exiled master, David, to whose pnnciples 
he was ever faithful. He died in Paris in 1838, 
having in the same year been elected a member of 
the Institute. Amongst his works are : 

Cathedral. St. Hilary. 
Museum. Portrait of M. de Belsonoe, 
Bishop of Marseilles. 
Cassandra impluring the ven- 
geance of Minerva against 
Ajax. 1817. 
Diana and Endjrmion. 1822. 
Alexander ceding Campaspe to 
Apelles. 1819. 
Versailles. Gallery. Several portraits. 

LANGLOIS, Nicolas, a French engraver, who 
flourished in the second part of the 17th century, 
was the son of Francois Lang^lois, called dartres, 
whose business as a printselTer he continued to 
carry on. The following plates are by him : 

The Holy Family ; after Raphael. 

St. Paul and Barnabas : after the same. 

St. Paul ; after Le Pautre. 

The Repentance of St. Peter ; after the same. 

LANGLOIS, Pierre Gabriel, a French engraver, 
was born in Paris in 1754. He was a pupil of 
Simonet, and worked on the * Galerie de Florence,* 
the *Mus^e des Monuments Franyais,* by Lenoir, 
and on the edition of VoUaire's works published 
by Beaumarchais. He died about 1810. He re- 
produced several pictures of tlie Italian and Dutch 
schools, among which may be named : 

Silence ; after A . Carracci. 
The Alchemist ; after Teniers. 
The Virgin and Child ; after Titian. 
Roman Charity ; a^er Pellearini. 
The Denial of St. Peter ; after Teniers. 
The Violin Lesson ; after JVetscher, 

LANGLOIS, Vincent Marib, a French engraver, 
was bom in Paris in 1756, and was instructed by 
his brother Pierre Gabriel Langlois. He engraved 
several vignettes after Moreau. Lebardier, and 
others. The date of his death is unrecorded. 
Among his plates are : 

Portrait of Andrea del Sarto ; after himself. 

The Holy Family ; after Rubens. 

Venus in the Forge of Vulcan ; after Van Dyck. 

Virgin and Child ; after L. Carracci. 

The Muses ; after Le Sueur. 

The Four Evangelists ; after Valentin. 

The Garden Concert ; after Lawrence. 

LANGLOIS DE CHEVREVILLE, Lucien Th«- 
OPHiLB Angb Soste&ne, was bom at Mortain 
(Manche), in 1803. He studied under Gros, and 
stayed afterwards for a considerable time at Kome, 
Pompeii, and Geneva. Subsequently he returned 
to France, and settled at Rouen, where he founded 
a studio for painting and perspective. Later on 
he went to Cherbourg as conservator of the 
Museum, and to Paris as professor of design at 
the College. He died in Paris in 1845. He was 
an excellent copyist and painter of portraits. Of 
his large historical subjects mention may be made 
of : 

An Angel overthrowing a Demon. {St. Pierre, Rouen.) 
An Apparition of the Virgin. (St. Patrice^ Rouen.) 
18 



LANGOT, Francois, a French engraver, was 
chiefly employed in copying the prints of other 
masters, particularly Cornelis Bloemaert and Huret. 

LANGRRMUS, M. F., an engraver, executed 
several book-plates, frontispieces, portraits, &c. 
He lived about the year 1649. 

LANGUASCO, Teresa Maria, a barefooted 
monk, was bom at San Hemo in 1651, and died in 
1698. He studied under Giovanni Battista Carlone. 
In SL Niccol6 at Tolentino are some saints of his 
order painted by him. 

LANIERE, Nioool6, or Nicholas, who was a 
native of Italy, bom apparently in 1568, lived in 
England during at any rate the latter portion of 
his life. He possessed various talents, which were 
all suited to the taste of Charles I., being a 
musician, a painter, an engraver, and a connoisseur ; 
and he had a great share in the purchases made 
for the royal collection. As a pamter, he drew a 
' Holy Family * for the king ; and his own portrait, 
by himself, with a pallet and pencil in his hand, 
and a scrip of paper, with muHical notes, is in the 
music-school at O^ord. He possessed a con- 
siderable collection of drawings, several of which 
he caused to be engraved, and etched some of 
them himself ; on one of them is the inscription in 
Italian, * Prove prima f atte a Tacqua forte da N. 
Laniere a Veik sua giovanile di settanta otto anni 
1636.* He died in London in 1646. 

LANINI, Bernardino, was bom at Vercelli 
about the year 1520, and was a disciple of Gauden- 
zio Ferrari, whose style he imitated with such pre- 
cision, that a picture he painted for the church of 
San Giuliano, at Milan, representing a *Pietli,' 
might be taken for a work of that master, had he 
not signed it with his name, and the date 1547. 
At a later period of his life, he worked with more 
freedom, and painted an altar-piece of St. 
Catharine, for the church dedicated to that saint 
near Sun Celso, which is highly commended by 
Lomazzo. He was much employed at Milan, and 
in the State, and particularly at Novara, where he 
painted, in the cathedral, the ^ Eternal Father,* the 
Sibyls, and some subjects from the life of the Virgin. 
In some of his works he aimed at the impressive 
style of Leonardo da Vinci, particularly in a 
picture in Sant' Ambrogio, of * Our Saviour after 
the Scourging, between two Angels ;' a production 
so full of pious and beautiful expression, and of 
such admirable relief, that it is esteemed one of 
the finest works of art in that basilica. He died 
about the year 1578. In addition to the above 
paintings, he has left : 

Berlin. Gallery. Madonna and Saints. 

London. Aat. Gallery. Holy Family. 1543. 

Milan. Brera. Thrrje Angels playing. 

„ M St. Martha. 

„ „ Virgin and Child, with Saints. 

« 

LAN INI, Gaudenzio, and Giuolamo, were the 
brothers of Bernardino Lanini, and followed his 
style at a humble distance. By the former, Lanzi 
mentions a picture in the sacristy of the Bumabites, 
representing the * Virgin and Infant, with several 
Saints ' ; and by the latter, a *■ Deposition from the 
Cross,* in a private collection at Vercelli. 

LANKRINK, Prosper HenricUs, was bom at 
Antwerp in 1628. His father, a soldier of fortune, 
had come to that city from Germany, and there he 
obtained a colonel's commission, and died. The 
young Lankrink received a good education, and 
was intended by his mother for a monk, but dis- 
covering an inclination for painting, he was 



IrfUEioue 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Lapis 



pennitted to attend the Academy, where hie pro- 
gress was coDsiderable, and was promoted by his 
having access to study the best pictures in one of 
the finest collections at Antwerp. Lank rink went 
afterwards to Italy and especially studied the works 
of Salrator Rosa. On the death of his mother he 
came to England, in the reign of Charles XL, and 
was patronized by Sir Edward Spragge, and more 
particularly by Sir William WilliamS; for whom 
he painted a great number of landscapes, which 
were destroyed when that gentleman's mansion 
was burned down. His pictures were in consider- 
able estimation, and he was occasionally employed 
by Sir Peter Lely to paint his backgrounds. The 
scenery in his landscapes is wild and romantic, 
with rocks and broken grounds, in tlie style of 
Solvator Rosa. In later life he degenerated into 
an idle and dissolute character. He died in 
London in 1692. 

L ANODE, FtLTS. Hippolyte, a French land- 
scape painter, was bom at Versailles in 1812, and 
studied under Victor Bertin and Horace Vernet. 
After having obtained the first prize at the Ecole 
des Beaux- Arts in 1842, with * Apollo tending 
Sheep,' he visited Rome, Holland, and Russia. He 
died at Versailles in 1872. His chief merit consists 
in representing Italian scenes, especially those of 
the Campagna. Among his best landscapes are : 

The Tiber at Acqua Acetosa. 1864. 

View in the Island of Capri. 1848. (Idsteux Museum.) 

View of the Roman Aqueduct over the Gard. 1850. 

(Avi^iaon Museum.) 
The Bock of the Kasos, in the Roman Campagna. 

1866. {The same.) 
St. Benedict m the Solitudes of Snbiaco. 1853. {St. 

Etitnne-dU'Mont, Paris.) 

LANSCROON, , a native of Flanders, came 

over to England and assisted Verrio and Laguerre. 
He died in 1737, leaving a son who followed the 
same profession. 

LANSE, Michel, a French painter of flowers 
and birds, was bom at Rouen in 1613. He became 
a member of the Paris Academy in 1660, and died 
inl66L 

LANT, Thomas, who was bom about 1555, was 
in the service of oir Philip Sidney, whose funeral 
procession he drew and published in 1587. He 
was created Windsor Herald in 1597, and died in 
1600. 

LANTARA, Simon Mathubin, was bora at Oncy 
(Seine-et-Oise), in 1729. His father was a weaver, 
and at the age of eight he commenced life as a 
herdsman. The chalk sketches which he made 
on walls, rocks, &c., caused his talent to be 
appreciated by the son of his master, who took 
him to Paris, and placed him in a studio at 
Versailles. He made rapid progress, and entered 
the service of an artist in Paris, who paid his 
wages in painting lessons. There is little else 
known of Lantara ; he lived a careless life from 
hand to mouth, working when he wanted food, 
never profiting from the success which his works 
enjoyed. He executed many drawings, landscapes, 
and marine view^s, in which Bernard, Joseph Ver- 
net, Casanova, Berr^, and Taunay, often inserted 
the figures. He died in extreme poverty in the 
Hdpital de la Charity, Paris, in 1778. Many of his 
works have been engraved by Duret, Lebas, 
^Monchy, Nee, Beaugeon, and Couch^. Among his 
principal works are the following : 

Landscape : Morning Effect. 1761. {Louvre.) 
Morning. {Besanqon Museum.) 

C 2 



View on the Banks of the Loing. {CMteaurotut 

Musrum.) 
Moonlight Scene. {Nantes Museum.) 

LANZANI, Andrea, was born at Milan about 
the year 1645. After receiving some lessons from 
Luigi Scaramuccia, a scholar of Guido, then resi- 
dent at Milan, he went to Rome, where he entered 
the school of Carlo Maratti. His genius, however, 
led him to something less placid; and he par- 
ticularly devoted himself to the study of the ener- 
getic productions of Lanfrunco. His best pictures 
were those he painted immediately on his return 
to Milan, whilst his mind was impressed with the 
great principles of the Roman school. Such are 
his picture of * St. Charles in Glory ; ' and a subject 
from the life of Cardinal Federigo, in the Ambro- 
sian Library at Vienna. He also painted at the 
court at Vienna, and was there knighted. He died 
at Milan in 1712. 

LANZANI, PoLiDORO, called Polidoro Vknezi- 
ANO, was born at Venice in 1515, and was one of 
the numerous scholars of Titian. He has left 
pictures of Madonnas and Saints in the church of 
the Servi, and in other public buildings at Venice, 
and a * Madonna* and a * Marriage of St. Catharine * 
are to be seen at Dresden. He died in 1565. 

LANZENI, Giovanni Battista, a painter and 
etcher, was born at Verona in 1659. His masters 
were Voltolino and F. Barbieri. He painted at 
Verona in oil and fresco for churches and private 
houses. In San Proclo he painted thirty-six 
Bishops of Verona, the 'Four Doctors of the 
Church,' and * The Last Supper.' The date of his 
death is unknown. He had a son, Anoelo Maria, 
who WAS also a painter. 

LANZILAGO, an Italian historical and portrait 
painter, was a native of Padua, who flourished 
towards the close of the 15th century. He went to 
Rome and was an imitator of Bartolommeo della 
Gatta. 

LAODICI A, was a painter of the Milanese school, 
and contemporary of Andrino di Edesia, who lived 
at Pavia in the first half of the 14th century. She 
was probably a Greek by birth. 

LAP, Jan, a Dutch artist, flourished about the 
middle of the 17th century, and drew and painted 
landscapes with ruins and numerous figures, in the 
manner of Jan Both. 

LA PEIGNE, Hyacinthe db. See Db la 
Peigne. 

LA PESTA, Db. See De la PEilrA. 

LA PENAI, , was a French portrait painter, 

of the 16th century, and a pupil of Rigaud. 

LAPI, Giovanni, an Italian engraver, flourished 
about 1750, and executed some of the plates for 
the * Museo Etrusco.* There were other engravers 
of the name of Lapi. 

LAPI, Niccol6, an Italian painter, was bom in 
1661, and died in 1732. He was a scholar of Luca 
Giordano.' At Florence is a * Transfiguration ' by 
him. 

LAPIS, Gaetano, was bom at Cagli in the 
Roman State, in 1704, and studied at Rome under 
Sebastiano Conca. He was a painter of an original 
taste, possessing great fire, yet correct in his de- 
sign. In the Palazzo Borghese at Rome, he painted 
a ceiling representing the * Birth of Venus.* He 
died at Rome in 1776. 

LAPIS, Girolamo, an historical, portrait, and 
landscape painter, who flourished in the 18th 
century, was a native of Venice. He settled in 



s. 



Xapito 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Largillidre 



Holland, and was living at the Hague in 1785. 
H. Lapis, the miniature painter, was probably his 
son. 

LAPITO, Louis Auqcjste, a French landscape 
painter, whs bom at Joinville-le-Pont ("Seine) in 
1808. He studied under Heim and Wateiet, whose 
style, though differing in colouring, he followed. 
He died at BouIogne-sur-Seine in 1874. His best 
landscapes are : 

Bordeaux. Jfuseum, Ijandscape. 

Gambrai. Museum, View from above the Lake of 

Brienz. 183^. 
Paris. Louvre, "^Hew of Oorte. 

Stuttgart. Rosenstein, The Island of Oapri. 

LAPO, Stefano di, an historical painter, was 
bom at Florence in 1301. He is supposed to 
have been grandson and pupil of Giotto. He 
painted at risa, Florence, Milan, Rome, Assisi, 
Penigia, and several other towns in Italy. He 
died in 1360. 

LAPO, ToMMASO Di, called Gioitino, son of 
Stefano di Lapo, was born at Florence in 1324. 
He painted a picture of Gauthier de Bricnne, who 
was driven from Florence in 1343. At Naples is 
a ' Virgin and Angels,' and some other works are 
at Florence. He died in 1356. 

LA POINTE, F. DE. See De la Pointe. 

LAPORTE, George Henry, an animal painter, 
was an exhibitor at the Society of British Artists 
from 1825, and at the Royal Academy from 1827. 
He was a member and constant exhibitor at the 
Institute of Painters in Water-Colours, his subjects 
being animals and figures, military and Arab groups, 
and hunting-scenes. He was animal painter to 
the Duke of Cumberland. He died in 1873. 

LA PORTE, Henri Horace Rolland de. See 
Holland de la Porte. 

LAPORTE, John, an English landscape painter, 
chiefly in water-colours, was born 'in 1761. He 
exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1785, and 
taught drawing at the Military School at Addis- 
combe. He published * Sketches of Trees' (1798- 
1801); * Drawing Book' (1800); * Progressive 
Lessons sketched from Nature' (1804) ; and *The 
Progress of Water-Colour Drawing.' He died in 
London in 1839. The following drawings by him 
are in the South Kensington Museum : 



Conway Castle. 

Buttermere. 

Forest Scene with Cattle. 



1790. 



LAPPICOLA, Niccol6, a painter, was born at 
Crotona in 1730, and took lessons at Rome from 
Francesco Mancini. He supplied the designs for 
the mosaics for one of the chapels of St. Peter and 
in other parts. He died at Rome in 1790. 

LAPPOLI, Giovanni Antonio, the son of Matteo 
Lappoli, was born, according to Vasari, at Arezzo 
in 1492, and was first a disciple of Domenico 
Pecori, but afterwards studied under Jacopo 
Caruzzi, called Pontormo. He went ejirly in his 
life to Rome, where he formed an intimacy 
with Perino del Vaga and II Rosso, and was 
favoured with the protection of Clement VII., 
who employed him in some public works , but the 
completion of them was interrupted by the sack- 
ing of Rome in 1527, when he was obliged to flee. 
He retired to his native city, where he painted 
several pictures for the churches and private col- 
lections. He died in 1552. 

LAPPOLI, Matteo, was bom at Arezzo about 
1450, and died in 1504. He studied under Don I 

20 



Bartolommeo. The greater part of his paintings 
have perished. There are still at Arezzo, in the 
refectory of the Bernardines, a * St Bernard,' and 
in Santa Maria a * St. Sebastian.* 

LAPOTER, Adelaide Isabelle Anton in e, 
whose maiden name was Chersau, was born at 
Les Riceys (Aube) in 1814. She was a pupil of 
Antoine Chazal and of Madame de Mirbel, and 
became well-known for her portraits in miniature. 
She died in 1880. 

LA QUEWELLERIE, Guillaume de. See Ds 

LA QuEWELLERIB. 

LAQUY, Guillaume Joseph, bom at Bruel in 
1738, studied in the school of Jan Remraers with 
Wybrand Hendriks, in whose landscapes he painted 
the figures. He was patronized by the celebrated 
amateur Braamcamp, and made copies of the works 
of Gerard Don, Metsu, De Hooch, Puulus Potter, 
and other eminent masters in that fine collection. 
He also painted original pictures of cabinet size. 
He died at Cleves in 1798. 

L ARCHER, Antoinette, was born in Paris in 
1685, and flourished about the year 1725. She en- 
graved some plates of historical subjects, among 
which is * Judith with the Head of Holofernes,* after 
Raphael. She signed her name Toiiieiie Larcher. 

LAREDO, Juan Fernandez de. See Fernandez. 

LARGlLLlfeRE, Nicolas de, a French portrait 
painter, was bom in Paris in October, 1656. When 
three years old, he was taken to Antwerp, where 
his father had settled as a merchant This was 
not his only youthful experience of travel. At 
the age of nine he paid a visit to England, which 
lasted twenty months. On his return to Antwerp 
he became a pupil of Antoon Goubau, whom he 
assisted by pamtmg the still-life accessories in his 
pictures. About 1675, he paid a second visit to 
England, and found work in the Royal palaces, 
under Sir Peter Lely. This brought* him to the 
notice of Charles II., whose portrait he painted,' 
together with those of several of the nobility. 
After a stay of four years in this country, he 
settled in Paris, and at once obtained a large 
practice amongst the bourgeoisie and professional 
classes. He was fortunate enough to become inti- 
mate with Van der Meulen and Le Brun, the latter 
of whom proved himself a great friend. During 
the reign of James II. he paid another short visit 
to England, and painted the king's portrdit, as 
well as those of Mary of Modena and the infant 
Prince of Wales. In 1686 he was received into the 
French Academy as an histoncal painter, on his 
portrait of his friend Le Bnm. It is curious to note 
that though Largilliere is now only remembered 
as a portrait painter, and as such has been styled 
the French Van Dyck, yet in his own day he had 
a great reputation as an historical painter. After 
the deaths of Le Brun and Mignard, he occupied 
the foremost ponition in the French school in this 
branch of art, although he did not court royal and 
aristocratic patronage. He filled snccepsively all 
the offices of honour in the Academy, and died in 
Paris of paralysis on the 20th March, 1746. The 
chief nanie amongst his pupils is that of Oudry, 
the animal painter, in whom he took great interest. 
The French provincial Museums contain many 
specimens of Largilliere's art, which it is not pos- 
sible to particularize. Mention should, however, 
be made of the following works by him : 



Dresden. 
Florence. 



fi 



Gallery. Portrait of a Man in armour. 
Vffizi. Portrait of himself. 

Portrait of J. B. Kousseau. 



j» 



X*ariv0-Godefro7 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Laroon 



London. JVai. Portrait 



Pttfis. 



»« 



» 



Gallerv' I ^™^ Charles Edward Stuart. 

„ Henry Stnart, Cardinal York. 

iouvre. Portrait of Charles Le Brun. 
„ Portrait of the Count de La 
Chatre. 

„ „ Elevation of the Cross, 

y, St. Genevieve. The Provost of the Merchants 

and the Echevins of Paris. 
{Sketch for the large picture 
painted in 1687, on the occa^ 
sion of the convalescence of 
Louts XIV.Jor the Hdtel de 
Ville, Parisy and destroyed 
during the Revolution.) 
Petersburg. Hermitage. Preparation for a Fdfce at the 

Hdtel de Ville, Paris. 
Stockholm. Nat. Gallery. Portrait of Louis XV. 
Versailles. Gallery. Portrait of himself. 

.« ,, The Artist and his Family. 

,t t, Nicolas Couston, sculptor. 

n Thomas Morant, Councillor of 

State. 
n Jean Thierry, sculptor. 

O.J.D. 

LARIVE-GODEFROY, Pierre Louis de, was 
bom at Geneva in 1763, and studied under Fassin 
at Rome. He worked for some time at Munich, 
Dresden, and Mannheim, and at last he settled at 
Eersin^e near Geneva. The expression in his 
works is most pleasing, and the arrangement is 
full of spirit, but he is too mannered. His etchings 
are also most spiritedly executed. He died at 
Persingne in 1814. Among his paintings there 
are : 

Scenes of the Golden Age. 
View of Persingue. 
View of Mont Blimc. 

LARrVIlfeRE, Charles Philippe Auouste de, a 
French historical and portrait painter, was bom in 
Paris in 179^ He entered the Ecole des Beaux- 
Arts in 1813, and studied under Girodet and Gros. 
In 1819 he obtained the second prize, and in 1824 
the ' grand prix,' which enabled him to pursue his 
studies at Rome. Specimens of his work as a 
decorative artist are to be seen in the Cathedral 
at Dreux. He died in Paris in 1876. Amongst 
the pictures which he produced are : 

Museum. Christ in the Garden of 

OliTes. 
Gallery. The Taking of Brescia. 
„ Many Portouts. 

LARMESSIN, Nicolas de, the elder, a French 
engpraver, was bom about 1636, and died in Paris 
in 1694. He had a younger brother, also named 
Nicolas, to whom are usually ascribed all the plates 
of the period which bear this name, but M. Didot 
is of opinion that the greater number of them are 
in reality the work of the elder of the two brothers, 
and draws attention to the finished style of the 
portrait of Archbishop Adh^mar de Monteil, which 
bears the date 1658, at which time the younger 
Lannessin would be but eighteen years of age. 

LARMESSIN, Nicolas de, the younger, a 
brother of Nicolas de Larmessin, the elder, was 
bom in Paris about the year 1640, and died theriB 
in 1725: There are by this artist several portraits, 
executed entirely with the graver, and possessing 
considerable merit. He sometimes marked his 
plates with the initials N. X., and sometimes 

with the cipher |jjj« • The following portraits 

are by him : 



Versailles. 

n 



Philip de Bourbon, Duke of Orleans, brother to Louis 

XIV. 
Henrietta, Duchess of Orleans. 
Henri Jules de Bourbon, Duke d'Enghien. 
Oharles XI., King of Sweden. 
Olaudia Felidta of Austria, Empress of Leopold I. 
Maximilian Henry, Archbishop of Oologne. 
Qodefroi, Count d'Estrades, Marshal of France. 
Gabriel Nicolas de la Beynie, Lieutenant of Police. 
Louise Fran^oise, Duchesse de La Valli^re, in the habit 

of a Nun. 
Balthasar Moretus. 

Paolo Manuzio, Librarian of the Vatican. 
Laurens Coster. 
Johann Gutenberg. 

LARMESSIN, Nicolas de, the son of Nicolas 
de Larmessin, the younger, was bom in Paris in 
1684, and was instructed in engraving by his 
father. He acquired considerable celebrity by 
some prints he engraved for the Crozat Collection, 
became a member of the French Academy in 1730, 
and engraver to the king. He died in Paris in 1765. 
There are by him a great number of portraits, and 
historical and other subjects, engraved in a neat, 
finished style, in which ne united the point with 
the graver. There is a want of correctness in the 
drawing of his figures, and his prints are without 
much efEect. The following are his principal 
works : 

PORTBAITS. 

James n.. King of England. 

Mary of Modena, Queen of James II. 

William III. and Mary II. 

Louis XV., on horseback ; after J. B. van Loo. 

Marie, Queen of Louis XV. ; after the satne. 

Louis XV., on foot ; after the same. 

Marie, Dauphiness of France ; after the same, 

Charles Henry of Lorraine ; after JRane, 

Woldcmar de Loewendahl, Marshal of France; after 

Boucher, 
Guillaume Ooustou, sculptor ; after De Lien ; engraved 

for his reception into the Academy. 1730. 
Claude Hall6, ^nter ; after Le Gros ; also engraved 

fur his reception into the Academy. 1730. 
Philip Vleughel, painter ; after F. de Champaignt. 

PORTBAITS FOB THE CBOZAT COLLBCTION. 

Baphael and Jacopo da Pontormo ; half-lengths ; after 

Raphael. 
Federigo Carondeletto, Archdeacon of Bitonto ; after 

the same. 
Cardinal Pole ; after Raphael or S, del Fiombo. 

SUBJECTS FOB THE CBOZAT COLLECTION. 

St. Michael vanquishing Satan ; after Raphael. 
St. George and the Dragon ; after the same. 
St. John the Evangelist ; after the same. 
The Holy Family ; after the same. 
The Virgin and Infant Jesus; after the same. 
The Vision of Ezekiel ; after the same. 
Christ bearing His Cross ; after the same. 

YABIOUS SUBJECTS AFTEB FBENCH MASTEBS. 

The Four Seasons ; after Lancret. 

The Four Ages of Man ; after the same. 

A set of four Prints from the Fables of La Fontaine ; 

after Boucher. 
The Amorous Savoyard ; after Pierre. 
The Savoyard Family ; after the same. 

LAROON, M ABCKLLUS, called * Old Laboon,' was 
bom at the Hague in 1653, and learned the rudi- 
ments of painting from his father, with whom he 
came when young to England. Here he was placed 
with La Zoon, an obscure portrait painter, and 
was afterwards some time with B. Flechifere. He, 
however, studied chiefly by himself. He lived in 
Yorkshire for some years, and then came to London, 

21 



Laroon 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Lassus 



where Sir Godfrey Kneller employed him to paint 
his draperies, in which branch he was eminent. 
He possessed the talent of imitating the different 
styles of the great masters with uncommon success ; 
and painted historical subjects, portraits, and con- 
versations. From 1680 he lived in Bow Street, 
but he died at Richmond of consumption in 1702. 
There are by this artist some slight spirited etchings 
of ' Dutch Boors regaling/ and similar subjects, in 
a style resembling that of Ostade, but very inferior. 
He also drew and engraved * The Coronation Proces- 
sion of William and Mary,' and Tempest's * Cryes 
of the City of London/ 1688. He sometimes 

marked his plates with the cipher '\f\, 

LAROON, Marcellus, an English subject 
painter and draughtsman, was bom in London, 
m 1679. He was the son of " Old Laroon." In 
early life he accompanied embassies to Ryswyck 
and Venice. Then quarrelling with his father, he 
became an Actor. Finally, in 1707, he obtained a 
commission in the army, and served in the cam- 
paigns in Flanders, in Spain, and in the Jacobite 
Rebellion of 1716. He retired from the service in 
1734. He had great power as a draughtsman, and 
excelled in his groups of figures. He died in 1772. 

LA ROSE, Jean Bafiiste de. See Db la Rose. 

LA ROULLIBRE, , is mentioned by Papillon 

as an engraver on wood of some merit, who flour- 
ished about the year 1700. 

LA ROUSSIERE, FfiANgois de. See De la 
RonssiiHE. 

LARRAGA, Apolinario, was a native of Va- 
lencia, and has been erroneously stated to have 
been a scholar of Pedro Orrente, who most prob- 
ably died before he was bom, as Larraga outlived 
him upwards of eighty years. He is said, how- 
' ever, to have made Orrente's works the model for 
his imitation, and painted several pictures in his 
style in the convent of San Domingo, and in the 
churches of his native city. He died in 1728. His 
daughter, Josbfa Maria Larraga, an historical and 
miniature painter, was a pupil of her father. 

LARSEN, Carl Frederik Emanuel, a Danish 
marine painter, was bom in 1823, and died in 1859. 
At Copenhagen are pictures of the * Harbour of 
Nieuwe Diep,* *The Coast at Marseilles,' and 
' Morning on the Sand.' 

LA RUE, Philibert BenoIt db. See De la 
Roe. 

LA RUELLE, Claude de. See De la Ruelle. 

LAS CUEVAS, De. See De las Cuevas. 

LAS MARINAS, Henrique de. See De las 
Marinas. 

LAS ROELAS, Juan de. See De las Roelas. 

LASINIO, Conte Carlo, an Italian engraver, 
was bom atTreviso about 1767, but worked chiefly 
at Florence. He was conservator of the Gallery 
at Pisa, where he died in 1839. He is known by 
several works illustrative of the older painters, 
including the following : 

Forty plates of Frescoes and Oil PaintingB at Florence. 

1789. 
Forty plates of Frescoes in the Oampo Santo at Pisa. 

1810. 
Thirtj-two plates of Frescoes of the Fourteenth and 

Fifteenth Centuries. 

He was the instructor of his son, Giovanni 
Paolo Lasinio, who was bom in 1796, and who 
together with Rossi engraved forty-four plates of 
the Campo Santo at Pisa (1832), and took part 
in the decorations of the Galleries at Florence and 

22 



Turin. He executed also the plates for Rosellini's 
'Monumenti delP Egitto e de la Nubia,' 1833-44. 
His signature was L. F. scul. He died in 1855. 

LASINSKY, JoHANN AD0L7, was born at Sim- 
mem, near Coblentz, in 1808, and entered the 
Academy at Diisseldorf in 1827. Along with 
Lessing and J. W. Schirmer he was one of the 
first who cultivated landscape painting inde- 
pendently. In 1837 he painted for the Emperor , 
Alexander at Coblentz. He went afterwards to 
Cologne, but retumed to Dusseldorf in 1850, where 
he died in 1871. Among his landscapes may be 
mentioned : 

Oastle Elz on the Moselle. 1831. 
An Old Watch-Tower by moonlight. 1835. 
The Waterfall at Fyrmont. 1836. 
The Narrow Pass at Dusk. 
Panorama of OologDe. 

A series of Landscapes of Hohenzollem, for the Duke 
of Hohenzollem. 

L'ASNE, Michel, was one of the first of the 
French engravers who distinguished himself by a 
free and dexterous management of the graver. 
He was bom at Caen in Normandy in 1596, and 
appears to have imitated the style of Cornelis 
Bloemaert and F. Villamena. He died in Paris in 
1667. He was extremely laborious, and has left a 
great number of prints, consisting of portraits, and 
historical and other subjects. When he did not 
sign his plates with his name, he generally used 

the cipher 1^^. The following are his principal 

prints : 

PORTRAITS. 

Louis XIII., on horseback (the background, representing 
a battle, was engraved by CaUoi)', signed Michad 
A sinus, sculptor Regius. 

Bernard, Duke de Ia Yalette (the background, with 
the town of Metz, was engraved by OUlot). 

Anne of Austria, Qneen of France. 

Armand, Cardinal de Richelieu. 

Jules, Cardinal Mazarin. 

Charles de Cr^qui, Marshal of France. 

Francois de Bassompierre, Marshal of France. 

Pierre Siguier, Chancellor. 

Nicolas de Bailleul, President of the Parliament. 

Francisco Fernandez, Franciscan. 

Father Joseph, celebrated Capuchin. 

Jean Francois Nioeron, monk, and famous mathema- 
tician. 

Giulio StroEzi, Venetian poet ; after & I'mtet. 1627. 

Francois Qaesnel, painter to Henry III. ; fram a picture 
hy himself. 

Father Nicolas Caussin ; engraved in the manner of 
Mellan* 

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS. 

The Holy Family ; after Ruhens. 

St. Francis receiving the Infant Jesus from the Virgin ; 

after the saine. 
St. Francis of Paloa ; after the same, 
Susannah ; after the same. 
The Visitation of the Virgin ; after Z. Carracei. 
The Virgin, with the Infant sleeping, and St. John, 

called * The Silence * ; after Annibale Carracei. ^ 
The Dead Christ, with ll&y Magdalene ; from his oum 

design. 
Bcoe Homo ; after Titian. 
Jesus Christ in glory, with St. Peter and St. Paul ; after 

Faolo Veronese. 
Tke Virgin, as Queen of Heaven ; after Albam; oval. 

LASSUS, Alexandre Victor de, was born nt 
Toulouse in 1781. He was a pupil of David, and 
painted historical scenes, like his master. There 
is a large picture of ' Barbarossa ' by him in the 
Museum of Angers. 



PAINTEBS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Laudati 



LASTMAN, NicoLAES, tte eon of Pieter Last- 
man, was bom at Haarlem about 1690 or 1595. 
After leamtn^ the principles of design from Jan 
Pinas, he was instructed m engraving by Joannes 
Saenredam. His plates are neatly executed, but 
without much taste. The following among others 
are by him : 

Portrait of Elarel yan Mander ; copied after J. Saenredam. 
Christ praying in the Garden ; after Pieter Lastman, 
St. Peter delivered from Priflon ; after J, Pinas, 
The Martyrdom of St. Peter ; after Chttdo. 
The Grood Samaritan, in a landscape; after hie own 
design. 

LASTMAN, PiBTER, was probably bom at 
Amsterdam in 1562, and was a disciple of Gerrit 
Pieterszen. Afterwards he visited Italy, where 
he was influenced by Elsheimer. He painted his- 
torical subjects, generally composed of a great 
number of figures, in which it appears that his 
journey to Italy had not contributed to render 
dJs design either graceful or correct There is, 
however, a broad difference between his works 
at different periods, and four distinct styles are 
recognisable: first, the spirited style up to 1608 
(as those below at Berlin); second, the clumsy and 
mannered style, 1609-19 (as those at Bmnswick 
and Copenhagen) ; third, the style of Caravaggio, 
1620 to about 1630 (as those at the Hague and 
Rotterdam) ; fourUi, a transparent style like Rem- 
brandt*B, after 1630 (as those at Haarlem and 
Utrecht). He was for a time the instructor of 
the last-mentioned painter, and also of Jan Lievens. 
He is supposed to have died at Haarlem in 1649. 
The following are examples of his works, which 
are signed P. LaatMy P. cm., or with a monogram. 



Berlin. 
BrtuiBwick. 



Gallery, 

»> 
Gallery. 



n 



»» 



Copenhagen. MolUce Col. 
Haarlem. Museum. 

Hague. Museum. 



«» 



Rotterdam. Museum. 
Utrecht. H. Kramm. 



The Repose in 'Egypt. 
Baptism of the Eunuch. 
Ulysses and Nausicaa. 1609. 

(The same at Augsburg.) 
David in the Temple. 1613. 
The Murder of the Innocents. 
Tobias. 1618. 

Adoration of the Shepherds. 
The Angel appearing to 

Manoah. 
Christ on the Cross. 1625. 
The Flight into Egypt. 
The Raising of Lazarus. 1682. 



Three etchings have been ascribed to him, but 
they are doubtful ; two of them are : 

Jadah and Tamar, in a landscape. 
A Female seated before an arch, her head eovered with 
a veil, with her hands before her. 

LATHAM, James, an Irish portrait painter, was 
bom in Tipperary about the beginning of the 18th 
century. He studied at Antwerp, and became a 
master in the Guild of St. Luke in 1724-5. He 
afterwards lived in London and Ireland, where he 
had a good practice, and died at Dublin about 1750. 
There is a portrait b^ him of Peg Woffington at 
the Royal Dublin Society. 

LATILLA, EuoENio, a subject painter, whose 
father was Italian and mother English, exhibited 
at the Society of British Artists, of which he was 
a member from 1838 to 1851. He afterwards 
emigrated to America, and passed several years 
in and near New York, where his sister married 
the American painter James £. Freeman, who now 
resides in Rome. Latilla died at Chataqua, West- 
chester county, in the State of New York, about 
the year 1860. 



LA TOMBE, NiooLAAS, caned Stoppkbtjk, from 
his addiction to smoking, was born at Amsterdam 
in 1616. After learning the rudiments of the art 
in his native city, he travelled when quite young 
to Italy, and resided some years at Rome, where 
he was chiefly employed in painting small land- 
scapes and architectural subjects, which he decor- 
atea with figures in the Italian costume. He 
sometimes painted views of the vestiges of 
ancient buildings and monuments in the vicinity 
of Rome, with landscapes in the backgrounds, in 
which he appears to have imitated the style of 
Comelis Poelenborch. He also occasionally painted 
small portraits, especially after his return from 
Italy. He died at Amsterdam in 1676. 
LA TOUR, Elisabeth M. db. See Db La Tour. 
LATOUR, Jan, an historical and portrait painter, 
was born at Li^ge in 1719. He was a pupil of 
Jan Baptist Coders, and afterwards went to Honoe, 
where he frequented the atelier of Giaquinto 
Corrado. He then went to Naples, but afterwards 
returned to Li^ge, where be executed several pic- 
tures. He visited London and Paris, and died in 
Picardy in 1782. 

LATOUR, Joseph, a French landscape painter, 
was bom at Toulouse in 1817, and died in 1863. 

LA TOUR, Maurice Quentin db la. See De La 
Tour. 

LA TRAVERSE, Charles Francois db. See 
De La Traverse. . 

LATTANZIO da Rimini, an Italian artist, is 
registered in 1495 ais one of the decorators in the 
Hall of Great Council at Venice. ' With Mansueti 
he worked at the church of tiie Crocif eri, or Gesuati, 
at Venice, in competition with Cima. 

LATTANZIO di Cremona, an Italian historical 
painter, flourished at Cremona in 1520. He studied 
m the school of the Milanese at Venice. 

LAUB, Tobias, a German portrait painter and 
engraver in mezzotint, who flourished at Augsburg, 
was a pupil of Isaak Fisches, the elder. His name 
is afiBzed to a portrait of J. J. Scheuchzer, after 
J. H. Heidegger. He died in 1761, at the age of 76. 
LAUBREIS, Veit Carl, was bom at Wiirz- 
burg in 1769. He was instructed by A. H. E5hler, 
and afterwards went to the Academy at Mannheim, 
where in 1790 he gained the prize medal. He 
painted portraits and historical pieces, and exe- 
cuted anatomical drawings for works of medicine 
and surgery. He died about 1806. 

LAUCH, Christoph, bom in 1647, was gallery 
inspector and painter to the Empress Eleanor. 
In conjunction with J. Mannl he published thirty 
volumes of the collections in the gallery. His 
portraits of the Empress Eleanor and of the 
Empress Maria have been engraved by Boner and 
Eusel. The portrait of the Emperor Leopold I. 
is in possession of the magistracy of Vienna. He 
died at Vienna in 1730. 

LAUCHERT, Richard, a portrait painter, was 
bom at Sigmaringen in 1823. He studied at 
Munich in 1839, went for improvement to Paris in 
1845, and settled at Berlin in 1860. He was mostly 
employed by the courts of Germany, England, and 
Russia, and painted portraits with great taste and 
ability, but many of his earlier productions are 
inferior to those of his later period. He died at 
Berlin in 1868. 

LAUDATI, Giuseppe, was bom at Pemgia in 
1672, and studied under P. Montanini in that town, 
and under Carlo Maratti at Rome. He helped to 
raise the art of painting at Perugia from its decline. 

23 



Lauder 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP 



Laugier 



J. H. Frezza etched after his works. He died after 
1718. 

LAUDER, James Eckford, a Scottish subject 
painter, was bom at Silvermills, near Edinburgh, 
in 1812. He was the younger brother of Robert 
Scott Lauder, under whose guidance his early love 
of art was rapidly developed. After studying at 
the Trustees* Academy, he in 1834 joined his 
brother in Italy, and remained there nearly four 
years. On his return to Edinburgh he became an 
annual contributor to the exhibition of the Royal 
Scottish Academy, and he exhibited occasionally 
at the Royal Academy in London, where hie works 
attracted much attention. In 1839 he was elected 
an associate of the Royal Scottish Academy, and 
in 1846 he became an academician. In 1847 he 
sent to the competition in Westminster Hall the 
* Parable of Forgiveness,' for which he was awarded 
a premium of" two hundred pounds. One of his 
most successful works, *The Wise and Foolish 
Virgins,' was engraved by Lumb Stocks for the 
Association for the Promotion of the Fine Arts in 
Scotland. Lauder died at Edinburgh in 1869. 
Among his principal pictures are : 

Hagar. (National Gallery of Scotland.) 

The Unjust Steward 

The Wise and Foolish Virgins. 

Scene from the ' Two Oentlemen of Verona.' 1841. 

Cherries. 1842. 

Hop-Scotch. 1843. 

Night and Day. 1845. 

LAUDER, Robert Scott, a Scottish subject 
and portrait painter, was born at Silvermills, near 
Edinburgh, in 1802, and at the age of fifteen he 
was admitted to the Trustees' Academy. He 
subsequently came to London, but returned to 
Edinburgh about 1826, and was elected one of the 
original members of the Royal Scottish Academy 
in 1830. He went abroad in 1833, and studied for 
some years in Rome, Florence, Bologna, Venice, 
and Munich. On his return in 1838, he lived 
chiefly in London, and exhibited at the Royal 
Academy. He competed in the Westminster Hall 
competition of 1847, sending his * Christ walking 
on the Sea,* which was subsequently purchased by 
Lady Burdett-Coutts. His later years were passed 
in his native country, but owing to a paralytic stroke 
he did not practise after 1861 . He died at Edin- 
burgh in 1869. The following are amongst his 
best works : 

Scene from the < Bride of Lammermoor.' {Bridgtwater 

Oallerv, London.) 1889. 
The Trial of Effie Deans. 1840. 
Meg Merrilies. 1842. 
Hannah presenting Samuel to Eli. 1845. 
Mother and Child. 1848. 
Portrait of John Gibson Lockhart. 
Portrait of Rev. John Thomson of' 

Duddingstone. 
Portrait of William Simson. B.S.A 
Sentinels. 
Christ teacheth Humility. 



Noi'l L&adln. 
(iMa-is8i.) 



Valerie (?) 

(1088— ion.) 



+ 



(National Oallery 
^ of Scotland.) 



LAUDIN FAMILY. The members of this 
family of enamel painters of Limoges are very 
difficult to distinguish, owing to the frequent re- 
petition of the Christian names, and to the identity 
of the initials in those cases in which the Christian 
names differ. The following genealogical table 
will serve to explain as nearly as possible the re- 
lationship between those members of the family of 
Laudin of whom further details are given below. 

24 



Jaoquet I. 
(1037—1096.) 

No«l II. 
(1067-1787.) 



NIcolu I. 
(1028-1098.) 

JacquM II. 
(1003-1789 ) 



Joaeph (7) 
(d. lf27.) 



NtcolM n. 
(1089—1749.) 

I 

NiOOlM III. 

(d. 1737.) 



LAUDIN, Jacx^ues, the elder, was bom about 

1627, and died in 1695, at the age of 68. He was 
the elder son of Noel Laudin, and had his atelier 
in tlie faubourg Manigne at Limoges. He painted 
a great number of enamels in 'grisaille,' re- 
sembling those of the sixteenth century. Among 
them is a series of medallions of the twelve 
CaBsars, which may be seen in the Louvre and in 
several other collections. 

LAUDIN, Jacques, tlie younger, was bom about 
1663, and died in 1729, at the age of 66. He waa 
the son of Nicolas Laudin the elder, and carried on 
his business at Limoges in the faubourg Manigne. 
He painted enamels in grisaille, and also in colours 
upon a white or black ground. Many of his works 
are in the Louvre. 

LAUDIN, Jean, is named by M. Ardant as an 
enamel painter of Limoges, but his existence has 
not been established. He is said to have been bom 
in 1616, and to have died in 1688. Tlie works 
ascribed to him are probably by Jacques Laudin 
the elder. 

LAUDIN, Joseph, who died in 1727, was per- 
haps a son of Noel Laudin the vounger. Like iiim 
he worked at Limoges in the faubourg Boucherie, 
but no enamel bearing his signature is known. 

LAUDIN, Nicolas, the elder, was born about 

1628, and died in 1698, at the age of 70. He was 
the younger son of Noel Laudin, and practised his 
art ' pr^s les J^suites ' at Limoges, executing chiefly 
enamels in colours. 

LAUDIN, Nicolas, the younger, bom in 1689, 
was the son of Noel Laudin the younger. He died 
in 1749, and with him expired the art of enamel 
painting. 

LAUDIN, NofiL, the founder of the family of 
enamel painters of tliis name, was the son of Pierre 
Laudin, an armourer. He was bom about 1586, 
and died in 1681, at the age of 95. He resided in 
the faubourg Manigne at Limoges, but does not 
appear to have signed his works. This fact, com- 
bmed with the great age to which he lived, has 
rendered it extremely difficult to assign to their 
respective artists inanv of the enamels painted by 
the Laudins. Two plaques in the Louvre, repre- 
senting ladies in the costume of the reign of Louis 
XIII., are ascribed to him. 

LAUDIN, NottL, the younger, was bom about 
1657, and died in 1727, at the age of 70. He was 
the son of Jacques Laudin the elder, and had his 
establishment in the faubourg Boucherie at 
Limoges. His enamels are executed in colours 
on a white ground. 

LAUDIIT Valerie, who was bom in 1622, and 
died in 1682, was probably the daughter of Noel 
Laudin. She possibly worked with one of her 
brothers, as no enamel bearing her signature is 
known. 

LAUQIER, Jean Nicolas, a French engraver, 
was bom at Toulon in 1785. He studied under 
Girodet and at the ^cole des Beaux- Arts, which 



Xanne 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Lauri 



he entered in 1813, and died at Argenteuil in 1875. 

Amongst his best plates are : 

Leonidas at Thermopyls ; after David. 

Delille dictating his History to his Landlady ; after F. 

Danicux, 
Portrait of ChAteaubriand ; after Girodet. 
The Virgin with the Babbit ; after Titian. 
La Belle Jardiniere ; after Raphael* 
The Plagne at Jaffa ; after Gros, 
Ni^mleon I. ; after Ikivid. 
The Holy Family ; f^f^^ Leonardo da Vinei, 
Zephyr; after FrwThon, 
Portrait of Washington ; after Cogmet. 
Portrait of Madame de Stael ; after Girard. 

LAUNE, iferiENNE dk. See Delaune. 

LAURATI, PiETRO. See Lorenzetti. 

LAURE, Jean Fhan<joi8 Hyaointhe Jules, a 
French painter, was bom at Grenoble in 1806. He 
was a pupfl of Hersent, and painted genre and 
historical subjects. He died in Paris in 1861. 

LAUREANO, Juan, was an artist residing at 
Seville, who executed a good engraving of * St. 
Ferdinand ' in 1677. He was afterwards appointed 
chief goldsmith to the cathedral. 

LAURENT, AnprI See Lawrence. 

LAURENT, Jean Antoine, a French historical 
and portrait painter, was bom at Baccarat 
(Menrthe) in 1763. He studied under J. Durand, 
and became curator of the Museum of the Vosges at 
EpinaL He published a work on linear drawing, 
and died at Epinal in 1 832. A mong his pictures are : 

The Tooth of Duguesdin. 

dotUde de Surville. 

Charibert and Theodegilda. (Auch Museum.) 

LAURENT, Marie Pauline, a French painter 
on porcelain, whose maiden name was Jullien, 
was bom in Paris in 1805. She studied under 
Alauz, and from 1836 was employed at the Sevres 
manufactory. She died in Paris in 1860. 

LAURENT, Pierre, a French engraver, was 
bom at Marseilles in 1739. He studied a short 
time under Balechou, and afterwards from the 
works of Berchem, De Loutherbourg, and Poussin. 
He established himself in Paris, where he engraved 
several plates with considerable success, particu- 
larly landscapes. He published in 1803-11, in con- 
junction with Robillard-P^ronville, the beautiful 
collection entitled ' Mus^e Fran^ais.' He died in 
Paris in 1809. Among others, the following prints 
are by him : 

TheWater^Mill; after Boueher. 

The Washer-woman ; after the same. 

Saying Oraoe ; after Greuze, 

A Carayan ; after Van der Does. 

The Passage of the Ferry-boat ; after Berchem. 

The Sh^herdess ; after the same. 

The Fortune-Teller ; after the same. 

Two Landacapes, with figures and animals; after 

Dietrich, 
An Italian Landscape, with figures and cattle ; after 

H.Boos. 
Shepherds rejoicing ; after De Loutherbourg. 
A View of Mondragon, in Danphind ; after the same, 
A Sea-port, with architecture ; after the same. 
The Death of the Ghevalier drAaaaa ; after Casanova. 

LAURENT, PiBKRB Louis Hbnri, the son of 
Pierre Laurent, was born in Paris in 1779. He 
engraved twenty-two plates, of subjects from the 
life of St. Bruno, after Le Sueur ; the * Death 
. of the Virgin,' after Caravaggio ; the * Martyrdom 
of St Peter Martyr,' after Titian ; and several 
landscapes after Potter, the whole of which form 
part of the ' Mus^e Francais : ' also, the ' Rape of 
the Sabines,' and the ' Finding of Moses/ after 
Poussin ; the * Communion of St. Jerome,' after 



Domenicbino ; and many others after tlie great 
masters. He published in 1816-22 the collection 
of engravings of the * Mus^e Royal,* which forms 
a continuation of the ' Mus^e Francais,' published 
by his father. He died in Paris in 1844. 

LAURENTINI, Giovanni, called Auragoni, a 
native of Rimini about the year 1600, was one of 
the best disciples of Federigo Barocci. He mostly 
executed compositions of a large size. His best 
works are at Rimini, and include ' The Martyrdom 
of St. John ' at the Augustines, and * St. John ' 
and ' St. Paul * in the churches dedicated to these 
two saints. 

LAURENTIO, C, is mentioned by Strutt as the 
engraver of some of the portraits in Priorata'a 
* History of the Emperor Leopold,* 1660. 

LAURETI, ToHHASO, called Tommaso Siciliano, 
who flourished throughout the latter half of the 
16th century, was a native of Palermo, and a 
disciple of Sebastiano del Piombo. At an early 
period of his life he established himself at Bologna, 
where he painted several pictures for the churches. 
The principal are the * Martyrdom of SS. Vitale 
and Agricola,* in the church dedicated to those 
saints ; in San Giacomo Maggiore, the ^ Resurrec- 
tion of Christ,* and the * Burial of St. Augustine,' 
the latter a grand and copious composition ; in San 
Mattia, the * Coronation of the Virgin ; * and in the 
house of Signer F. Bolognetti, * Venus embracod 
by Cupid.* He was invited to Rome by Gregory 
XIII., to finish the ceiling of the Sala di Constan- 
tino, left imperfect at the death of Clement VII. 
He was no less patronised by Sixtus V. and 
Clement VIII. By the latter, he was engaged to 
ornament one of the saloons in the Campidoglio, 
where he painted in fresco scenes from Roman 
history, one of his most considerable works. He 
was the second president of the Academy of St. 
Luke after its foundation, and flourished at Rome 
in great esteem until his death at about eighty 
years of age. 

LAUREUS, Alexander, (or LAURiEUS,) a 
Swedish genre and landscape painter, was bom at 
Abo in 1783. He visited Italy, after which he 
abandoned painting Swedish scenes and took to 
Italian subjects. He died at Rome in 1823. 

LAURI, Baltassarb, was bom at Antwerp 
about the year 1570. He went to Rome when he 
was young, and became a scholar of his country- 
man, Paulus Bril, under whom he proved a skilful 
landscape painter. He died at Rome in 1642. 

LAURI, FiLiPPO, the younger son of Baltassare 
Lauri, was bom at Rome in 1623. He was first 
instructed by his brother, Francesco Lauri, and on 
the death of that promising artist, became a 
scholar of Angelo Caroselli. The progress of 
Filippo was extraordinary, and he soon surpassed 
his instructor. He had a turn for poetry, was well 
acquainted with history and mythology, and was a 
master of perspective. He succeeded better in 
easel pictures than in life-size figures, though he 
painted some altar-pieces for the churches at Rome, 
particularly his picture of ' Adam and Eve * in La 
Pace. His best works are his bacchanals, and 
subjects of fable. He imitated Albani in a very 
pleasing manner, and was often employed to paint 
the figures in the pictures of Claude Lorrain. He 
died at Rome in 1694. His works .have been 
favourites with engravers, and have employed the 
talents of Woollett, Byrne, Walker, Bragg, Major, 
Caroline Watson, Wright, Mason, Ravenet, and 
others. Among his paiutiugs are : 

25 



Lauri 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP 



Lautentack 



Aix-lft-Ohapelle. Sttermondt 

Oallery. 
Augsburg. Gallery, 

Hague. Gallery. 

Hampton Court. Falaee. 
London. BridgewUer 

Houu. 



Paris. 



Louvre, 






n n 

Petersburg. Hermitage. 



n 



Rome. 
Vienna. 


Daria Palace, 
Academy. 


»» 


n 


>» 


n 


n 


»> 


n 


n 




Gallery. 



\ The Qlorification of Hunting. 

Jason and the Dragon, 
landscape with Figures. 
Holy Family. 
) Virgin surrounded by An- 
j gels. 
Baoobus and Satyrs. 
8t. Francis of Ajsisi in 

Ecstasy. 
Sacrifice to Pan. 
The Punishment of MarB3ras. 
St. Anne teaching the Virgin 

to read. 
The Magdalene meeting 

Christ in the Garden. 
Venus and the Seasons. 
Diana and Endymion. 
Venus and Adonis. 
The Chaste Susannah. 
The Rape of Buropa. 
Alpheus and Arethusa. 
Thetis and Polyphemus. 
The Flight into Egypt. 

LAURI, Francesco^ the elder son of Baltassare 
Lauri, was bom at Rome in 1610. Having shown 
an early disposition for historical painting, his 
father placed him under the care of Andrea Sacchi. 
On leaving that master, he travelled through Italy, 
France, and Qermany, and returned to Rome, where 
the expectations of his friends were destroyed by 
his premature death in 16S5, at the age of 25. 
The only work mentioned as by him is a ceiling in 
the Palazzo Crescenzi at Rome, representing ^T&ee 
Goddesses.' 

LAURI, GiACOMO, an Italian engraver, a native 
of Rome, flourished about the year 1610. He 
published, in 1612, a set of one hundred and sixty- 
six prints, entitled, * Antique Urbis Splendor,' 
consisting of views, executed with the graver, of 
the ancient buildings of Rome. 

LAURI, PiBTRO, (or Laurier,) who flourished 
about 1650, was a native of France, though he 
resided the greater part of his life at Bologna, 
where he was brought up in the school of Quido. 
He painted several pictures for the churches at 
Bologna ; some of which have the appearance of 
having been retouched by Guide. At the Cap- 
puccini is a fine picture of the * Virgin presenting 
the Infant Jesus to St. Felix' ; and in La Madonna 
della Liberty, ' St. Anthony of Padua.' 

LAURIE, Robert, (or Lawrib, or Lowry,) 
an engraver in mezzotint, who was also a 
priutseller, was bom in London about the year 
1740. In 1771, and again five years later, he 
received premiums from the Society of Arts, the 
second for an invention in aid of the printing 
of colours in mezzotint. He died about 1804. 
There are by this artist some portraits, and various 
subjects, which possess considerable merit ; among 
others, ihe following : 

PORTRAITS. 

George HI. ; after Zofany. 1773. 

Queen Charlotte ; after the tame. 1772. 

The Prince of Wales and Doke of York. 1772. 

Elizabeth, Duchess of Hamilton ; after C. Read. 

Ktienne Fran9oi8, Dnke de Ghoiseul ; after Van Loo. 

David Garrick ; after Sir Joshua Reynofda. 1779. 

The same, led off the Stage by Time towards the Temple 

of Fame ; after T. Parkinson, 1779. 
The same, with Mrs. Bellamy, as Borneo and Joliet ; 

after B. Wilson, 

SUBJECTS APl'ER VARIOUS MASTERS. 

Tlie Nativity ; after Rubens. 

The Holy Family returning from Egypt ; after the same. 

The Crucifixion : after the same, 

2G 



The same subject ; after Van Byck. 

The Incredulity of St. Thomas ; after Rembrandt, 

The Adoration of the Magi , after A. Casali. 

San-rise, a landscajK) ; after G. Barret. 

A hard Gale ; after Joseph Vemet. 

A Squall ; after the same. 

The Quack Doctor ; after Dietrich, 

LAURIN, Heinrich Fribdrich, a German en- 
graver, was born at Dresden in 1756. He was a 
pupil of Adrian Zingg, and has engraved some 
landscapes in a neat and spirited style. Some of 
his first essays were after Salvator Rosa, K obeli, 
&c. He died in 1830. The following also are by 
him: 

Two Landscapes ; after Kleuqhel. 

A pair, the Fishermen, and the Waterfall of Liebethal ; 

after Zinag. 
Two large Views of Fano ; after Theil. 
A Landscape and Oattle ; after A, van de Velde. 

LAURO, GiAcoMO, called Giacomo di Treviso, 
was bom at Venice in 1550. He was a pupil of 
Paolo Veronese. In the church of the Dominicans 
is a fine picture by him of * SL Roch interceding for 
the persons afflicted with the Plague.* He resided 
in Treviso, where he died in 1605. 

LAUTENSACK, Hans Sebald, a German painter 
and etcher, was a son of Paul Lautensack, a 
painter of Bamberg, where he was born in 1524. 
Whilst he was yet a child his parents settled in 
Nuremberg, and tliere he lived during the greater 
portion of his life. In 1556 he was working in 
Vienna, where he died between 1560 and 1563. 
There are by this artist several landscapes, etched 
in a dark, unpleasant style ; and also some por- 
traits, etched and finished with the graver, which 
possess considerable merit. His engravings, which 
follow the style of Altdorfer, are generally marked 
with a monogram composed of the letters H. S* L, 



on a tablet, with the date, thus: 
following are his principal works : 




The 



PORTRAITS. 

Paol Lantensaek, painter of Nuremberg. 1552. 

Hans Sebald Lautensack. 1554. 

Hieronymns Schnrstab, half-length ; on one side hid 

arms, and on the other a ^lage with a church. 

1554. 
Georg Roggenbach. 1554. 
The half« length of a Nobleman, with a beard : on one 

side his arms, and on the other a fortified castle. 

1554. 

SUBJECTS AND LANDSCAPES. 

A Landsoye, with David and Gtoliath. 1551. 

Christ curing the Blind at Jericho. 1559. 

A Mountainous Landscape, with the History of Balaam 

and his Ass. 1559. 
Villagers occupied in the Vintage. 1559. 
A Landscape, with a Farm-Tard. 1551. 
Two Landscapes ; dated 1553 and 1555. 
The Tournament at the Marriage of the Emperor 

Ferdinand ; very scarce. 15d0. 
A representation of Public Games ; very scarce. 1560. 
A Ittge View of Nuremberg, from the west ; in three 

sheets. 1552. 
A similar View of Nuremberg, from the east ; in three 

dieets. 1555. 

WOODCUTS. 

Portrait of Johannes Aventinus. 
A Standard-Bearer. 

• 

LAUTENSACK, Heinrich, a painter and gold- 
smith, was bom at Bamberg in 1522. He was 
a son of Paul Lautensack, with whom he went 
to Nuremberg whilst young. In 1660 he went to 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



liSwleM 



Frankfort, where he establiahed the first collection 
of paiDtinga, and in 1553 published a treatise on 
« Perepective.' He died at Frankfort in 1590. 
Some plates are attributed to him, but on very 
insufficient grounds ; they are in the style of Hans 
Sebald Beham, though much inferior. 

LAUTENSACK, Paul, a German painter and 
organist, was bom at Bamberg in 1478, but in 
1525, on account of his having embraced the 
reformed religion, he left that city and settled in 
Nuremberg, where he painted many subjects from 
the Apocalypse, and also wrote some treatises upon 
it, which were collected and published at Frank- 
fort in 1619. lie, however, became so troublesome 
by reason of his fanaticism, that he was in 1542 
expelled from the city, but after a time he was 
allowed to return, and is believed to have died 
there in 1558. There are still in Bamberg some of 
his paintings, chiefly copies of the prints of 
Martin Schongauer and the woodcuts of Albrecht 
Diirer. His portrait, dated 1529, is in the Germanic 
Museum at Nuremberg. 

LAUTERER, Adam, was bom at Vienna in 1700. 
He studied under Joseph Orient, and painted 
animals in the style of Berchem and Poelenborch. 
He died at Vienna in 1733. There is a pio.ure 
by him in the Vienna Gallery, and others are at 
Augsburg and at Prague. 

LAUTERS, Paul, a Belgian painter, etcher, and 
lithographer, was born at Bmssels in 1806. He 
studied under Malaise, and at the school of en- 
gravers at Brassels, of which he became a pro- 
fessor in 1836. He died at Brussels in 1875. 
Among his paintings are : 

Yiew in the Pyrenees. 
Valley of the Beoss, Switcerland. 
A Hollow Way. {Brussels Gallery.) 
View in the Forest of Mariemont. 

Among bis plates are a series of twelve, repre- 
senting Brassels and its environs ; a series of 
twenty-six, representing tlie banks of the Saone ; 
fifty plates for the ^ Views of Java, Sumatra, &c., ' 
by C. W. M. van de Velde, and the * Entrance into 
the Forest,' for which he obtained the prize at the 
Ghent Academy in 1852. 

LAUVERGNE, Barth^bmy, a French marine 
painter, was bom at Toulon in 1805, and died in 
Paris in 1875. 

LAUW, PiETER. See Louw. 

LAUWERS, CoKNBAED, the younger brother of 
Nicolaes Lauwers, was bom at Leuze, about the 
commencement of the 17th century. He learned 
engraving at Antwerp, and executed several plates 
afier the Flemish masters, and others, with the 
graver, in the style of his brother, though inferior 
to him. He was living in 1660-61. The following 
are by him : 

POBTRAITS. 

Aertns Qnellinos, architect ; after J, De VuyU, 

Pieter Yerbruggen ; after E, (^ellinus, 

Marius Ambrosias Capello, Bishop of Antwerp; after 

I>iepenheeek, 
Antome Vigier, Jesuit ; after J, Comers, 

SUBJECTS AFTBB YABIOUS MASTEBS. 

Elijah in the Desert, with an Angel bringing hinj food ; 

after Rubens, 
Christ bearing His Cross ; after the same. 
The Penitence of St. Peter ; after Cossiers. 
The Cmcifixion ; after the same. 
The Virgin, with the Infant Jesus, St. Elizabeth, and 

St. John, in a landscapa ; after Hehiavone, 



LAUWERS, Jakob Jan, was bom at Bruges in 
1764. After studying at the Academy of his 
native city, he went to Italy, where he only 
remained a short time. He then went to Paris, 
where he met with a rich Dutchman, who placed 
him at Amsterdam. He at first painted landscapes, 
and afterwards interiors. There is an interior by 
this artist in the Amsterdam Museum. He died at 
Amsterdam in 1800. 

LAUWERS, Nicolaes, a Flemish engraver, was 
born at Leuze, near Toumay, towards the close of 
the 16th century. He studied at Antwerp, under 
the celebrated engravers after Rubens, and attached 
himself particularly to the style of Paulus Pontius, 
which he imitated with success. He was already 
a master in the Guild of St. Luke at Antwerp in 
1620, and became dean in 1635-36. He died at 
Antwerp in 1652. There are several prints by him 
from various masters, but his best plates are thos3 
he engraved after Rubens. The following are hU 
principal works : 

PORTRAITS. 

Isabella, Infanta of Spain, with two Children, one hold- 
ing a crown, the other her arms ; afier Rubens. 

Fra Lelio Blancatcio, commander of Malta ; after Van 
Dyck. 

6X7BJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS. 

The Adoration of the Magi ; after Rubens. 

Christ before Pilate ; after the same. In the later im- 
pressions of this print, the name of Bolswert is sub- 
stituted for that of Lauwers. 

The Descent from the Cross ; aftffr the same. 

The Dead Christ on the knees of the Virgin, with Mary 
Magdalene ; after the same. 

The Triumph of the New Law ; in two sheets ; after 
the same. 

St. Cecilia, with Angels ; after Gerard Seghers. 

Gamesters and Smokers in a Tavern ; after the same. 

Jupiter and Mercury, with Bauds and Philemon ; after 
J. Jordaens. 

The Virgin appearing to a Carmelite ; after IHepenbeeck. 

St. Agabus before the Virgin ; after the same. 

LAVAL, Pierre Louis de, a French historical 
painter, was bom in Paris in 1790. He was a 
pupil of Forestier and of Girodet, and exhibited at 
the Salon from 1810 to 1865. There nrf b'crip'ural 
subjects by him in some of the churches of Paris, 
and * Psyche abandoned by Cupid * is in the 
Museum at Grenoble. He died in Paris in 1870. 

LAVALL^E-POUSSIN, EItienne de. See De 

LA VALL^E. 

LAVAUDEN, Alphonse, a French historical 
and portrait painter, was born at Lyons in 1796. 
He studied under Revoil and Gros, and painted the 
* Battle of Beaug^* and two portraits for the 
Versailles Galleries. He died in Paris in 1857. 

LA VEEQ, Jakob. See Levkcq. 

LA VILLA-AMIL, Geronimo Perez de. See 
Perez de la Villa- Amil. 

LAVILLE- LEROUX, Marie Guilhelmink. 
See Benoits. 

LAVIT, Jean Baptiste Omer, a French land- 
scape painter, who was a pupil of Duval, was boin 
in Paris in 1771, and died in 1836. 

LAVREINCE, Nicolaus. See Lafrensen. 

LAWLESS, Matthew Jaues, a subject painter, 
was bom in 1836. He was a student of the Lang- 
ham school, and a pupil of Gary and Leigh. He 
executed the drawings for many of the wood-cuts 
in *Good Words* and *Once a Week,* and was 
a member of the Etching Club. Among his 
pictures exhibited at the Koyal Academy may be 
mentioned, *The King's Quarters at Woodstock,' 

27 



Lawranson 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP 



Lawrence 



exhibited in 1861, and/ A Sick Call/ in 1863, which 
was his last contribution, as he died at Bayswater 
in 1864. Some of his earlier works were rather 
vulgar in subject and treatment, but those of a 
later date showed more refinement. 

LAWRANSON, Thomas, an Irish portrait painter, 
who practised in London, was a member of the 
Incorporated Society of Artists, where he ex- 
hibited from 1764 to 1773. In the National Por- 
trait Gallery is a portrait by him of O'Kecffe, 

LAWRANSON, William, was a portrait and 
subject painter, who practised in London in the 
latter half of the 18th century. He was the son of 
Thomas Liiwransun, and like him a member of the 
Incorporated Society of Artists, where he exhibited 
from 1765 to 1770. He also exhibited at the Royal 
Academy from 1774 to 1780. Amongst his works 
were ; 

Nan Cfttley, as Euphrosjme. 
Palamoo and Laviuia. 
RosaliDd aud Celia. 
Gymon and Ipbi^enia. 
liady haymaking. 

LAWRENCE, Andrew, (known in Paris as 
Andr£ Laurent,) an engraver, was bom at West- 
minster in 1708, and was taught drawing by M. 
Regnier, who was then residing in Soho. He also 
worked in crayons and in oil, but devoted himself 
likewise to other accomplishments, being skilled in 
languages and in music. Unfortunately he gave 
his mind also to alcliemy, and by its means got 
through the fortune left him by his father, and had 
to leave the country. After proceeding to Bologna 
he came to Paris, where he worked at etching for 
very slender daily wages under Philippe Le Bas, 
and then under A. Pond. He died in Paris in 
1747. He engraved the plates of the great gal- 
lery at Versailles, after the drawings of Cochin. 
There are also by him some plates after De Louther- 
bourg, and the following : 

Saul consalting the Witch of Endor; afUr Salvator 

Rosa. 
A Conversation ; after Tenters. 
The Hay Harvest, and its companion ; after WoKwer' 

man. 
Halt of Officers ; after the same, 
Le Soir ; after Berchem* 

LAWRENCE, Mary, (afterwards Keabse,) was 
a flower painter, who exhibited at the Koyal 
Academy under her maiden name from 1794 to 
1813, and under her married name of Kearse 
from 1814 to 1830. She drew and engraved the 
illustrations for her ' Various Kinds of Roses in 
England,' published in 1797. 

LAWRENCE, Samuel, a portrait painter, was 
born in 1811. His first appearance in London was 
at tlie Exhibition of the Society of British Artists 
in 1834, when he contributed two portraits. In 
1836 he sent to the Royal Academy portraits of 
Matthew Qisbome, Mrs. Somerville, and another. 
He died in 1884. His portraits are mostly in 
crayons, and among them may be named ; 

Right Honourable J. Erskine. 
Charles Dickens (* Boz '). 1838. 
Thomas Carlyle. 1841. 
Sir Frederick Pollock. 
John Hullah. 
Professor Sedgwick. 
Lord Ashburtoo. 
Rev. Frederick Denison Maurice. 
Sir Henry Taylor. 
Dr. Whewell. 
Leigh Hunt. 
George Grote. 
28 



James Speddiug. 

Charles Babbage. (^National Portrait Gallery.) 

Captain Boiirchier. ( TJie same.) 

Professor Wheatstone. (The same.) 

William Makepeace Thackeray. {'The same.) 

Kobert Browmng. 

LAWRENCE, Sir Thomas, was bom at Bristol, 
on the 4lh of May, 1769. Soon after his birth, his 
father, who had been a solicitor, and afterwards a 
supervisor of excise, took the White Hart Inn at 
Bristol, but not prospering there he went to 
Devizes, where at ' The Black Bear ' young Tommy 
used to recite before the customers, and draw their 
portraits. From Devizes they went to Oxford, 
and from Oxford to Bath, at each of which places 
young Lawrence was fully occupied in draw- 
ing in chalks pastel portraits. In 1787 he first 
visited London, where he received much valuable 
advice from Sir Joshua Reynolds, who was then 
near the end of his career. In his first years in 
London he attempted classical art, but this proving 
a failure, he devoted himself to portrait painting, 
induced thereto by his portrait of Miss Farren, 
afterwards Countess of Derby, painted in or about 
1790. After this he soon began to make his way. 
Tbe King had already patronized him, and indeed 
went so lar as to insist upon Lawrence being made 
an extra Associate of the Royal Academy, when 
he was only twenty-one. In 1792, on the death 
of Sir Joshua Reynolds, he was appointed to the 
office of painter in ordinary to His Majesty, as also 
to that of painter to the Dilettaiiti Society. In the 
same year he was commissioned to paint the por- 
traits of the King and Queen as a present for the 
Emperor of China. In 1792 also he exhibited ten 
portraits, one of which was that of the King. 
In 1794 he was made an Academician, his pre- 
sentation picture being 'A Gipsy Girl.' In this 
year also Lawreuce removed from Old Bond Street 
to Piccadilly, from whence in 1797 he removed to 
Greek Street, Soho. From 1798 to 1813 he exhibited 
ninety portraits at the Royal Academy. In 1813 
he removed to 65, Russell Square, where he spent 
the remaining years of his life, and amassed 
a matchless collection of drawings by the old 
masters, of which those by Raphael and Michel- 
angelo are now in the University Galleries at Oxford. 
In 1814 Lawrence paid his first visit to the 
Continent, but he was recalled from Paris by 
command of the Prince Regent to paint the portraits 
of the allied Sovereigns, their statesmen and 
generals, which formed the commencement of the 
Waterloo Gallery at Windsor Castle. In the 
following year he was knighted by the Prince 
Regent. During the Congress that met at Aix-la- 
Chapelle in 1816, Lawrence was commissioned by 
the Prince Regent to paint its chief members for 
the Gallery. From Aix-la-Chapelle he went to 
Vienna, and from Vienna to Rome, where he 
painted the portraits of the Pope (Pius VII.), 
Cardinal Gonsalvi, and Canova. Leaving Rome 
in December 1819, he returned in the following 
year to London to find himself the elected President 
of the Royal Academy. Between 1825 and the 
year of his death, some of the finest of his works 
were painted and exhibited, and none more beauti- 
ful than his groups of mothers and children, in 
portraying whose beauty and vivacity no Eng- 
lish portrait painter except Reynolds has been 
happier. In 1829 he received the freedom of 
his native city, Bristol. To the exhibition of 
this year — the one destined to be his last — ^lie 
contributed eight paintings, and on the morning of 



lAwrence 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



January 7th, 1830, be expired suddenly from ossi- 
tication of the heart. He was interred with much 
pomp in St. Paul's Cathedral, where he rests by the 
side of his predecessor, Sir Joshua Reynolds. 
Among the honours conferred on him in his life- 
time were : — ^Member of the American Academy of 
the Fin© Arts, 1818 ; of the Academy of St. Luke, 
1816; of the Academy of Vienna, 1820; of the 
Academies of Florence, Venice, and Copenhagen, 
1823 ; and of that of Bologna, 1824. The King 
of France in 1825 sent him the Cross of the Legion 
of Honour, and a set of Sevres china. The 
following are some of his principal pictures : 

BrirtoL Corporation, William, third Duke of Port- 

land. 
Dulwicb. College. William Linloy. 

Hampton Coort. Palace. Baron Grentz. 
London. St ^^^^ j John Abemethy. 

„ J>ytke of Wellington X^^^^j^ 
{Ap$ley House), f ^^^^«^ ^ ^ • 

Marchioness of Worcester. 
Thomas Graham, Lord Lyne- 

doch. 
Arthur, Duke of Wellington. 
Duchess of Wellington. 

1814. 
Henry William, Marquis of 

Anglesey. 
Marchioness Wellesley. 
Henry, third Earl Bathurst. 
Sir R. Peel. Lady Peel. 

Dilettanti Society, Bichard Payne £nigbt. 

„ Sir H. Englefield. 

„ Thomas, first Lord Dundas. 

^ Jtoyal Academy. A Gipsy Girl. 

„ His own Portrait. 

Soyal Society. Sir Humphrey Davy. 

United Service dud. Lord Saltouu. 



Windsor. 



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If 



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n 



ft 
n 



n 



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tf 

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*'^t:r'''-^}s-^««yo»op«- 



^ Nat. Portrait Gall, George IV. 

y „ Queen Caroline. 



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t> 



Thomas Campbell. 
Elizabeth Carter. 
Earl of Eidon. 
Warren Hastings. 
His own Portrait. 
Sir James Mackintosh. 
Samuel Jlogers. . 
William Wilberforce. 
„ Bt. Hon. W. Windham. 

Po/h Court. Sir William Grant. 

John Kemble, as Hamlet. 
Mrs. Siddons. 
John Fawcett, comedian. 
yational Gallery. John Julius AJigerstein. 

Mrs. Robertson. 
Benjamin West, P.R.A. 
Countess of Dam ley. (Lent 

to the Walker Art Gallery, 

Liverpool. ) 
Mrs. Siddons. 
A Child with a Kid. (Lady 

Georgiana Fane.) 
British Jfuseum. Sir Josepli Banks. 

„ South J^'^^^^J^ I Queen Caroline. 

^ „ SirCodringtonE.Carrington. 

., ^ Jjady Carrington. 

liverpool. Corporation. Rt. Hon. G. Canning. 
Oxford. Chi^st Church. Wm., first Lord Auckland. 

^ Cniversity College. Rt. Hon. W. Windham. 
Paris. Louvre. Lord Whitworth. 

Windsor. Castle. George IV. 

Priuce Mettcrnich. 
General Tchernicheff. 
General OverofF. 
Earl Bathurst. 



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liawson 

Castle. Prince Blucher. 

Cardinal Gonsalvi. 

Duke of Wellington. 

Pope Pius VII. 

The Hetmann Platoff. 

Earl of Liverpool. 

Baron Hardenburg. 

Count Capo d'Istria. 

Count Ne.sselrode. 

Marquis of Londonderry. 

Frederick William IH., King 
of Prussia. 

Francis II., Emperor of 
Austria. 

Charles X., King of France. 

Archduke Charles. 

Alexander, Emperor of 
Russia. 

Donna Maria da Gloria, 
Queen of Portugal. 

Sir Thomas Lawrence, P.R A. 

Prince George of Cumber- 
land, afterwards King of 
Hanover. 

Sir Jeffry WyattviUe, R.A. 

Duke of Cambridge. 

Duke of York. 

Prince Schwarzenberg. 

Rt. Hon. George Canning. 

Princess Amelia. 

Sir Walter Scott. 

George III. 

William IV. 

Princess Charlotte. 

Earl of Eldon. 



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LAWRIE, Robert. See Laurie. 

LAWSON, Cecil Gordon, was bom at Welling- 
ton in Shropshire in 1851. His father, William 
Lawson, is a portrait painter, from whom he learnt 
the elements of painting. He was always inclined 
to art, and from fourteen years of age till he was 
seventeen he employed himself in making careful 
studies of fruit and flowers, bits of landscape, and 
special clouds, or blossoms, or grasses. In 1866 
he took his first sketching tour through Kent, 
Sussex, and Surrey. His first appearance in public 
was at the New British Institution in Bond Street, 
where he exhibited a grey landscape called * Ice 
on the River.* In 1870 he took to drawing on 
wood for the engravers, and made his first appear- 
ance at the Academy with * Cheyne Walk, Chelsea.* 
In the Royal Academy of 1871 he exhibited 'The 
River in Rain ' and * Summer Evening in Cheyne 
Walk.' In 1873 he made a tour in Ireland, and 
in 1874 he went to Holland, Belgium, and Paris, 
In the same year he settled down at Wrotham, 
and there commenced his picture of the * Hop 
Gardens of England,* which was in the Academy 
of 1876. In 1878 'The Minister's Garden,' in the 
Grosvenor Gallery, excited much attention. In 
1879 he married, and went to live at Haslemere, 
where in 1880 he painted *The August Moon,' 
which was presented by his widow to the National 
Gallery. His health, however, began to fail, and 
though he was in the Riviera in the winter of 1881, 
he. returned too soon, and died at Chelsea in 1882. 
Besides those already mentioned he painted the 
following pictures: 

A Lament. 1872. 

A Pastoral in the Vale of Miefod, North Wales. 1873. 

The Voice of the Cuckoo. 1880. 

Wharfedale, Yorkshire. 1881. 

The Storm-Clond, West Lynn, North Devon. 1882. 

The Wet Moon, Old Battcrsea. 1882. 

An Autumn Sunrise. 

Simdown. 

Strayed ; a Pastoral. 

On the Boad to Monaco. 

29 



Lazinaky 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



LeBaa 



LAZINSKY, GusTAV, an historical painter, was 
bom at Coblence in 1811. He was a brother of 
Johann Adolf Lazinsky, and with him went to 
Dusseldorf in 1829. He died at Mayence in 1870. 
Among his pictures are : 

Death of TeU. 

The Cross-Bearer. 

Departure of Gastavus Adolphos. 

Death of Prince Ludwig. 

LAZZARI, DoNATO, commonly known as Bra- 
MANTK, the architect of the basilica of St. Peter 
at Rome, and whose name has now been proved to 
have been Donato Bbamante, was born at Castle 
Durante, now Urbania, near Urbino, in 1444. Of his 
early life little is known ; but he is recorded to have 
been from about 1472 to 1499 in Milan, where he 
executed numerous architectural works of note. 
Of his paintings, some damaged frescoes in the 
Casa Prinetti (fonnerly Panigarola), Milan, are 
all that remain; though he is recorded to have 
decorated the facades of houses in that city, where 
for a long time the * Four Evangelists * were pre- 
served in a church as specimens of his bold fore- 
shortening. Bramante was also an engraver ; there 
exist three impressions of a plate by him, represent- 
ing persons standing and kneeling around an altar 
in a chapel ; it has been engraved in outline in 
Rosini's *Storia della Pittura Italiana.' One of 
these is in the British Museum. Bramante died at 
Rome in 1514, and was buried in the crypt of St. 
Peter's. 

LAZZARINI, Giovanni Andrea, a painter, poet, 
and art- writer, was bom at Pesaro in 1710. He 
was instructed in painting by Franeesco Mancino, 
and studied at Rome under Fantuzzi from 1734 to 
1749, and subsequently at Venice and Forli after 
CignanL He distinguished himself as a fresco- 
painter : his design is correct and his compositions 
are excellent. He was, however, a better teacher 
than artist. His chief works are to be met with 
at Gnaldo, near Rimini, at Osimo, Foligno, Ancona, 
and Pesaro. He died at Pesaro in 1801. 

LAZZARINI, Gbeoorio, was bom at Villanuova 
in 1657. He was a pupil of Francesco Rosa, a 
Genoese painter, who resided some time at Venice, 
but he soon abandoned the dark and gloomy style of 
his instructor, and aimed at the higher excellences 
of the simple and natural. On viewing the works 
of Lazzariniy one woidd suppose him to have been 
educated in the Bolognese, or rather in the Roman 
school. Lanzi, however, asserts that he never 
quitted Venice, and that by the impulse of his 
genius alone he conciliated the esteem of the most 
distinguished professors of his time, particularly 
Carlo Maratti, who was not much accustomed to 
over-rate the talents of his contemporaries. When 
the Venetian ambassador, then resident at Rome, 
proposed a commission to the Roman artists to 
paint a picture for the Sal a dello Scrutinio, at 
Venice, Carlo Maratti had the generosity to refuse 
the offer, expressing his surprise that the ambas- 
sador should apply to the painters of Rome while 
Venice possessed such an artist as Lazzarini. Of the 
justice of Maratti's appreciation of his talents, Laz- 
zarini has given proof in the picture he painted on 
that occasion, representing the triumphal memorial 
of the Morosini. lie distinguished himself still more 
in his picture of *■ St. Lorenzo Giustiniani,' at the 
Patriarcale, which is esteemed by Lanzi the finest 
oil painting of the Venetian school of the period in 
which he lived, whether in regard to the grandeur 
of the composition, the elegance of the contours, 
30 



or the variety in the heads and attitudes. In the 
Academy at Venice there are four paintings by 
him. Tiepolo was one of his pupils. Lazzarini 
died at Venice in 1735. 

LEADER, William, was a mezzotint engraver, 
by whom there are a few prints after uie old 
masters; among others, a small upright plate, 
representing < Samson,' after Rembrandt. He 
was working in London about the middle of the 
18th century. 

LEAHY, Edward Daniel, a portrait and subject 
painter, was bom in London in 1797. He exhibited 
at the Royal Academy portraits and subject pic- 
tures from 1820 to 1853. He died at Brighton in 
1875. In the National Portrait Gallery is a 
portrait by him of Father Mathew, the Apostle of 
Temperance in Ireland. 

LEAEB, Henrt, an English portrait painter, 
flourished in the latter half of the 18th century. 
He studied under William Hoare, and practised in 
London about 1764-6. He then went to the East 
Indies, where he died. 

LEAKEY, James, a portrait and landscape 
paintdV, was bom at Exeter in 1773. He was about 
to enter the studio of Sir Joshua Reynolds, but was 
unfortunately prevented by that artist's death. He 
painted also a good many miniatures, and was 
much patronized in the West of England. From 
time to time he exhibited pictures at the Royal 
Academy, amongst others * The Fortune Teller,* 
and * The Marvellous Tale.* His style was much 
after the manner of the Dutch School, and he 
was called on one occasion by Sir Thomas Lawrence 
the * English Wouverman.' He died at Exeter in 
1865, after having for many years been obliged to 
give up the practice of his art. ^ 

LEAL, Juan de Valdbs. See Valdes Leal. 
LEAL, Simon db Lboit. See Leon Leal. 
LEANDER. See Rbdeb. 
LEBARBIER, Jean Jacques FRANgois, called 
Lebarbier l'a1n£, a French historical painter, was 
bom at Rouen in 1738. After gaining prizes in 
his native city, he studied painting under Pierre, 
first painter to the king. He next made drawings 
in Switzerland for Zurlauben's 'Tableau topo- 
graphique de la Suisse/ and after\vard8 went to 
Rome. On his return he was elected an acade- 
mician in 1785, *on which occasion he painted 
* Jupiter asleep on Mount Ida,' now m the 
magazines of the Louvre. His works prepared 
the way for the revolution begun by Vien and 
carried out by David. He made designs for the 
illustration of editions of Ovid, Racine, Rousseau, 
and Delille, and also published some works on art 
The Louvre contains his ' Courage of the Spartan 
Women,* dated 1787. He died in Paris in 1826. 

LE 6AS, Jacques Philippe, a French engraver, 
was bom in Paris in 1707. He was instmcted in 
the art of engraving by H^risset and N. Tardieu, 
and was one of the best artists of his time. He 
excelled in landscapes and small figures, which 
he touched with infinite spirit and neatness. He 
availed himself much of the freedom and facility 
of etching, which he harmonized in an admirable 
manner with the graver and dry point. The popu- 
larity of his works procured him a number of 
scholars, whose talents were employed in advanc- 
ing the plates which he afterwards finished and 
published with his name. He became an acade- 
mician in 1743, his reception work being a * Con- 
versation galante,' after Lancret He died in 
Paris in 1783. The number of his plates is very 



^el>a8 



PAINTEKS AND ENGRAVERS. 



I<e Blond 



large; but the following are his most esteemed 
works : 

Pbrtnit of Robert Le Loirain, sculptor ; afiw Drowih, 
1741. 

IVirtTsit of P. J. Cazes, painter ; after Aited. 1741. 

The Four Times of the Day ; after JBerehem. 

The BmbailEation ; after the same. 

Environs of Groningen ; after Buisdael. 

Environs of Gueldere ; after the eame. 

David Teniers and his ranily ; after Tenters, 

The Works of Mercy ; after the same. 

The Prodigal Son ; after the same, 

A Flemish Festival, with Teniers and his Family ; after 
Temiers. 

The last four prints are of a superior execntion, and 
are among his b^ works. His plates after Teniers are 
more than a hundred in number, and he appears to have 
copied that master with great success.) 

Hie Italian Gbaae ; after Wbuverman, 
The Milk-pot; after the same. 
The Boar^hunt ; after the same. 
Four large Hunting Scenes ; after Van VdUne. 
The Port of Messina ; after Claude Lorrain, 
An Italian Landscape ; after the same. 
An Italian Sea-port ; after Joseph Vemet. 
Fishermen going out ; after the same. 
Thirteen of the Ports of France ; after Joseph Vemet, 
etched by Cochin. 

LEBA8, Michel Olivieb, was bom in Paris in 
1783. He was a pupil of Regnault and of Langlois, 
and distinguished nimself especially by his en- 
graving in mezzotint. He died in 1843. He en- 
graved for Landon's ' Annales du Mus^e.* One of 
his best plates is * The Bull/ after Paulus Potter, 
in the Le Brun Gallery. 

LE BEAU, PiBRBE Adrien, a French engraver, 
was bom in Paris in 1744. He has engraved 
several portraits, and other subjects, after different 
masters, among which are : 

Louis AVI., Kiug of France ; sue different portraits, 
after Bijut, and others. 

Marie Antoinette, Queen of Firance ; ten different por- 
traits, ofter Le dere, Binet, and others. 

Louis Philippe, Duke of Orleans. 

Hyder AJi ; after J. Year. 

mie. Raucoiirt, actress. 

AbM Terray, comptroller of finance under Louis XV. 

A. R. J. Turgot, comptroller under Louis XYI. ; after 
De Troy. 

Jacques Necker, director of iinsnoes under Louis XYI. ; 
ajterLe Clere. 

LEBEDEV, Mikhail, a Russian landscape 
painter, was bom in 1812. He studied at tne 
Academy of St. Petersburg, and afterwards 
travelled in Italy. He painted several views of 
Rome and Naples, at which latter city he died from 
cholera in 1837. 

LEBEL, Antoine, a French landscape painter, 
was bom at Montrot (Haute-Mame) in 1706. He 
was received as an academician in 1746, upon a 
* Sea-piece,' which is now in the Museum at Caen. 
He was the master of Aved, and died in Paris in 
1793. 

LEBEL, Chables Jacques, a French historical 
painter, who was a pupil of David, exhibited at 
the Salon from 1801 to 1827. He produced 
several interesting works relating to the French 
nation : among them, * Napoleon visiting the Hos- 
pice of Mont St. Bemaitl;' *The Reduction of 
the City of Paris by Henry I V. ; ' * A Trait of 
Humanity in a French Grenadier ; * and others of a 
similar kind. The picture of ' Turenne asleep on 
the field of battle, in winter, and his officers shelter- 
ing him with their cloaks from the inclemency of 



the weather,' was in the collection of the late Baron 
BoUand. Lebel also painted a great number of 
portraits. 

LEBEL, Clement Louis Mabib Anne, a French 
subject and animal painter, who was a pupil of 
Lemoine, was born m Paris in 1772, and died in 
1806. Some of his works are in the Museums of 
Orleans and of Caen. 

LE BERT, , a French designer and engraver, 

flourished about 1770. He engraved the following 
portraits after Cochin : 

King Henry IV. 

The Duke of Orleans. 

The Count of Artois. 

"King Louis XV. 

The Dauphin, afterwards Louis XYI. 

LEBERT, Hbinrich, an Alsatian landscape 
draughtsman and flower painter, was bum at Thann 
in 1794, and died at Colmar in 1862. 

LEBLANC, Alexandre, a French landscape 
painter, was born at Chftteauneuf in 1793, and died 
in 1 866. His * End of the Deluge ' is in the Museum 
at Angers. 

LE BLANC, Horace, a French painter, who 
resided at Lyons in the 17th century, was employed 
by the Duke of Angoul^me in his gallery of Gros 
Bois, near Paris. He was the master of Jacques 
Blanchard. 

LEBLANC, Theodore, a French battle painter, 
bom at Strassburg in 1800, was a pupil of Charlet. 
He became a captain in the engineers, and died 
from wounds received at the siege of Constantine 
in 1837. Three of his works are at Versailles. 

LE BLOND, Jacob Christoph, was bom at 
Frankfort in 1670, and was first instructed by C. 
Meyer at Zurich. From there he went to Italy, 
where he is said to have been a scholar of Carlo 
Maratti. At the solicitation of Bonaventura van 
Overbeck, he accompanied him to Amsterdam, 
where he was employed for some time in painting 
portraits in miniature, which were much esteemed. 
He quitted Holland, and came in 1720 to London, 
where he set on foot a project for printing mezzo- 
tint plates in colour, so as to imitate the pictures 
from which they were engraved. He executed 
some large plates in this way, and disposed of the 
prints by a Kind of lottery. In 1730, he published 
a work explanatory of the process, entitled * 11 
Colore tto, or the Harmony of Colouring in Paint- 
ing, reduced to mechanical Practice, under easy 
Precepts and infallible Rules.* The book was 
printed in English and in French. He soon after- 
wards projected a plan for copying the cartoons 
of Raphael in tapestry, and he made some fine 
drawings from tlie originals for that purpose; 
houses were bought, and great expense incurred, 
but the scheme failed of success, and Le Blond 
left England, and went to Paris in 1732, where he 
was not more successful, and died, it is said, in a 
hospital in 1741. The following are the principal 
prints he published, which, independent of the 
novelty of the manner, certainly possess consider- 
able merit : 

PORTRAITS. 

George II. 
Queen Caroline. 
Louis XIY. of France. 
Prince Eugene of Savoy. 
Cardiual de Flenry. 
The Children of Charles I. 
Petrus Paolus Bnbens. 
Anthonios van Dyck. . 

31 



Le Blond 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY Or 



LeBrun 



VARIOUS SUBJECTS. 

St. Agnes ; afier Dommiehino. 

St. Cecilia ; afier the samt. 

The Repose in Egypt ; after Titian, 

The Entombment of Christ ; after the iame, 

Venus ; after the same. 

The Triumph of Galatea ; after C. Maratti. 

Cupid making his Bow ; after Correggio^ or Parmigiano. 

The Chastity of Joseph ; after C. CignanL 

Christ on.the Mount. 

Mary Magdalene. 

St. Mary of Egypt. 

St. John embracing the Infant Jesus ; after Van Dyck, 

LE BLOND, Jean, a French historical painter 
and printseller, was born in Paris in 1635. He 
was received into the Academy in 1681, his picture 
of reception being * Jupiter hurling thunderbolts 
at the Giants,* now in the Louvre. He was some- 
times assisted in his works by Willem De Gheyn, 
a Dutch painter. He died in Paris in 1709. 

LE BLOND, Michel, a German engraver, was 
born at Frankfort in 1587. He chiefly resided at 
Amsterdam, but travelled with Sandrart in Italy, 
and stayed several years in England. He appears 
to have been principally employed at Amsterdam 
on ornaments for the goldsmitlis. In 1626, he pub- 
lished a set of ornaments, foliage, fruit, and flowers, 
engraved with great neatness. His prints, which 
are all very small, are executed entirely with the 

Saver in the finished manner of Theodorus De Bry, 
e sometimes marked his plates with the accom- 
panying cipher /V\ . He died at Amsterdam 

in 1666. The following prints are by him : 

St. Jerome, seated at a desk writing, with an ornamental 

border; a small circular plate, about the size of a 

shilling; dated 1610. 
Fiffures dancing, in a small oval, with an ornamental 

border ; signed M. B/ofufu»^ 1612. 
The Representation of a Marriage ; M. Blond iif^ 1615. 
Two ornaments for goldsmiths ; inscribed WUhelm van 

Weelichkeit. 
A very small plate of Ornaments with three Goblets. 
Six plates, numbered, of Arabesque Ornaments for 

Knife-handles ; Michael Blondut fecit ; very highly 

finished. 
The Arms of Albrecht Diirer. 

LEBORNB, Louis, a French painter and litho- 
grapher, was born at Versailles in 1796. He was 
a pupil of Regnault, and became in 1843 director 
of the School of Design at Nancy, and in 1848 con- 
servator of the Nancy Museum, where there are 
paintings by him. He died in 1865. 

LE BOSSU, Daniel, a French engraver, flour- 
ished from about the year 1670 to about 1700. He 
imitated the style of Franyois de Poilly, but without 
much success. He is said to have resided some 
time at Rome, where he engraved some plates after 
the Italian painters, among which is ^The Resur- 
rection of Lazarus,' after Giacinto Brandi. 

LE BRUN, Charles, a French historical painter, 
was born in Paris, February 24tb, 1619. He re- 
ceived his first instruction in art from his father, 
who was a sculptor, and from an obscure painter 
named Perrier. At the age of eleven he was 
fortunate enough to be noticed by the Chancellor 
Siguier, who placed him in the studio of Vouet, 
and ever "proved a constant friend to the rising 
young artist. During the next few years his 
progress and industry were remarkable. He at- 
tracted the notice of Poussin, and in 1642 accom- 
panied him to Italy, whither he was enabled to 
proceed by the generosity of his patron. He was 
recf^ived by the Barberini, then paramount in Rome, 

32 



and presented to Pope Urban VIII. His stay lasted 
about four years, during which period he painted a 
few works, but chiefly occupied nimself in studying 
from the antique. There is still extant a letter 
written by him at this period, which shows bow 
greatly he was attracted by the smallest details 
of classical antiquity. During his journey home, he 
made a short sojourn at Lyons, where he executed 
some commissions. Arrived at Paris, where his 
reputation had preceded him, he at once settled 
down to the practice of his profession. Orders 
quickly flowed in upon him. He was one of the 
numerous band of artists who worked for the 
President Lambert de Thorig^y on the decoration 
of his hdtel on the tie St. Louis. The magnificent 
Fouquet employed him at his chAteau at Vaux, 
and gave him a pension of 12,000 livres. For the 
oratory of Anne of Austria, he painted a 'Cruci- 
fixion,' and she presented him with her portrait 
set in diamonds. By Mazarin he was introduced 
to Louis XIV., and through the king's patronage 
became, after the death of Le Sueur, the head of 
the French school, exercising unlimited sway in 
all matters relating to art in France. In 1648, he 
took the principal part in the foundation of the 
Academy, which was always an object of great 
solicitude to him, and in which he filled success- 
ively all the offices of honour. This was not the 
only service French art owed to him. He was 
greatly instrumental in the establishment of the 
French school at Rome, and he was the first 
director of the Qobelins manufactory on its found- 
ation by Colbert. During all this time he was 
painting unceaningly for his royal patron. After 
the fire at the Louvre in 1661, the works in the 
Apollo Gallery were entirely confided to him. He 
also found employment at the roj^al ch&teau at 
Sceaux, and at the Pavilions at Marly. But his 
greatest work was at the King's new and costly 
hobby at Versailles. There he designed fountains, 
statues, decorations, &c., besides painting the 
gigantic series of allegories commemorating his 
royal patron's achievements. On the death of 
Colbert in 1683, his supremacy began to suffer an 
eclipse at the hands of Louvois, who favoured his 
rival Mignard. He gradually withdrew from 
court, and fell into a state of melancholy, which 
continued until his death at the Qobelins in Paris, 
on February 12, 1690. 

The failings of Le Brun's art are neither few nor 
small. His drawing is heavy, and his colour 
unpleasing. Generally speaking, his execution 
fails to reach the standard of his ideas, and his 
efforts after the heroic are frequently overstrained, 
becoming pompous and scenic. Still he was in 
many cases inspired by great conceptions, and his 
fertility was very wonderful. In the history of 
French art he holds an important place from the 
unlimited sway which he exercised, not beneficially 
it must be owned, for so long a period. 

The pictures by him in the French provincial 
galleries are too numerous to mention. The fol- 
lowing is a list of his works in some of the chief 
European collections : 

Berlin. Galhry. Family of Eberhard Jabach. 

Dresden. Gallery. Holy Family. 

Dulwich. Gallery, Massacre of the Innocents. 

„ „ Horatius Cocles. 

Florence. Vffizi, Jephtha and his Daughter. 

w „ Hid own Portrait. 

LiRbon. Academy. Allegory. 

Modeua. Estense Gallery. Moses in the T^nd of Midian. 

„ „ Moses and Jethro's Daughter. 



Lebrun 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Leclerc 



ft 
Palis. 



Louvre, 



» 



Munich. Gallery. La Valliere as a Magdalen. 

St. John in the Isle of Patmos. 
Series of five pictures illus« 
trating the History of Alex- 
ander. 1661—68. 
The Fall of the Augels. 
The Repentant Magdalen. 
Christ on the Cross surrounded 

hy Angels. 
The Elevation of the Cross. 
The Adoration of the Shep- 
herds. 
Petersburg, ffermitage. The Agony in the Garden. 

„ „ The Crucifixion. 1637. 

Vienna. Gallery, The Ascension. 

OJ.D. 

LEBRUN, Franqois Jean Baptists Topino. 
See TopiNO Lkbrun. 

LE BRUN, Gabriel, the brother and scholar of 
Charles Le Brun, was born in Paris in 1621, and died 
there after 1667. He never arrived at any great 
eminence as a painter, but is somewhat better known 
as an engraver. He executed several plates after 
the designs of his brotlier, and also after Tintoretto, 
Carracci, and other masters^ among which are the 
following : 

Portrait of Charles Fevret de St. Mesmin. 1657. 
AUegory on the Peace of Cardinal Mazarin. 
Frontispiece for the Memoirs of Vittorio Siri. 
The Twelve Apostles ; after Charles Le Brun, 
The Saviour; a/ttr tie same; on two sheets. 
St. Martin ; after the same, 
St. Anthony ; after the same, 

A Thesis ; dedicated to the Parliament of Normandy; 
after the same. 

LE BRUN, Marie Louise Elisabeth, whose 
maiden name was Vig^e, was bom in Paris in 
1755. Her father was a portrait painter, but he 
died in 1768. At the age of fifteen she executed a 
portrait of her mother. She received lessons from 
Daveene and Briard, and excellent advice from 
Joseph Vernet'. She supported herself and her 
mother with her copies from great masters till her 
mother married an avaricious jeweller, who took 
all her earnings, and refused to supply her with 
even the necessaries of life. Her reputation soon 
beg^n to spread, and in 1779 she painted her first 
portrait of Marie Antoinette, whom she afterwards 
painted nu less than twenty-five times, and with 
whom she was on terms of the greatest intimacy. 
In 1776 she married Jean Baptiste Pierre Le Brun, 
a painter and picture-dealer, and the grand-nephew 
of Charles Le Brun. (He was bom in Paris in 1748, 
and died there in 1813.) In 1782 she paid a visit 
to Belgium, and on her retum Joseph Vernet 
proposed her for the Academy, which Pierre op- 
posed, bat she was nevertheless admitted in 1783, 
when she painted for her reception ' Peace bring- 
ing back Plenty.' When the Revolution broke out 
in 1789 she went to Italy and visited Bologna, Rome, 
Naples, and Florence, painting a large number of 
portraits, and was admitted a member of different 
academies. She then went to Vienna, and in 1795 
was at St. Petersburg, where she remained painting 
portraits till 1801. She then returned to France, but 
m 1802 she came to England, where she lived tliree 
years. In 1808 and 1809 she was in Switzerland, 
and on her retum to France, she bought a country 
house near Marly, which in 1814 and 1815 was 
pillaged by the Prussians and the allied armies. 
She then went to live in Paris, where she continued 
painting, and where her salon was the rendezvous 
of the best society till her death, which took place 
in Paris in 1842. Late in life she published her 
* Souvenirs,' which appeared in Pans in 1837-39. 
VOL. IL D 



She painted a number of very pleasing semi-alle- 
gorical subjects, and many portraits of distinguished 
persons ; among which were Lady Hamilton, in the 
characters of a Sibyl and a Bacchante ; Madame de 
Stael, as Corinna ; Madame Catalani at the piano ; 
La Bruy^re ; the Abb6 Fleury ; and several princes 
and royal personages. In some of her pictures 
she imitated the style of Greuze. The Louvre 
possesses by Madame Le Brun two paintings of 
herself and her daughter, the portraits of Hubert 
Robert and Joseph Vernet, the painters, and that 
of Giovanni Paisiello, the composer, 

LE BRUN, Nicolas, a French painter, the brother 
of Charles Le Brun, was, according to Guillet de 
St. Georges, the author of the landscape in Le 
Sueur's * Plan de I'ancienne Chartreuse de Paris, 
port^ par deux Anges,' now in the Louvre. It 
gives a view of the Tuilleries, the Louvre, the 
Seine with the Pont-Neuf, and a part of the quay 
opposite the Louvre. 

LEBSCH^E, Carl August, a painter, etcher, 
and lithographer, was born at Schmiegel, Poland, 
in 1800. He studied at Munich, where his parents 
settled in 1807. He painted landscapes and archi- 
tecture in oil and water-colours, and designed 
in the style of difEerent masters. His etchings 
are executed with great spirit, and he signed 
with the initials G, L,y or a monogram. He died 
at Munich in 1877. 

LE CAPELAIN, John, a water-colour landscape 
painter, was born in Jersey about 1814. He had 
no regular art instmction, and, unaided, acquired a 
pleasing, though vague, style. He drew the views 
for the Jersey Album presented to Queen Victoria 
after her visit to the island. There is a large 
collection of his works in the Jersey Museum. He 
died in 1848. 

LE CARPENTIER, Charles Louis FEANgois, 
a French painter, bom at Pont-Audemer (Euro) in 
1744, was a pupil of Doyen and of J. B. Descamps. 
He was professor at the School of Fine Arts at 
Rouen, and devoted himself chiefly to writuig on 
art. He died at Rouen in 1822. 

LE CAVE, P., a water-colour painter, flourished 
in the latter half of the 18th and in the beginning 
of the 19th century. His works are chiefly land- 
scapes with cattle and figures, and are in the tinted 
style. His life was passed in poverty, and the date 
of his death is unknown. There are four specimens 
of his work in the South Kensington Museum, one 
dated as late as 1806. 

LECCIO, Matted da. See Alesio. 

LECKERBET JEN, Vincent, a native of Antwerp, 
who flourished about 1650, was called Manciol, 
because he had lost his right hand. He lived chiefly 
in Rome, where he executed several landscapes 
and battle-pieces. At the castle of Vincennes in 
France he painted four frescoes representing 
scenes in the battles of Alexander the Great. 

LECLAIRE, Victor, a French flower painter, 
was bom in Paris in 1830. He was a pnpil of his 
brother, L^on Louis Leclaire, and died in 1885. 
His *Fleurs d'automne,' painted in 1879, is in the 
Luxembourg Gallery. 

LECLERC, David, was born at Berne in 1680. 
He was instnicted by Werner, and at the age of 
eighteen went to Frankfort. He worked after- 
wards at the courts of Darmstadt and Cassel, and 
then went to Paris and studied under Rignud. 
He returned to Frankfort, and in 1715 visited 
England, but he eventually settled at Frankfort. 
He painted flowers, historical subjects, and portraits, 

33 



Leolero 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP 



Lederwasch 



of wliicli latter that of Prince Louis of Hesse is 
in the Darmstadt Gallery. He died at Frankfort 
in 1758. 

LKCLERC, Isaac, the brotlier of David Leclerc, 
was an engraver at the court of Cassel, where he 
succeeded his father. He died in 1746. 

LECLBUC, Jacques SiSbasiibn, the son of S^bas- 
tien Leclerc the younger, was bom in 1734. He 
was appointed assistant-professor of perspective in 
the Academy of Paris in 1778, and died in 1785. 
8ome of his works are in the Museum at Gnen. 

LE CLEUC, J RAN, a French painter and etcher, 
born at Nancy in 1587, wan a pupil of Carlo Sara- 
ceno. He engraved after Jean Cousin, and died 
at Nancy in 1633. 

LECLERC, Jean ThADiRic, the son of David 
Leclerc, was bom in London in 1717. He 
settled at Deux-Ponts, where he devoted himself 
to miniature painting, and was living in 1768. 

LECLERC, SiuASiiEN, the elder, a French en- 
graver, was bom at Metz in 1637. He was instructed 
in the elements of drawing by his father, Laurent 
Leclerc, a jeweller, and afterwards went to Paris. 
He applied himself to geometry, physics, and 
perspective, but by the advice of Le Brun he de- 
voted himself entirely to engraving, and became 
very proficient. He became an academician in 
1672, and from that year to 1702 he was Pro- 
fessor of Perspective at the Academy. He was 
appointed engraver to Louis XIV., and a Professor 
at the Gobelins. He died in Paris in 1714. He 
produced about 3400 plates, of which a 'Catalogue 
raiMonn^ ' was published by C. A. Jombert in 1774. 
Among them the most famous are : 

The Battles of Alexander ; after L$ Brun, 

The Coancil of Niciea. 

The Apotheosis of Isis. 

The Passion. 

Greek and Bonuui Costumes. 

LECLERC, SiBASTiEN, the younger, a French 
painter, was the eldest son of S^bastien Leclerc, 
the engraver, and was bom in Paris in 1676. He 
was a pupil of Bon de BouUongne, and was ad- 
mitted into the Academy in 1704, Ids reception 
work being * The Purification of ^neas previous to 
his Deification,' now at V^ersailles. He exhibited 
in the Salons of 1737, 1747, and 1761. He died in 
Paris, at the Gobelins, in 1763. In the Louvre is a 
picture of * The Death of Sapphira.* 

LECCEUR, Jean Baptistb, a French historical 
and genre painter, was bom at Le Mans in 1795. 
He was a pupil of Regnault, and exhibited at the 
Salon from 1822 to 1837, among his works being 
that of 'Charles VII. and A^nfes Sorel,' in the I 
Museum at Angers. He died m Paris in 1838. 

LECOMTE, HirpOLYTK, a French painter, was 
born at Puiseaux in 1781. He was a pupil of 
Mongin and of Regnault, and married Camille, the 
daughter of Carle Vemet He exhibited at the 
Sulun, from 1804 to 1847, historical subjects, land- 
scapes, and battle-pieces. He died in Paris in 
1857. Among his pictures are : 

Joan of Arc. 

Kwape of Mary, Qiteen of Scots, from Loch Leven. 
Battle of M iuterj, in Styria. 
liHttlf of Kaab. 

Louis XIII. Rtorm'ng the entrenchments of Pas-de- 
Suze. (FoMiaintbleau.) 

LKCOMTE, Marguebitb, a French engraver, 
was born in Paris about 1719, She etched some 
small Italian landscapes, but her name has been 
saved from oblivion less by her merits as an artist 

34 



than^by her connection with Watelet, with whom 
in 1764 she visited Rome, where she etched tho 
heads of Pope Clement XIIL and of Cardinal 
Albani. She died at the end of the 18th century. 
LE DAVIS, EuwARD, a painter and engraver, 
was bom in Wales about 1640. He was articled 
as a pupil to Loggan, but not being treated to his 
satisfaction, he fled from his indentures, and went 
to France as a domestic servant, but was able in 
Paris to resort to his art in both its branches. On 
his return he engraved some portraits and other 
subjects ; among which are the following : 

PORTBAITS. 

Charles II. seated. (The head was afterwards effaced 
and that of William IIL substituted for it.) 

Catharine, Queen of England ; full-length ; after J. B. 
Goipers, 

James, Duke of York. 

WilUam, Prince of Orange; after Sir Peter IMy. 

lAarj^ Princess of Orange ; after the same, 1678. 

The Dachess of Portsmouth. 

General Monck. 

Charles, Duke of Bichmond, when a boy ; after Wissintf. 

Stephen Monteage. 1675. 

Bertram de Ashbumbam, engraved for Ouillim's * He- 
raldry.* 
A Merry-Andrew; after Frans Hals, 

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS. 

St. Cecilia, with Angels ; after Van Byck, 

Eoce Homo ; after Carracci, 

Holy Family ; after a bassfhrilievo by Algardi, 

LEDERER, Hans. To this artist Professor 
Christ attributes some engravings marked with 

the cipher TTj. Brulliot and Nagler mention 

a Hieronymus Lederer, and the former says there 
are four prints by him expressing the tempera- 
ments of men, the * Sanguine,' the * Phlegmatic,' 
the * Choleric,' and the 'Melancholic' The first 
of these has the name A. ledfrer, and the Inst a 
mark, which may be taken for /. L, or ff. L, 
Malpe, he says, attributes these prints to Hans 
Lederer. 

LEDERER, Johanv, a painter, was the youngest 
of three brothers who flourished at Augsburg, 
and painted on glass and in oil. He was court 
painter to the Prince-Bishop of Freising. In the 
cathedral of Augsburg and in other churches are 
altar-pieces by him and in the Franciscan church 
at Freising is an altar-piece representing the 
' Death of St. Francis of Assisi.' He died about 1785. 

LEDERLEIN, Jakob, a German engraver on 
wood, was bom at Tubingen about the year 1565. 
He executed a set of portraits of the professors of 
the University in that city, which were published 
by Erhard Zell in 1596. 'There are other prints 
by this master, some of which are dated 1590. 
He usually marked his works with the monogram 

LEDERWASCH, Christoph, was a German en- 
graver, who flourished at Salzburg from 1668 to 
1687, and there also painted altar-pieces. Among 
his engravings are * The Virgin presented in the 
Temple,* after Romanelli, and *The Heavenly 
Glory,' after himself. 

LEDERWASCH, Gregor, an Austrian painter, 
was born at Salzburg in 1726. He painted many 
altar-pieces, but his monochrome landscapes and 
viewe were most celebrated. He died at Salzburg 
in 1792. 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Leeoh 



LEDESMA, Bla8 db, was a Spaoisk painter of the 
reign of Philip II. (1556 — 1598). He is mentioned 
by Pacheco as a successful imitator of the frescoes 
of Julio and Alessandro. 

LEDESMAi Josef de, was born at Burgos in 
1630. After acquiring some knowledge of paint- 
ing in his native city, he came to Madrid and 
entered the school of Garreiio. His principal 
works were a ' Burial in the Recollet Convent/ and 
pictures of the Trinity and Saints in the Convent 
of the Holy Trinity, which were pleasing in colour. 
He died in 1670. 

LEDOULX, PiETBB, was bom at Bruges in 
1730. He studied at the Bruges Academy under 
Jan Garemyn, and afterwards under Matthias De 
Yiscb. He painted views, but his principal work 
was his collection of insects and flowers painted 
in miniature. He collected materials for a 
' History of the Arts and Painters of the 18th and 
19th centuries.' He died in 1807. 

LE DOYEN, , a French engraver, lived at 

Paris about the year 1666, and executed some 
plates for the booKsellers, among which are some 
prints of ornaments, and the plates for a book 
entitled 'Figures des diff^rents Habits des Cha- 
noiries reguliers en ce si^cle/ published at Paris in 
1666. 

LEDRU, HiLAiRE, a French portrait painter, was 
born at Oppy, near Calais, in 1774. He was self- 
taught, but several of his works were in high 
repute, and gained medals. He died in Paris in 
1840. 

LE DUCQ, Jan, a Dutch painter, was bom at 
the Hague in 1636. He learned tlie principles of 
art under Paul us Potter, and for some time imitated 
the style of that admired painter of animals. He 
afterwards changed his style, and painted corps- 
de-garde, assemblies of ofiicers, and card-players. 
His pictures of this description are more frequently 
met with than his cattle-pieces, which are very 
scarce. He was director of the Academy at the 
Hague in 1671, and had acquired the reputation of 
an able painter, when in 1672 he abandoned art, 
and adopted a militaiy life. He died as a captain 
between 1680 and 1685. Pictures by him are at 
Amsterdam, Copenhagen, Dresden, St. Petersburg, 
Vienna, and several other places. Le Ducq etched 
a few plates from his own designs, among which 
is a set of eight prints of dogs, very neatly and 
spiritedly executed. 

LEE, A., was a portrait painter, who practised in 
the reign of George II. 

LEE, Anna, a native of London, was a pupil of 
Parkinson, who gained a great reputation by her 
paintings and drawings of natural history subjects. 
She died about 1790. 

LEE, Fredebick Richabd, a landscape painter, 
was born at Barnstaple in 1798. When very young 
he served a campaign in the Netherlands in an 
infantry regiment. He then became a student in 
tlie schools of the Royal Academy, where he first 
exhibited in 1824. His works also appeared at 
tlie British Institution, from which he received a 
premium of £50 in 1829. The Academy elected 
him an Associate in 1834, and an Academician in 
1838. His works were cMefly inspired by English 
scenery, and the cattle in many of them were 
painted by Sidney Cooper. He ceased to exhibit 
at the Academy after 1870, and spent the remain- 
ing years of his life in yachting and travel. He 
died in Cape Colony in 1879. Amongst his works 
are: 

D 2 



London. JYat. Gallery. Tho Cover Side. 1839. {Lent 

to the Corj,oration ofNottiny- 
ham.) 

Showery Weather. 1834. (Lent 
to the Corporation ofGlasgoto) 

Evening in the Meadows. 1854. 
(Lent to the Walker AH Gal- 
leryt Liveiyool.) 

A River Scene. 1855. 

„ Gathering Seaweed. 1836. 

„ Distant View of Windsor. 

BridgewaUr Gall, St. George*s HUl, Oatlanda 

Park. 1840. 
Wobum. Abhey, Scene in Devonshire. 

y, Scene m Wobum Park. 1839. 



n 



n 






n 



}» 



>» 



i» 



LEE, Jambs, a wood-engraver, flourished in the 
latter part of the 18th century, and in early life 
worked for some time in Paris. He engraved the 
illustrations for the * Cheap Repository,' 1794-98, 
Hansjird's * Typographia,* and for a reading-book, 

* A Wreath for the Brow of Youth,' as well as for 
many other children's books. He died in 1804. 

LEE, Joseph, an enamel painter, was born in 
1780. He exhibited enamel miniatures at the 
Royal Academy from 1809 to 1853. In 1818 he was 
appointed enamel painter to the Princess Charlotte, 
whose portrait he exhibited in the same year and 
in 1823 ; and in 1832 enamel painter to the Duke 
of Sussex, whose portrait after Thomas Phillips, 
R.A., he exhibited. He died at Gravesend in 
1859. There is an example of his art at South 
Kensington. 

LEE, William, a water-colour painter, was bom 
in 1810. His paintings consist chiefly of English 
rustic and French coast figure-pieces. He was 
elected a member of the Institute of Painters in 
Water-Colours in 1846, and was for many years con- 
nected with the Langham School. Among the later 
pictures painted by him were * The Long Sermon,' 

* The Rustic Beauty,' and * The Drinking Fountain,' 
He died in London in 1865. 

LEECH, John, the eminent comic draughtsman, 
was born in London in 1817. His father, John 
Leech, was an Irishman, who possessed some 
skill with the pencil, and from him the son in- 
herited the talent. At three years old he was 
discovered by Flaxman seated on his mother's 
knee drawing, and the great sculptor foretold that 
he would astonish the world. At the age of seven 
he was sent to the Charterhouse, where he formed 
a life-long friendship with Thackeray. At the 
age of sixteen he was placed at St. Bartholomew's 
Hospital to study medicine, but he gradually gave 
up his medical studies and resolved to devote him- 
self to art. He was eighteen years old when he 
published his firet work, entitled ^Etchings and 
Sketchings by A. Pen, Esq.,' which consisted of a 
book, quarto size, of four leaves covered with 
sketches. He next turned his attention to litho- 
graphy, and his caricature of Mulready's envelope 
brought him into notice. A great deal of his early 
work may be seen in * Bell's Life,' and in 1840, in 
conjunction with Percival Leigh, he published tho 

* Comic Latin Grammar' and 'Comic English Gram- 
mar.' In August 1841, in the fourth number of 
'Punch,* appeared Leech's first contribution. To the 
second volume of ' Punch ' his contributions did not 
amount to more than half-a-dozen, but after that 
till 1864 his drawings amounted to more than three 
thousand ; and he is said to have received for them 
more than £40,000. In 1840 he assisted Cruik- 
shank with the illustrations to the 'Ingoldsby 

35 



lieemans 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Leflvre 



Legends/ and in 1844 he illustrated the ' Christmas 
Carol* of Dickens. In 1847 appeared Gilbert k 
Beckett's ' Comic History of England/ which was 
followed in 1852 by the companion work, 'The 
Comic History of Rome,' both profusely illustrated 
by Leech. In 1853 appeared the series of sporting 
novels entitled *Mr. Sponge's Sporting Tour,' 
' Handley Cross,' etc. In 1854 appeared the first 
series of his pictures of 'Life and Character' 
reprinted from * Punch,' of which a second and a 
third series were published respectively in 1858 
and 1860. In 1858 Leech went a tour in Ire- 
land, the result of which was the publication of a 
book written by Canon Hole, his travelling com- 
panion, and illustrated by himself. Among his 
other etchings may be named those that appeared 
in * Punch's Pocket- Book,' and the wood-cut illus- 
trations to *Once a Week' and the 'Illustrated 
London News.* In 1862 he exhibited in the 
Egyptian Hall his ' Sketches in Oil,* the subjects 
of which were reproduced from the most remark- 
able of his ' Punch ' drawings : this exhibition was 
a great success; In the same year, in company 
with Mark Lemonj he went to Paris, and after- 
wards to Biarritz. In 1864 he went to Hamburg in 
company with Alfred Elmore, and afterwards to 
Schwalbach. On his return to England he went 
to Whitby with his family, but after his return to 
London he succumbed in the same year to the 
malady from which he had long been suffering. 

LEBM ANS, A., was a painter of birds and acces- 
sories of hunting scenes, who flourished at the 
Hague about 1662. 

LEBN, WiLLEU VAN, was bom at Dordrecht in 
1753. He w«s a pupil of Arends, Cuyper, and 
Ponse. At the age of twenty he went to Paris, 
where he remained three years studying flowers. 
He then went to Rotterdam, but in 1787 returned 
to Paris, where lie was induced to remain for two 
years. In 1789 the Revolution compelled him to 
quit Paris, and he went to Delf shaven, where he 
died in 1825. 

LEEPE, Jan Antoon van deb. See Van per 
Lekpe. 

LEES, Charles, a Scottish painter, who wos 
bom in 1800, is chiefly known for his historical 
paintings, such as *The Murder of Rizzio' and 
'John Knox during liis Confinement* He also 
executed various landscapes of merit. His paint- 
ings were frequently seen on the walls of the 
Royal Scottish Academy, of which he was a 
member from 1830 until his death in 1880. 

LEEST, Antoniub van, is stated by Papillon to 
have been an engraver on wood of some talent, 
who executed, among others, four cuts of the 
* Four Evangelists.* 

LKEUW, De. See De Leeuw. 

LKKUW, Van der. See Van deb Leeuw. 

LE F^BRE, RoLLAND. See Lef&vrb. 

LK FEBRE, Valentin, (or Lefebitre.) a Flemish 
painter and engraver, was bom at Brussels in 1642. 
During a long residence in Venice he painted 
portraits and historical pictures in the style of 
pjiolo Veronese, and etched numerous plates after 
Hint master, as well as after Titian and Tintoretto. 
Muiy of his etchings were published in Venice in 
1682, in a large folio volume, entitled, * Opera 
se'ectiora quae Titianus Vecellius Cadiibriensis, et 
Paul us Calliari Veronensis inventernnt et pinxerunt ; 
qu>Ji;que ValentinuR Le Febre Bruxellensis delineavit 
et sculpsit.* He died at Venice about 1700. 

LE FEBURB, Francois. See Le F^vre. 

36 



LEFEBURE, Valentin. See Le F^bre. 

LEFEBVRE, Charles Victor Eugene, a French 
historical painter, was bom in Paris in 1805. He 
studied under Gros and Abel de Pujol. His first 
contribution to the Salon was *The Prisoner of 
Chillon,' exhibited in 1827. He died in 1882. 

LE FEBVRE, Claude, a French portrait painter, 
was bom at Fontainebleau in 1633. He studied 
after the works of Le Sueur and Le Brun in the 
chateau of that town, and became an excellent 
painter of portraits, which resemble in their tone 
the works of Van Dyck. In 1663 he was received 
a member of the Academy, on which occasion he 
painted the portrait of Colbert. After this he 
went to England, and met with great encourage- 
ment at the court of Charles II. He died in Paris 
in 1675. Two of his portraits are in the Louvre, 
and in the National Portrait Gallery is a portrait 
by him of Isaac Barrow. He also etched a few 
portraits. Jacques Le Febvre, his brother, who 
died in 1678, was also an excellent painter of 
portraits. 

LEFEBVRE, Robert. See Lef^vre. 

LEFfcVRE, D6sir6 Achille, a French engraver, 
the son and pupil of S^bastien Lefevre, was born 
in Paris in 17U8, and died in the same city in 
1864. There are by him : 

The AnnaDciation ; after Murillo. 
The Immaculate Oonception ; afUr the same, 
Jeanne d'Aragon ; after Raphael. 
The TYIumph of Galatea ; after the same. 
The Sleeping Child (the King of Rome) ; after Prud'k<m, 
The Madonna of St. Sebastian ; after Corregyio. 
The Nativity, called * Le Notte ' ; after the tame. 
The Sleep of Antiope ; after the same. 
Napoleon I. ; after C. Steuben. 
Amalie, Queen of France ; after Winierhalter. 
The Duchess of Orleans, with the Comte de Paris; 
after the same, 

LE FifeVRE, FRANgois, (or Le Febure,) was a 
goldsmith and engraver, who worked in Paris 
about 1635. Amongst his known works are six 
engravings of flowers, entitled : * Livre de fleurs 
et de feuilles pour servir k I'Art d'Orf^vrerie.' 

LE F^VRE, Robert, a French historical, por- 
trait, and decorative painter, was bom at Bayeux in 
1756. It was intended by his father that he should 
enter the legal profession, but his inclination for 
art was too strong, and at the age of eightee^lie 
made the journey to Paris on foot in order to see 
its treasures. He returned to Caen, and at length, 
by the works which he executed in the ch&teau of 
Airel, near St. Lo, he was enabled to raise funds 
to study under Regnault at Paris. He obtained a 
great reputation as a portrait painter, and most 
of the eminent personages of the time sat to 
him. On the Restoration, he was appointed 
principal painter to Louis XVIII. He put an 
end to his life in Paris in 1830, in consequence, 
it is said, of being deprived of his appointments 
by the Revolution of July. Amongst his works 
are: 

Antwerp. 

Caen. 

Compl^gne. 

Paris. 

Eochelle. 

Versailles. 



Jifuseum. Portrait of Van Dael. 

Museum. Portrait of the poet Malherbe. 

Museum. Phocion. 

Louvre. Love disarmed by Venns, 1795. 

Museum. Apotheosis of St. Louis. 

Gallery. Portrait of Napoleon I. 



LEFiiVRE, RoLLAND, called Rolland de Venise, 
was bom in Anjou in 1608, and spent considerable 
time at Venice and London, in which latter city 
he died in 1677. He painted portraits and his- 
torical subjects of a small size. One of his best 



ZiOFd^re 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Leicester 



portraits is that of Cigala, which has been engraved 
by Picart. He was patronized in England by 
Prince Rupert, but he is more esteemed for a mode 
of staining which he introduced than for his skill 
08 a painter. 

LE FEVRE, Valentin. See Le F^bre. 

LEGAT, Francis, an engraver, was bom in 
Scotland in 1765, and after receiving instruction 
in art at Edinburgh under Alexander Runciman, 
he came in 1780 to London, where he found em- 
ployment with Boy dell and other publishers. In 
consequence of his engraving of ' Ophelia before 
the King and Queen,' he was towards the end 
of the century appointed engraver to the Prince 
of Wales. He died in London in 1809. He 
engraved several plates in a very finished style, in 
which he appears to have imitated the fine manner 
adopted by Sir Robert Strange. Among others 
are the following plates^ which were engraved for 
Boydell : 

Uaiy, Qtteen of Scots, resignicg her Crown ; after Gavin 

Hamilton. 1786. 
The OontiueDoe of Scipio ; after iV. Poussin, 1784. 
The King, Queen, and Laertes, in * Hamlet ' ; after West, 
The Children in the Tower, from * Richard the Third ' ; 

after Northcote, 
Scene from * King Lear ' ; after Barry. 

LE6ILL0N, Jean FRANgois,a Flemish landscape 
painter, was born of French parentage in 1739 
at Bruges, where he was a pupil of M. De Visch, In 
1760 he went to Rouen and studied at the Academy 
under J. B. Descamps, carrying off the silver 
medal in 1762. In 1763 he travelled through 
France and Italy, and returned to Rouen in 1769. 
In 1770 he went to Rome, where he remained for 
two years, and then travelled again through Italy, 
returning to Bruges in 1774. There he established 
a small school, but in 1779 he went to Paris, and 
travelled through Switzerland, returning again to 
Bruges in 1780. In 1782 he removed from Bruges 
and settled in Paris, where he was made a member 
of the Academy and painter to the king in 1789. 
The troubles of the French Revolution compelled 
him to return to Bruges, where he remained. 
In 1797 the wish to see a friend took him again 
to Paris, where he was seized with sudden illness 
and died. 

LE6NANI, Stefano Maria, called II Leqnanino, 
was bom at Bologna in 1660. He was called 
'Legnanino' to distinguish him from his father, 
Ambrogio Legnani, a portrait painter, by whom he 
was instructed in the first rudiments of design. 
He afterwards studied at Bologna under Carlo 
Cignani, and at Rome under Carlo Maratti. He 
distinguished himself as a fresco painter, particu- 
larly in Sant' Angiolo at Milan, where he has 
represented a battle gained under the protection 
of St. James, which is treated with a fire and 
capacity equal to the most'difficult subjects in the 
art Many of his works are at Qenoa, at Turin, 
and in Piedmont. The cupola of San Gaudenzio 
at Novara is esteemed one of his best works. 
He died at Bologna in 1715. He has left some 
etchings, among which are a * Virgin ' and a * Holy 
Family.' In the Brera at Milan is a portrait of 
the painter. 

LEGNANO, Francesco da. See Barbieri. 

LEGOTE, Pablo, was a Spanish painter, who 
flourished in the early part of the 17th century. 
Between the years 1629 and 1636 he was engaged 
with Alonzo Cano in painting and gilding in the 
church of Lebrija. The subjects of his pictures 



were the * Annunciation,' the ' Nativity,* tlie 
* Epiphany,' and the two St. Johns. In 1647 
Cardinal Spinola, Archbishop of Seville, commis* 
sioned him to execute for the large hall of his 
palace a full-length series of apostles. A similar 
series, which hung in the church of the Hospital of 
Pity, was by some attributed to him, but by others 
to tlie elder Herrera. He afterwards went to 
Cadiz, where he was employed in 1662 to paint 
banners for the royal fleet. 

LE GOUAZ, Yves Marie, a French engraver, 
was bom at Brest in 1742. He went young to 
Paris, where he became a pupil of J. Aliamet, and 
was afterwards instructed by Nicolas Ozanne. He 
died in that city in 1816. There are by him a great 
many plates of views of the sea-ports of France, 
after the designs of Ozanne, and other subjects 
after Hackert, Vemet^ &c. ; among them are the 
following : 

Three Views of the Ports of Toulon, Brest, aud Bouen ; 

after Ozanne, 
The Port of Antibes ; after the same. 
View of the Port and Gulf of Oalvi, iu Oorraca ; after 

La Oroix, 
View of the Port of St. Lawrence ; after the same, 

LE GRAND, Louis, a French engraver, was born 
iu Paris about 1730, and died about 1784. He was 
chiefly employed in vignettes and other illustrations 
of books, many of which were after the designs of 
Gravel ot, Eisen, and others. He engraved a set of 
plates for an edition of Ovid's * Metamorphoses,* 
published at Paris in 1767-71. There are also by 
him some large plates of ruins. 

LEGRU, Angelica. See Perotti. 

LEG U AY, Charles IStienne, was bom at Sdvres 
in 1762, and studied design and painting in the 
china manufactory of that town, where he was 
aften^'ards employed. His chief objects of study 
were Boucher and Van Loo, but he went to Paris 
for iuiprovement, and studied for some time at the 
Academy. He died in 1840. His chief works are 
on porcelain, but he painted also on glass. 

LE HAY, Elisabeth Sophie. See Chi^ron. 

LEHMANN, Charles Ernest Rodolphe Henri 
Salem, a French painter, was born at Kiel, in Hol- 
stein, in 1814. He became a pupil of Ingres, and 
contributed his first picture to the Salon in 1835. 
His first works were Scriptural subjects, but his 
reputation rests chiefly upon his portraits. He 
was also employed in mural decorations, among 
which were the chapels of the church of St. Merry, 
and the galleries of the Hdtel de Ville, Paris. In 
1861 he was made head of the Academic des Beaux- 
Arts, and in 1875 professor in the I&cole des Beaux- 
Arts. He died in Paris in 1882. 

LEHNEN, Jakob, was bom at Hinterweiler, 
Eifel, in 1803, and studied at the Academy of 
Diisseldorf, He painted fruit, dead game, flowers, 
birds, breakfast- tables, hunting-parties, and land- 
scapes. Three pictures by him are in the National 
Gallery at Berlin. He died at Coblence in 1847. 

LEICESTER, Sir John Fleming, Bart., an 
amateur draughtsman, was bom in 1762. He was 
instructed by Vivares and Paul Sandby. He drew 
in Indian-ink and tinted with bistre, and appears 
as an occasional honorary exhibitor at the Royal 
Academy. He was one of the originators of the 
British Institution in 1805, and was distinguished 
for his patronage of English art. He was created 
Baron De Table^ in 1826, and died at Tabley 
House, Cheshire, in 1827, 

87 



Leicher 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP 



LeUo 



LEICHER, Felix Ivo, a German painter, was 
born at Wagetadt in Upper Silesia in 1727. He 
was first educated at Freyberg in Moravia, but 
afterwards went to the Academy at Vienna, and 
gained great reputation as a painter of altar- 
pieces. He was still living in Vienna in 1811. 

LEICHNER, JoHANN Georo Heinbich Theo- 
DOR, was born at Erfurt in 1684. He was at first 
a pupil of Hildebrand, and at the age of sixteen 
he went to Leipsic to study under Leschner, whose 
daughter he married. He afterwards entered the 
studio of Puhlmann, where he worked for several 
years, copying the works of Van der Werf, Mieris, 
Van Huysum, and others. He died at Leipsic in 
1769. 

LEIGEL, Gottfried, a native of Switzerland, 
flourished from the year 1527 to 1560. He en- 
graved a set of woodcuts of figures for the 
Bible, which are marked with a cipher composed 

of his initials (fc . 

LEIGH, James Matthews, an historical painter, 
was bom in 1808. He studied under Etty, and oc- 
casionally exhibited at the Royal Academy— chiefly 
sacred subjects— from 1830 to 1849. During one 
part of his career he was much occupied in literary 
pursuits, and in his later years he established an 
art school in Newman Street, which obtained a good 
reputation. He died in London in 1860. 

LEIGH, T., was a portrait painter, who practised 
about the middle of the 17th century, and by 
whom is a portrait of Robert Davis, a distinguished 
Royalist, dated 1643. 

LEINBERGER, Christian, a German painter, 
was bom at Erlangen in 1706. He worked in 
Italy, and painted historical and allegorical pictures, 
among which was the * Stoning of St Stephen. 
He died in 1770. His works are signed with the 

initials C.L,^ or this monogram : Q^* 

LEINBERGER, Georo Karl, bom at Erlangen 
in 1718, visited Italy with his brother Christian 
at the age of thirteen. After having stayed three 
years at Venice, Rome, and Naples, he went by 
way of Vienna to Frankfort, and painted with his 
brother the ceiling in the Imperial Electoral Hall, 
after which they worked in Westphalia and 
Baireuth. Georg Karl went again to Italy, and 
was employed at the court of Turin ; he subse- 
quently visited Lyons, Paris, Holland, and Copen- 
hagen, where he worked some time at the court, 
and afterwards returned to Baireuth. He died 
at Anspach in 1797. 

LEIPOLDT, J. Tlie name of this engraver is 
affixed to a small oval portrait of Mary, Queen of 
Scots, with a crucifix m her right hand and the 
axe in her left. 

LE ISM ANN, Johann Anton. See Eismann. 

LEISNIER, Nicolas Auguste, a French engraver, 
was born in Paris in 1787, and died at Clamart in 
1858. Among his works are portraits of Marc- 
Antonio and La Fomarina, after Raphael, and of 
Cervantes, after Valazquess. 

LEITCH, William Leighton, a Scottish water- 
colour painter, was born at Glasgow in 1804. He 
was educated at a private school, and aftei'wards 
at the Highland Society School. As a schoolboy 
he showed great liking for drawing, and made the 
acquaintance of Daniel Macnee, aiterwards Pre- 
sident of the Scottish Academy, with whom he 
used to study in the evening. He was placed by 
his friends in a lawyer's office, but he soon left 

38 



that uncongenial labour, and took employment 
with a decorator and sign-painter. He then came 
to London and worked as a scene-painter, and here 
he made the acquaintance of David Roberts and 
Ciarkson Stanfield. He then went to Italy, wliere 
he remained for five years, and on his return to 
London exhibited at the Royal Academy and other 
exhibitions. He was teacher of water-colour 
painting to the Queen, and other members of the 
royal family. He died in London in 1883. 

LEITNER, JoHANN Sebastian, an engraver, 
was bom at Nuremberg in 1715, and died in 1795. 
He engraved for the works of Knorr and others. 

LEJEUNE, Louis Fran<;iois, Baron and general, 
and formerly aide-de-camp to General Berth ier, was 
bom at Versailles in 1776. He claims a place hero 
as the painter of many of the battles in which he 
was engaged, and in which victory fell to the 
French ; among them are those of Marengo, Lodi, 
Aboukir, Mount Tabor, the Pyramids, the Passnge 
of the Rhine by Jourdun, the Battle of Moskowa, 
and several otiiers, all sketched at the several 
actions, and afterwards transferred to canvas. He 
died at Toulouse in 1848. Some of his battle- 

Sieces have been engraved by Jacques Joseph 
oiny and Bovinet. 

LE JUGE, G., a French engraver of the 17th 
century, studied probably under Vouet. Among 
his works are : 

A Holy Family ; after his own design. 

A series of thirteen Mythological Subjects ; after Ago9~ 

tino Carraeci, 
The Oommimion of St Jerome ; after the same, 

LE EEUX, Henrt, a line-engraver, bom in 
1787, was a younger brother of John Le Keux. 
He was articled to Basire, and was engaged on 
the Oxford Almanacs, and afterwards on the illus- 
trations for the * Beauties of England and Wales.' 
He assisted his brother in Britton's * Cathedrals,' 
and with Blore produced the * Monumental Re- 
mains.' He engraved Claude's < Embarkation of 
St. Ursula,' as well as plates for the * Forget-me- 
not,' and other annuals, after Martin and Prout, 
and after Turner for Rogers's * Poems.' He retired 
from his profession in 1838, and went to reside at 
Rocking in Essex, where he engaged in a crape 
manufactory, and died in 1868. 

LE EEUX, John, a line* engraver, was bom in 
London in 1783. At first ho worked witli his 
father, a pewter manufacturer, but at the age of 
about seventeen be was apprenticed to Basire, the 
engraver. Architectural and antiquarian subjects 
chiefly engaged his attention, and he worked much 
in conjunction with Britton. He died in 1846. 
Many of his works are to be found in : 

Britton's ' Architectural Antiquities.' 

„ < Cathedral Antiquities.' 
Beck's < Annales FamieDsea' 
Neale's ' Memorials of Oxford.' 

„ ' Westminster Abbe^.' 
Pagin's ' Architectural Antiquities of Normandy.' 

M ' Specimens of Gothic Architecture.' 

„ < Exaiiples of Gothic Architect are.* 
Le Kenx's ' Memorials of Cambridge. ' 

Amongst his separate plates are : 

Msoenas* Villa ; after Wilton. 
Easby Abbey ; after Turner, 
Borne; after the tame. 

LELIE, De. See De Lelie. 
LELIENBERGH, Cornelis. See Lilienberqh. 
LELIO DA NOVELLARA. See Orsi. 



PAINTERS AND ENGEAVEUa 



lie Mire 



LELLI, Ergolb, was born at Bologna in 1702, 
and became a scholar of Giovanni Pietro Zanotti. 
He appears to have applied himself more to the 
study of the anatomy of the human body than to 
painting ; and is more celebrated for his anatomical 
preparations in wax, at the Bolognese Institute, 
than for his works as a painter. The only paint- 
ings by hiiu mentioned are his picture of the Virgin 
and Infant, with St Anthony of Padua and St 
Clara, in the church of Sant' Andrea delle Scuole, 
at Bologna ; and a St Fidele, at the Cappuccini, 
at Piacenza. He was an eminent teacher of de- 
aign, and had many pupils. He afterwards became 
director of the Academy at Bologna, and died 
there in 1766. He has also left some engravings, 
one of the best of which is ' Hagar and IshmaeL' 

LELLI, GiovAKNi Antonio, was bom at Home 
in 1591, and was a disciple of Lodovico Cardi, 
called Cigoli. Although he was more employed in 
easel pictures for pnvate collections, there are 
some of his works in the churches at Rome, which 
entitle him to the rank of a respectable historical 
painter. In San Matteo in Merulano is an admired 
picture by him of the ' Annunciation ' ; and in the 
cloister of La Minerva, his most celebrated work 
of the ' Visitation of the Virgin to St Elisabeth.' 
He died in 1640. 

LELOIR, LoDiB, a French water-colour painter, 
was bom in Paris in 1843. He was a pupil of his 
father Auguste Leloir, and sent to tne Salon of 
1863 'La Massacre des Innocents/ which was 
followed by other excellent works. He died in 
1884. 

LE LORRAIN, Loms Joseph, a French painter 
and engraver, was bom in Paris in 1715. He was 
a pupil of Jean Dumont, and visited Rome for 
improvement After his return he was received a 
member of the Academy. He went to St Peters- 
burg in 1758, where he chiefly distinguished him- 
self as a painter of theatrical decorations. He 
died in that city in 1760. Two paintings by him 
are mentioned : 

The King of France as Apollo, proteotinf Painting and 

Seulptuxe. 
The Cinoee ; a oeiling-pieoe. 

He engraved some prints from his own designs, 
and the following after J. F. de Troy : 

The Judgment of Sotomon. 
Solomon sacrificing to Idols. 
Esther before Ahasaerus. 
The Death of Cleopatra. 

LELY,''Sii' Peter. See Vak der Faes. 

LE MA IRE, FRAK901B, wasbom atMaison Rouge, 
near Fontatnebleau, in 1620. He was a portrait 
pit inter and a good colourist, and was the master 
of Santerre. He was received into the Academy 
in 1657, upon the portrait of Jacques Sarrazin, and 
died in Paris in 1688. He was the nephew of 
Pierre Le Maire, and to distinguish htm from his 
corpulent relative w^as called * Jje petit Le Maire.* 

LE MAIRE, Pierre, a French painter and 
engraver, was bom at Dammartin, near Paris, in 
16^7. He was first instructed by Claude Vignon, 
and resided afterwards twenty years at Rome. 
After having returned to Paris in 1637 he went 
again to Rome, where he however did not stay 
long. He was the intimate friend of Poussin, and 
was called * Le Maire Poussin ; ' and, as he was a 
corpulent man, he was also known as 'Le gros 
Le Maire.' He died at Gaillon in 1659. In the 
Louvre there are by him two views of the ancient 



monuments of Rome. He distinguished himself 
also as an etcher. His plates, executed in the 
style of Vignon, are correctly drawn, and include 
fourteen subjects from the history of Paris, 1637 ; 
and ' David before the Ark,' after Domenichino. 

LEMBKE, JoHANN Philipp, was bom at Nurem- 
berg in 1631. He studied for some time under 
Matthaus Weyer and Georg Strauch, and then 
went, in 1653, to Italy, where the works of Pieter 
van Laer and Jean Courtois had a great influence 
on his style of painting. Lembke went subse- 
quently to the court of Sweden to bo principal 
painter to Charles XII. at Stockholm, where he 
eventually died in poverty in 1713. It is in 
Sweden — more especially in the castle of Drottning- 
holni — that his pictures may be seen. The Vienna 
Grollery has a ^Skirmish* by Lembke of much 
merit. The favourite subjects of this artist are 
battles, marches, sieges, skirmishes — ^in fact any- 
thing with military action. His works are good in 
composition, and equally well drawn and coloured. 
He also etched several plates. 

LEMENS, Balthazar, was born at Antwerp 
in 1637, and was one of the first artists who visited 
England after the Restoration, which held out a 
prospect of a revival of the encouragement of the 
arts ; but his expectations were disappointed. He 
painted small historical subjects, in which he dis- 
played a fraitf ul invention, and a neat and ready 
execution. But the fashion of the time was con- 
fined to portrait painting, and he was under the 
necessity of finishing the draperies and backgrounds 
for other artists. He died m Loudon in 1704. 

LE MERCIER, Antoinb. There are by this 
artist, who flourished about 1633, some slight but 
spirited etchings of architectural on^ments, &o., 
after the designs of P. Collo. 

LEMERCI^R, Jacques, born at Pontoise about 
1585, was an architect and engraver. In the latter 
capacity he etched with a spinted point the design 
of a model (not executed) by Michelangelo for 
the church of San Qiovanni de' Fiorentini at Home, 
1607; the statue of Henry IV., erected in San 
Giovanni in Laterano, in 1608 : and the catafalque 
at Rome for the obsequies of Henry IV., in 1610. 
He died in Paris in 1654. 

LEMERCIER, Philipp, was bom in 1689 at 
Berlin, where he attended the Academy. He after- 
wards visited Italy, France, and Hanover. He 
gained a reputation as a portrait painter, and 
came to England, where he found ample employ- 
ment for some time. After travelling through 
Ireland and Portugal he returned to Berlin, and 
died in 1760. 

LE MERSION, Madeleine, a French lady, 
etclied a plate of a ' Landscape and Cuttle/ in a 
style resembling that of Danckerts. It was published 
at Paris, without date or the name of the painter. 

LEMETTAY, Pierre Charles, was bom at 
Fecamp in 1726. He studied under Boucher, and 
after having obtained the first prize for Rome, he 
went to that city, and afterwards spent two years 
at Turin. On his return to Paris he became a 
member of the Academy, and received the tirle of 
painter to the king. He died in Paris in 1760. 
His sea-pieces resemble those of Vernet Leveau 
and Zingg engraved after him. 
LEMIRE, Antoine Sauvage. See Sauvage. 
LE MIRE, Noel, a French draughtsman and 
engraver, bdm at Rouen in 1724, was a scholar 
of Le Bas. He made numerous illustrative en- 
gravings for books ; particularly for the ' Contes ' 

39 



Lemoine 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP 



Lempereur 



of La Fontaine, 1762; *Le8 M6tamorphoBea 
d'Ovide,' published by him and Baaan in 1767-71 ; 
and ten plates after Eiaen for an edition of the 
< Temple de Gnide,' published in 1762. Independ- 
ently of these he engraved for other works a great 
number of subjects after Cochin, Eisen, and Moreau. 
* Le Gateau des Rois,' a satirical representation of 
the partition of Poland, by Moreau, was seized and 
the plate destroyed. Le Mire died in Paris in 
1801. The following are among his plates : 

PORTRAITS. 

Qtieen Marie Antoiaette, profile. 1775. 

Alexis Piron ; after Le'picie. 

Mademoiselle Olairon, crowned by Melpomene, Trith 

four French verses by Garrick ; after Gravelot, 
General Washington ; after Le Paon. 
The Marquis de La Fayette ; after the same, 

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTKR3. 

The Virgin and Child, with St. John ; after Parmtgiano ; 

for the Dresden Gallery. 
Jup'ter and Dauae ; after Annihale Carraeci, 
The Death of Lucretia ; after Andrea del Sarto, 
A pair of Views in Flau<lers, with figures ; after Teniert. 
A View of Mount Vesuvius in 1757 ; after Lacroix, 
The Arch of Titus ; after the same. 

LEMOINE, Pierre Antoine, a French fruit and 
flower painter, was born in Paris in 1605, and died 
in the sjime city in 1665. 

LEMOINE, Sdsanne. See Silvestre. 

LEMON NIER, Anicet Charles Gabriel, was 
born at Rouen in 1743. He was destined for a 
corrnnercial life, but he abandoned it and studied 
in Paris in the school of Vien, with David and 
Vincent as fellow-pupils.. In 1772 he carried off 
the * grand prix ' with his picture of * The Children 
of Niobe killed by Apollo and Diana.* In 1774 he 
went to Rome, and afterwards travelled through 
Italy. In 1786 he w^as couimissioned by the 
Chamber of Commerce of Rouen to paint a picture 
to commemorate the visit to Rouen of Louis XVI., 
which was exhibited in 1789, in which year he was 
made a member of the Academy. In 1810 he was 
appointed Director of the Tapestry Establishment, 
which post he held for six years. He also re- 
organized the Museum at Rouen, where there are 
twelve of his works. He died in Paris in 1824. 
Among his chief works are : 

The Plague at Milan. 1785. {Bouen Museum.) 
The Mis8ion of the Apostles. 1793. (The same.) 
Jesus calling to Him the Little Ones. 1783. (The same.) 
Christ in the Synagogue. 1782. {The same.) 
The Salon of Madame Oeoffrin. 1814. {MunieK.) 
Fraucis 1. receiving at Fontainebleau Raphael's * Holy 

Family.' 1814. {The same.) 
Louis XIV. inaugurating Puget*8 Btatae of Milo of 

Crotona. 1814. {The same.) 

LE MOYNEjERANgois, a French historical painter, 
was born in Paris in 1688. ^e entered the studio 
of Galloche, and in 1707 gained a prize for drawing, 
and in 1711 the 'grand prix*with his picture of 
' Boaz and Ruth,' which entitled him to go to Rome, 
but the state of affairs and the royal finances pre- 
vented Ids journey. In 1714 he painted a picture 
of 'St. John the Baptist* for the church of St 
EuBtuche in Paris. In 1716 he painted a * Tempt- 
ation/ which is in the church of Camon, near 
Amiens. In 1718 he became a member of the 
Academy, and his reception picture was ' Hercules 
and Cacus.' In 1719 he painted a picture of * St. 
Paul before Sergius,* which was destroyed in 1870 
in the siege of Strassburg. In 1722 he painted a 
picture of ' Tancred and Cloriuda,' which is now in 
the Museum at Bcsancon. He then took to decora- 

40 



tive painting, and his first essay was in 1723, when 
on the ceiling of the Novitiate of the Jacobins, which 
is now the Church of St. Thomas d'Aquin, he 
painted a large representation of tlie * Transfigura- 
tion.' In 1724 a patron, M. Berger, took him to 
Italy, where he spent about six months, where he 
seems rather to have studied Pietro da Cortona and 
Carlo Maratti than Michelangelo. On his return 
to Paris he painted * The Bathers,' and * Hercules 
and Omphafe.' In 1727, with his * Continence of 
Scipio,' he divided the honours with De Troy for 
a prize offered by Louis XV. In 1730 he painted 
an * Assumption ' for the cupola of the chapel of 
the Virgin in the church of St. Sulpice. He was 
commissioned to decorate the ceiling of the Grand 
Saloon at Versailles with the * Apotheosis of Her- 
cules,* an immense composition, which occupied 
him four years. This work procured him in 1736 
the appointment of principal painter to the king, 
which had been vacant since the death of Boul- 
longne in 1733. Notwithstanding this patronage, 
and that of the King of Spain, for whom he was 
commissioned to paint a large picture representing 
*• The Defeat of Porus,* owing to the loss of his 
protector, the Duke d'Antin, he fell into a state of 
melancholy. In 1737, when M. Berger visited 
him, he found that his door was closed, and on it 
being opened, it was discovered that Le Moyne 
had stabbed himself in several places. 

Among his principal paintings are tlie following: 

The Apotheosis of Hercules. 1732-36. {Versailles.) 
HercuLes and Cacus. 1718. {Louvre.) 
Hercules and Omphale. 1724. {Louvre.) 
Cupid and Cephalus. 1724. ( Versailles Jfairte.) 
Venus and Adonis. 1729. {Stockholm Museum.) 
The Ascension of Mary. {Cupola of St. Suljdee.) 
The Transfiguration. (St. Thomas (tAquin.) 

LEMOYNE, PBANgois, (or Lrmoine,) was a 
French engraver, who flourished in the 17th cen- 
tury, and was concerned with Berain and Chauveaa 
in designing and engraving the ornaments of paint- 
ing and sculpture which are in the Qallery o£ 
Apollo in the Louvre. 

LEMPEREUR, Catherinb Elisabeth, whose 
maiden name was Cousinet, the wife of Louis Simon 
Lempereur, was born in Paris in 1726. She was 
instructed in engraving by Laurent Cars and 
Fessard. There are several pleasing prints by 
her, among which are the following : 

Two ArchiteciuTal Subjects ; after PanninL 

The Milkmaid ; after Tenters. 

The Dangerous Forest ; after Wouwemum. 

The Rural Labours ; after the same. 

The Departure of Jacob ; after Boucher, 

Sir Marine Subjects and Sea-ports; after Vemet, 

LEMPEREUR, Jean Baptists Denis, the son 
of Jean Denis Lempereur, was bom in Paris about 
1740, and inherited the taste and talent of his 
father. It is probable that he died in 1796. He 
etched several plates after various masters, as well 
as from his own designs, among which are tho 
following : 

The Angel announcing to the Shepherds the Nativity 

of Christ ; after Boucher. 
The Murder of the Innocents ; after Pierre. 
Two Landscapes ; after Buisdael. 

LEMPEREUR, Jean Denis, a French amateur 
engraver, was born in Paris in 1701, but the date 
of his death is not known. He possessed an ex- 
tensive collection of pictures and drawings, and 
etched a variety of plates after Pietro da Cortona, 
Benedetto Castiglione, Van Dyck, and others. 



) 



Ijempereiir 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



LEMPEREUR, Louis Simon, a French engraver, 
was bom in Paris in 1728. He was a pupil of 
Pierre Aveline and Laurent Cars, and became a 
member of the Academy in 1776. He afterwards 
came to England, where he met with consider- 
able encouragement, but after a time returned to 
France, and died in Paris in 1807. There are several 
prints by this artist, which prove him to have 
posjiussetl very eminent talents. The following are 
his principal plates : 

PORTRAITS. 

£tienne Jeanrat, Painter to the King ; after Soslin ; 

engraved for his receptioo iDto the Academy. 
Pierre Laurent Buyrette de Belloy, a dramatic poet; 

an emblematical portrait, a/Ver Jb//a/a. 1765. 
Philippe Gayeux, Gcnlptor ; after Cochin. 
Claude Henri Watelet ; afier Uie same, 

SUBJECTS AFTSR VARIOUS MASTERS. 

The Bathers ; after C. van Loo, 

The lYiumph of Silenns ; after the same. 

Aurora and Tithonns ; after Pierre, 

A Sacrifice to Pan ; after the same. 

Bacchus and Ariadne ; after the same. 

The Forge of Yulcan ; after the same. 

The Bape of Europa : after the same, 

Pyramus and Thisbe ; after J. B. Cases. 

!nie Garden of Love; after Rubens; the same subject 

was engraved by Clouet and C. Jegher. 
A Spanish Festival ; after FalamedfS. 
Flemish Merry-makings, a pair ; after Tenters. 
The Bape of Proserpine ; after La Fosse. 

LEMPUT, Remi van, was bom at Antwerp, 
and arrived at some excellence by copying the 
works of Van Dyck. He came over to England, 
and died in London in 1675. His daughter was 
an artist, and married Thomas Streater. 

LE NAIN, Antoine, Louis, and Mathieu, three 
brothers, and the sons of a sergeant, were born at 
Laon in 1688, 1593, and 1607 respectively. After 
learning the elements of painting they together 
went to Paris, where Antoine was received as a 
painter in 16*29. L^toffe was instructed by Antoine 
about 1630, and his paintings, which are inferior 
to those of his master, are generally attributed to 
Louis and Mathieu. The three brothers worked a 
long rime together in Paris, and became members 
of the Academy in 1648, but both Antoine and 
Louis died in Paris in May of the same year. 
Mathieu painted historical subjects for churches, 
and portraits, among which were those of Cinq 
^lars. Cardinal Mazarin, and Anne of Austria. 
He died in Paris in 1677. It is probable that 
the very interesting and pleasing subjects known 
as the works of Le Nain were painted by 
Louis and Antoine conjointly. They consist of 
familiar objects and incidents, such as interiors of 
inns, rustic habitations, domestic en;^oyments, card- 
players, and village pastimes, and they have 
■charactieristic peculiarities that distinguish them 
from the works of all other masters. They are un- 
equalled for natural expression and an air of truth. 
The pictures by the Le Nains, which are best known, 
are of the cabinet size. There was one of unusually 
large dimensions in Watson Taylor's collection, 
representing the interior of an inn, with a party of 
travellers, an itinerant performer on the hurdy- 
gunly, and several other figures. Specimens are 
to be found in some of the richest cabinets in Eng- 
land, France, and Germany. The following are 
some of their principal works : 



Florence. Mttseum. 

Ix)ndon. Stafford House. 
Luton. Marguis of Bute, 
Nevers. Museum, 



Paris. 



Louvre, 



n 

n 



n 



8t. Etienne ) 
du Mont. J 
St, Laurent. 
Temple, 
Museum, 
Valenciennes. Museum, 



M 



»» 



Bouen. 



Lengerich 

Adoration of the Shepherds. 

Fife-player. 

The Studio of Le Nain. 

St. Michael offering Alms to 

the Virgin. 
Procession in a Ghuroh. (Doubt' 

^«^) 

The Holy Manger. 

The Smithy. 

The Watering Place 

The Village Bepast. 

The Nativity of the Virgm. 

The Visitation. 

The Presentation. 

Bustic Interior. 

Two Men playing at Oards. 



LENDINARA, Lobenzo da. See Canozzi. 

LENEY, William S., an engraver, was born in 
London, and practised as a stipple engraver to* 
wards the end of the 18th century. He was a 
pupil of Tomkins. He produced a large plate of 
the * Descent from the Cross,' after Rubens, and 
engraved for tSe Shakespeare Gallery. He emi- 
grated to America, where he made some money by 
engraving bank-notes, and bought a farm on the 
St. Lawrence, a little below Montreal, where he 
was living in 1808. 

LENFANT, Jean, a French engraver, was born 
at Abbeville about 1616, and died in Paris in 1674. 
He was the cousin and pupil of Claude Mellan, and 
followed the first style of that master, in which 
he used the cross strokes. The greater part of 
his prints are portraits, which are his best works. 
The following plates are by him : 

PORTRAITS. 

The Count de Brienne ; after Le Brun. 

Jacques de Souvre ; after Mignard. 1667. 

Francois du Tillet ; Lenfant ad vivum faciebat, 1663. 

Nicolas Blasset, architect. 1658. 

Francis de Harlay, Archbishop of Bouen ; after Cham^ 

paigne. 1664. 
Louis Boucherat, Chancellor of France. 1670. 

SUBJECTS, 

The Bust of the Saviour ; oval ; after Raphael, 

The Yirgm suckling the Lifant ; circular ; after Anni' 

bale Carracci. 
The Virgin adoring the Infant ; oval : after Guido Rent, 
Christ crowned with Thorns ; after Annibale Carracci, 

LENFANT, Pierre, a French battle-painter, 
was bom at Anet, near Dreuz, in 1704, and died 
in Paris in 1787. He was a pupil of Parrocel, and 
was made an academician in 1745, as a painter of 
landscapes and battle scenes. At Versailles are the 
following works by him : 

The Taking of Mervin. 
The Siege of Frihourg. 
The Siege of Mens. 
The Siege of Toumai. 

LENGELE, Martinus, was bom at the Hague 
in 1604, and distinguished himself as a portrait 
painter. There was by him in the Shooting-house 
a painting with ten large figures, representing 
the Company of ' Orange. He was appointed 
Director of the Academy in 1666, and died in 1661. 

LENGERICH, Hkinrich, was bom at Stettin in 
1790, and studied under Wach. In 1817 he visited 
Italy, where he studied chiefly the works of Raphael 
and Correggio. He was professor at the Academy 
at BerUn, where he died in 1865. A * Taking 
down from the Cross ' by him is in the church of 
St. Jakob at Stettin. 

41 



Lenker 



A BIOGRAPUICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Lens 



LENKER, Hans, was a goldsmith at Nuremberg. 
There is by him in the Royal Library at Munich a 
book of prayers orntiraented with beautiful minia- 
tures, the covers of which are engraved and 
enamelled in silver, and dated 1573. He was 
burgomaster at Augsburg. Hans Lenker, the 
elder, who is supposed to have been his father, was 
the author of a treatise upon optics, published in 
1616. 

LENOIR, Adelaide, whose maiden name was 
BiNART, was born in Paris in 1771. She was first 
instructed by her father, and afterwards by Re- 
nault. She painted several portraits, among which 
was that of her father, most of which were ex- 
hibited between 1801 and 1817. 

LENOIR, Marir Alexandre, was born in Paris 
in 1761. He was instructed in painting by Doyen, 
but it is chiefly as an art lover and writer that he is 
known. At tlie outbreak of the French Revolution 
he received pennission from the National Assembly 
to collect the principal ecclesiastical monuments 
and art treasures into one place, and he usod tlie 
Convent of the "Petits Augustins " as a museum, 
of which he became the president, and published 
eight volumes descriptive of its formation and 
contents. He also wrote a history of French art, 
and a work on hieroglyphics. His museum was 
scattered under Louis XVIII. 's government, and 
its president became in 1816 curator of tlie Royal 
Monuments. His collection of French portraits 
is at Stafford House, and has been lithographed 
by Lord Ronald Gower. He died in Paris in 1888. 

LENOIR, Paul Marie, was a French painter of 
ability, who died at Cairo in 1881. He was a 
pupil of G§r6me and Jalabert, and his ' Les Courses 
k Osaka, Japon,' in the Salon of 1880, attracted 
considerable attention. 

LENOIR, Simon Bernard, a French portrait 
painter, was bom in Paris in 1729, and died iu the 
same city in 1789. 

LENS, Andrew Bernard, and Peter Paul, were 
miniature painters, who practised in London about 
the middle of the 18th century. They were sons 
of Bernard Lens the younger. The first-named 
exhibited at the Incorporated Society from 1765 to 
1770, and sold a collection of his own and his 
fatlier's works in 1777. 

LENS, Andries, was bom at Antwerp in 1739, 
and was a scholar of Ykens and Balthasar Bescliey. 
At the age of sixteen he obtained the first prize 
at the Academy, of which he became a pro- 
fessor in 1763. In 1764 he was appointed court 
painter to Prince Charles of Lorraine, and went 
the same year to Italy, where he studied after 
Raphael and the old masters. In 1781 he estab- 
lished himself at Brussels, where he painted for 
the palaces and churches. He was a member of 
the Institute, and he died at Brussels in 1822. He 
has been called the regenerator of painting in 
Belgium, and a monument has been erected to 
him in Notre-Dame de la Chapelle, Brussels. The 
following are his most important paintings : 

Antwerp. Gallery. The Annanciatioii, 

Allegorical Subject. 
Portrait of Hartenasie, the 
Engraver. 
Brussels. Gallety. Delilah cutting oft the Lockti 

of Samson. 
„ Hotel Stevens, The principal events in the 

Fables of Bacchus. 
Gbont. St. Afirhel. The Annanciation. 

Lii-ge. Ch . of Alexiens, Subjects from the New Testa- 

meut. 1 

42 



»» 



»» 



»> 



liUa. Mad^ldne, The History of St. Mary Mag- 

dalene. 

L^ons. Alexian Church, Several paintiDgs. 

Vienna. Gallery. Several mythological paintings 

formerly in the palace of 
Laeken. 

LENS, Bernard, the elder, the son of a painter 
of the same name, of little note, was born in 
London in 1659, and was instructed by his father. 
He was a mezzotint engraver, and also etche<l a 
few plates, and drew views in Indian ink. He 
died in 1725. The following plates are by 
him: 

David with the Head of Goliath ; after V&menico Feti, 
The Judgment of Paris ; after Sir Peter Leiy. 
Bacchus, Yenns, and Geres ; after F. Badens. 
Three Landscapes, with Figures and Cattle ; after Ifer- 

chem, 
Riualdo and Armida ; after J, Vandervaart. 

LENS, Bernard, the younger, the son of Ber- 
nard Lens the elder, was bom in London in 1G80, 
and became celebrated for his fine copies in 
water-colours from Rube-ns, Van Dyck, and other 
masters. He was also an eminent miniature 
painter and drawing-master, and had the honour 
of instructing the Duke of Cumberland, and of 
becoming enameller and miniature painter to 
George II. He etched a few portraits, and two 
or three drawiT)g-books of landscapes and views, 
which he published for the use of his pupils. He 
died at Enightsbridge in 1740. He also engraved 
in mezzotint ; an account of 23 plates is given by 
Nagler. 

LENS, Jacor, a Flemish portrait and historical 
painter, brother of Andries Lens, was bom at 
Antwerp in 1746, and died about 1814. Amongst 
his pictures are : 

Bruflselt. Gallery, Portrait of the Emperor Leo- • 

pold. 

LENTHE, Friedricu Christofm Georg, was 
bom at Grabow, in Meclrienburg Schwerin, in 1774, 
and studied under Grassi at Dresden. He was 
director of the Gallery in 1811-12, and afterwards 
court painter of the Grand-Duke. He died at 
Ludwigslust in 1851. He worked with great 
ability, and his paintings are marked by a deep 
religious feeling. He also painted portraits, and 
was successful in mezzotint engraving. A ' Death 
of Christ * by him is in the cathedral of Schwerin. 

LENTZEN, Jan Frans, a Flemish landscape 
painter, was born at Antwerp in 1790, and died 
there in 1840. He is known chiefly by his success- 
ful copies of the works of Otnmeganck. 

LENTZNER, Johann Nikolaus, was bom at 
Sohleiz in Voigtland, in 1711. He was instructed 
by Dietrich at Weimar, and studied afterwards 
under Hamilton, in whose style, as well as in 
that of Wouwerman, Heinrich Roos, and Dietrich, 
he executed excellent landscapes, ruins, and cattle. 
He settled at Frankfort, and died there in 1749. 
In addition to several drawings in Indian ink and 
ruddle after the above-mentioned artists, he has 
left one of the * Festivities at the Coronation of the 
Emperor Charles VIL in 1741.' 

LENZ, Karl Gottlieb, was bom at Dresden in 
1753. He was a pupil of Hutin, and resided for 
some time at Schenau, but in 1788 he went to 
Rome, where he died in 1790. Among his works 
were * Paul and Festus,' and the * Worship of tho 
Golden Call' 



Leon 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Leone 



LEON, CHftiSTOBAL DE, a scholar of Valdee 
Leal, painted eighteen monastic portraits, and 
some aecorations in distemper for the church of 
San Felipe Neri, by wliich he proved himself, 
according toCean Bermudez, one of the best artists 
in Seville after the death of Murillo and Valdes. 
He died at Seville in 1729. 

LEON, Felipe db, a Spanish historical painter, 
appears to have been the brother of Christobal 
de Leon. He imitated the style of Murillo, and 
also copied the works of that master. Many of 
his copies were formerly at Seville, where they 
were held in great esteem by the amateurs. He 
likewise produced several pictures of his own 
composition; among others, ^The Prophet Elijah 
ascending to Heaven in a Chariot of Fire.' He 
died at Seville in 1728. 

LEON, Juan de Vanderbamen t. See Van- 

DKRHAMEN Y LeON. 

LKON, Juan Vai*dslmira de. See Yaldeluiba 
DE Leon. 

LEON LEAL, Simon db, a Spanish painter, was 
born at Madrid tn 1610. He was a scholar of 
Pedro de Las Cnevas, and distinguished himself 
both in history and portraits. In the latter, he 
formed his style from the chaste and simple colour- 
ing of Van Dyck. For the Premonstratensian 
Friars he painted an altar-piece representing ' St. 
Norbert triumphing over Heresy, and another 
picture of *St. Norbert receiving his vestments 
from the hands of the Virgin.' For the church of 
tlie Noviciado of the Jesuits he painted an altar- 
piece, and a series of pictures of the Infancy of 
Christ, and for the church ot the Capuchins an 
^Immaculate Conception.' He was appointed 
painter to the queen, and was much employed by 
the court He died at Madrid in 1687. 

LEON SALCEDO, Ionacio de, was a scholar of 
Valdes Leal, who studied in the Academy of 
Seville in 1666-7. He imitated the style of his 
master. His best work was in the Convent of 
Mercy, and represented * San Pedro Nolasco cor- 
recting the Novices of his Order.' 

LEONARD, Jean Pierre, a French still-life and 
historical painter, was born at Montpellier in 1790. 
He was a pupil of Gu^rin. Among his works are 
*The Baptism of our Lord,' and *The Baptism of 
tiie Eunuch,' in the Cathedral at Montpellier, and 
tl)e * Death of St. Joseph ' in the church of La 
Charite at Nimes. 

LEONARDIS, Giacomo, an Italian designer and 
etcher, was bom at Palma, in the Venetian State, 
in 1723, and died after 1780. He was instructed 
by ^L Benville and G. B. Tiepolo, and obtained 
the first prize at the Academy of Venice. He was 
skilful in preserving the character of the artist 
he represented. He etched several plates after 
Italian masters ; among which are the following : 

Capids at Play ; after Ghdio Oarpioni. 

The Triamph of Silenns ; after the same, 

Neptune and Thetin ; after Sebastiatuf Conea. 1765. 

The Rape of Eoropa ; after the faatie. 

Two plates of the Amusements of the Carnival : after 

Tinolo, 
The Golden Calf ; after Tintoretto, 
The Last Judgment ; after the same, 1768. 

LEONARDO, Agustin, a native of Valencia, is 
supposed to have taken the habit of the Order 
of Mercy at Xativa. In 1620 he was a brother 
of the convent of that order at Puig, near 
Valencia, where he painted for the sacristy four 
laige pictures of the ' Finding of the Image of Our 



Lady at Puig;' the * Siege of Valencia.' and its 
surrender to King James; and the * Battle of 
Puig,' in which St. George fought for the Christians. 
He afterwards visited Seville, where he painted a 
picture, dated 1624, of 'Christ and the Woman of 
Samaria.* In 1624-6 he was called to Madrid, 
where he painted two pictures for the great stair- 
case of the Convent of Mercy, which, according 
to Cean Bermudez, possessed some merit in draw- 
ing and composition, but were harsh in colouring. 
He was thought to excel in portraiture, and 
painted a portrait of Gabriel Bocangel, the poet. 
Palomino states that he died at Madrid in 1640, but 
Cean Bermudez thinks it more probable that he 
returned to Valencia, and died there at a later date. 
LEONARDO, Jdskpe, a Spanish painter of 
battles, was a distinguished scholar of Pedro de 
Las Cuevas. He was bom at Calatayud in Ara- 
gon in 1616, and died at Saragossa in 1656, of 

Eoison, supposed to have been administered to him 
y some who were jealous of his merits. He was 
painter to the king, and executed for the palace 
of Buen Retire works worthy of celebrity ; among 
them the * Surrender of Breda,' and the * Mnrch of 
the Duke of Feria's Troop upon Acqui,' which are 
now in the Madrid Gallery ; the latter is a picture 
of large dimensions and great merit. There is also 
a portrait of Alaric the Goth, which is one of the 
ornaments of the royal collection. 

LEONARDO da VINCI. See Vinci. 

LEONARDONI, Francisco, was born in 1654 at 
Venice, where he studied for some time. Expa- 
triated for some unknown cause, he travelled 
through various parts of Europe, and settled at 
Madrid in 1680. There he distinguished himself 
by his portraits, especially miniatures, although he 
also painted several pictures for the churches. In 
the church of the Convent of Atocha at Madrid, are 
two pictures of the * Marriage and Death of St. 
Joseph ; ' and in tlie church of San Geronirao el 
Real, a large altar-piece of the * Annunciation.' He 
died at Madrid in 1711. 

LEONART, Johannes Fredrik, a Flemish 
etcher and engraver in mezzotint, was born at 
Dunkirk about 1633, and died at Beriin in 1680. 
He engraved the portraits of Justus van Merstrae- 
ten, Syndic of Brussels, and his wife, after Van' 
Dyck. 

LEONBRUNO, Lorenzo, was bom at Mantua in 
1489. He studied after the works of Mantegna, 
attended the school of Lorenzo Costa in 1508, and 
visited Rome in 1521. Several of his paintings, 
which he executed in the palaces of his native 
city, have disappeared. There is by him in the 
Berlin Gallery the ' Judgment of Midas.' He died 
in 1537, probably at Mantua. 

LEONCINI, Francesco, was the engraver of a 
plate representing the * Flight into Egypt ; * it is 
etched in the style of a painter, and signed Fran- 
cesco Leoncini di S. GeminianOyf, et inv, 

LEONE, a Benedictine 'monk, was probably 
a native of Amalfi. He wrote in 1072 the Codex 
99, ' Homiliae diversse,' at Monte Cassino, which he 
illuminated with portraits and scenes from the 
Bible in miniature, that might easily be attributed 
to Cimabue or Giotto. He is probably identical 
with Leo, Cardinal Bishop of Ostia, who was 
secretary to Pope Urban II., and died in 1115. 

LEONE, Andrea di, born at Naples in 1596, 
was a disciple of Corenzio, II Greco, and Sal vat or 
Rosa. When Corenzio left Naples, Leone became 
his successor, and adorned the palace of the Viceroy 

43 



Leone 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



L6pici0 



in that city. He painted there several battles, 
but afterwards imitated Aniello Falcone in his 
works of a smaller size. There are sevend paint- 
ings by him in the cathedral and in San Paolo 
Maggiore at Milan. Ue died at Naples in 1675. 
The following also is by him : 

Hadrid. Gallery . The Wrestling of Jacob with the 

ADgel. 

LEONE, Gabriele. See Van dkr Leeuw. 

LEONELLOj^NTONio, was a native of Bologna, 
•who lived at the end of the 16th century. He 
painted chiefly fruits, flowers, and animals. 

LEONETTl, Giovanni BATTi8TA,wa8 an Italian 
engraver, who was working at Rome at the com- 
mencement of the 19th century, but who died 
before 1830. Among his works are the following : 

The Triumph of David ; after Guereino. 
Christ on the Cl•o^8; after F. Geid, 
Christ ia the Temple among the Doctors; after 
LeoTuxrdo da VincL 

LEONI, GuGLiBLMO DA, an Italian painter and 
engraver, was born at Parma in 1664. He is 
supposed to have been a pupil of Giulio Romano, 
but he soon abandoned painting for engraving. 
He died about 1740. 

LEONI, LoDOVico, called II Padovanino, was 
born at Padua in 1531. He spent most of his life 
in Rome, and executed portraits in wax, besides 
painting in oil and fresco landscapes and historical 
subjects. He died at Rome in 1606. 

LEONI, O'lTAvio, the son and pupil of Lodovico 
Leoni, was born at Rome about 1578. He 
was esteemed one of the ablest portrait painters 
of his time, and drew the popes, cardinals, and 
principal nobility of the period in which he lived. 
His talents were not, however, confined to por- 
traiture ; for he painted several altar-pieces for the 
churches in Rome. In Sant^ Eustachio is a picture 
by him of the * Annunciation ' ; in Santa Maria 
della Minerva, the * Virgin and Child, with St. 
Hyacinthe ' ; and in Sant' Urbano, * St Charles, St. 
Francis, and St Nicholas.' He was made principal 
of the Academy of St Luke, and a knight of the 
order of Christ, on which occasion he painted 
for the church of the Academy the * Martyrdom 
of St Martina.' He died at Rome in 1630. 
Ottavio Leoni was the engraver of a set of heads 
of painters and others, executed in a singular 
manner, but producing a very pleasing effect 
The hair and draperies are engraved with strokes ; 
the faces delicately dotted, with the shadows assisted 
with strokes. There are about twenty of the plates, 
among which are the following, which are signed, 
Mques Ottav. Leomis, Homamis pictor fecit, 

Ludovicus LeonuB, Pictor et Sculptor. 1625. 

Eques Ottav. Leonus ; se ipse fee, 1625. 

Joannes Franciscus Barbieri, Centinus pictor. 1628. 

Maroellus Provenzolis, Centensis. 1623. 

Eques Christophor. Konchalis de Pomeranciis, pictor. 

1623. 
Eques Joseph Caesar Arpinas, pictor. 1621. 
Autoniufi Tempesta, pictor Florentinus. 1621. 
Thomas Salinus, Romanus, pictor. 1625.> 
Fr. D. Antonius Barberinus. 1625. 

LEONORI, PiETRO Giovanni, was a painter of 
the Bolognese school, who about 1400 painted a 
< Madonna and Saints ' in the Custom House, and 
decorated with frescoes several public buildings. 

LEPAGE, FRANgois, a French flower painter, 
was born at Lyons in 1796., In 1826 he was 
appointed a Professor at the Ecole des Beaux- Arts 
at Lyona^ 

44 



LE PASTURE, Rogieb db. See Van der 
Weydkn. 

LE PAULTRE, Jean, (or Lb Pautbe,) a 
French draughtsman and engraver, was born 
in Paris in 1618. In the early part of his 
life he was placed with a carpenter and builder, 
under whom ne learned to draw plans and orna- 
mental designs. He afterwards turned his atten- 
tion to engraving, both with the point and the 
graver, and executed some fourteen or fifteen 
hundred plates, consisting of architectural decora- 
tions, friezes, ceilings, vases, and other ornaments, 
which, with the exception of a few prints from 
the drawings of Paolo Farinati, are all after his 
own de^^igns. He also engraved several historical 
and religious subjects ; but they are inferior to 
his other plates. He was made a member of the 
Academy at Paris in 1677, and died there in 1682. 
His works are usually marked with the initials 
/. P. or /. le P. The following are his most 
esteemed prints : 

PORTRAITS. 

Jean Lepautre, with a border of flowers, supported by 

Genii. 1674. 
Louis XIY., in Roman attire. 1684. 
Jean Robert. 

VARIOUS SUBJECTS. 

Ten plates of the History of Moses. 

Twenty-two plates of Mythological Subjects. 

Twelve Landscapes, Views of Gardens and Grottoes. 

Six plates of Italian Fountains. 

Six of Friezes, Mythological Subjects. 

Twelve-of Antique Vases. 

Six plates of Sea-ports and Vessels. 

The Coronation of Louis XIV. in the cathedral at 

Rheims ; on three sheets. 
The Baptism of the Dauphin. 
Two perspective Views of the Oanal of Fontainebleau. 

l6pICI^, Bernard, a French engraver, was 
bom in Paris in 1698. He was probably a pupil 
of Jean Audran, whose style he adopted with 
success. He was invited to England by Claude 
Du Bosc, to assist him in engraving the cartoons 
of Raphael, on a smaller scale than those of 
Dorigny ; but his talents ought not to be estimated 
from those unfavourable specimens. On his return 
to Paris, he engraved several plates, which gained 
him great reputation. He was received into the 
Academy in 1740, and became its secretary 
and historiographer ; and in the latter capacity 
he published in 1752 a * Catalogue raisonn^ des 
Tableaux du Cabinet du Roi,* and * Les Vies des 
Premiers Peintres du Roi, depuis M. Le Brun, 
jusqu'i present.' He died in Paris in 1765. The 
following are his principal prints : 

PORTRAITS. 

Nicolas Bertin, painter ; after De Lien; engraved for 

his reception into the Academy. 
Louis de Boullongne, painter ; after Rigattd, 
Philibert Orry, Minister of Finance ; after the same. 
Pierre Grassin, Director of the Miut ; after Largilliere. 
Charles Capperonnier, Librarian to the King; after 

Aved. 
Madame Dufresne, actress ; after the same. 
Jean Antoine "Watteau, painter ; after himself, 
Fran^oise d'Aubigne, Marquise de Maintenon ; after 

3itgnard, 
Jea^ Baptiste Moliere ; an etching ; afUr Charles Coypei. 

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS. 

The Circumcision ; after Giulio Bomavo ; for the Crozat 

Collection. 
Jupiter and lo ; after the same ; for the same. 
Jupiter and Juno ; after the same ; for the same. 
St. John preaching in the Wilderness; after Baciccio; 

for the same. 



Upici^ 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Lerouz 



Tertamnas and Pomona ; afUr Remhrandt» 

Two Subjects ; after Teniers. 

The Chess-players ; after C. De Moor, 

The Players at Piquet ; after G. Netseher. 

Town Love and Village ^Te ; after Charles Coypel, 

The Pacha having his Mistress's portrait painted ; after 

Carle van Loo, 
Charles I. taking leave of his Children \ after Eaoux. 

L^PICIE, Nicolas Bernard, tlie eon of Bernard 
L^pici^, was born in Pari3 in 1736. He studied 
under Carle van Loo, and became painter to the 
king, and professor of the Academy. He died in 
Paris in 1784. The following are his best paintings : 

Tlie Courage of Porcia. (Lille 3fuseum.) 
Begalas taking leave of his Family. 

LEPICIE, Rbn^b i!:lisabf.th, whose maiden 
name was Marlii^, was burn in 1714, and in 1732 
became the wife of Bernard L^pici^. She en- 
graved after Raphael, Boucher, Van Loo, Cliardin, 
Kigaud, and other French painters, and died, in 
Paris in 1773. The following are two of her prints : 

Saying Grace, and the Industrious Mother; a pair; 

after Chardin. 
The Flemish Cook ; after Teniers, 

LE PIPER, Franqois, was the son of a Kentish 
gentleman of Flemish extraction, and wad born 
about the year 1640. His fatlier, who was in pos- 
session of a considerable estate, gave him a liberal 
education, intending him for a merchant, but his 
inclination leading him entirely to drawing, he 
rambled over grccit part of Europe to study paint- 
ing. He was of a gay and facetious turn of mind, 
and the subjects he treated were usually humorous 
and comical, and were cliiefly painted in black and 
white. Most of his performances were produced 
over a bottle, and the theatre of his exertions was 
the Mitre Tavern at Stock's Market, or the Bell 
in Westminster, which were adorned by the pro- 
ductions of this jovial artist. He drew landscapes, 
which he etched on silver plates for the tobacco- 
boxes of his friends. Towards the latter part of 
his life his circumstances were sufficiently reduced 
to make it necessary for him to think of turning 
his talents to some account. Becket employed 
him to desifl^ hia mezzotints, and he drew several 
of the bead*) of the Grand Seigniors, for Sir Paul 
Rycaut's * History of the Turks.' On the death of 
his mother, his fortune being re-established, he 
launched again into a course of pleasure, con- 
tracted a fever, and being bled by an ignorant 
surgeon, who pricked an artery, he died in 1698. 
His portrait was drawn in crayons by Faithorne, 
and engraved by Lntterel. 

LE POITTEVIN, Edmond Modeste EdgI^ne, a 
French landscape and marine painter, whose name 
was originally PoiDEViN, was born in Paris in 
1816, and studied under Hersent. He visited 
Englnnd, the Netherlands, and Italy, and died at 
Ant«'uil in 1870. He used the initials L. P. There 
are by him : 

The Sinking of the Ship ' Le Yengenr.' 

AVinter in Holland. 

A Xorman Cottage. 

The Fisherman on^the Ice. 

The Sea-Baths at Etretat. 

AdriAnn Broawer paintiog a Tavern Child. (3funich 

(ialieiy.) 
Kocky Coast near Havre. (South Kensington Musewn.) 

LE PRINCE, AuousTE Xavieb, a French genre 
painter, was bom in Paris in 1799, and studied 
after nature and from the works of Albert Cnyp 
and Adriaan van de Velde. His village faiis, 
carnivals, corps de garde, and a great variety of 



other subjects are to be found in some of the best 
collections. He exhibited at the Salons of 1819, 
1822, and 1824, and died at Nice in 1826. His 
* Interieur de son Atelier' was finished by his pupil 
Eugene Le Poittevin, and * L'Antiquaire by 
Renoux. In the Louvre there are by him 'Em- 
barkation of Cattle at Honfleur,' and a view of the 
Pass of Susten, Switzerland. , 

LE PRINCE, Charles Edouard, Baron de 
Crespy, a French genre painter, was bom in Paris 
in 1784. He was a pupil of David and Madame Lo 
Brun, and exliibited at the Salon from 1812 to 1860. 

LE PRINCE, GusTAVE, a French landscape 
painter, was bom in Paris in 1810, and was a 
pupil of Xavier and Leopold Le Prince. He died 
in 1837. There is by him in the Museum of Douai 
a * View in the Environs of Fontainebleau.' 

LE PRINCE, Jean Bafiiste, a French painter 
and engraver, was born in 1733 at Metz, where ho 
learned the rudiments of art Subsequently he 
studied painting under J. M. Vien and Francois 
Boucher, and after having acquired some reput- 
ation at Paris, went to Russia, where he resided 
several years, and visited various parts of that 
empire, sketching the different costumes and the 
most remarkable views in the provinces through 
which he passed. He returned to Paris with an 
extensive collection of drawings, from which he 
painted pictures, which were much admired, and 
executed several plates, both in etching and 
aquatint. He also engraved several fancy sub- 
jects and domestic scenes from his own designs. 
The number of his plates exceeds 160. He became 
an academician in 1765, and died at St. Denis-du- 
Port, near Lagny-sur-Mame, in 1781. Among his 
best paintings are : 

Le Corps de Garde. (Louvre,) 

A Russian Baptism. 

A Russian Shepherdess. 

A Russian Peasant's Cottage. 

LE PRINCE, Robert Leopold, a French land- 
scape painter, the brother of Anguste Xavier Lo 
Prince, was bom in Paris in 1800, and died at 
Chartres in 1847. There are pictures by him in 
the Museums of Chartres and Besan^on. 

LEQUEUTRE, Hippolyte Joseph, a miniature 
portrait painter, was bom at Dunkiik in 1793. He 
was a pupil of the elder Isabey, and exhibited at 
the Salon from 1822 to 1863. Among his works 
are portraits of the Duke of Bordeaux, Duchess of 
Berri, Princess of Nassau, etc. 

LERCH, J. M., a German engraver, flourished at 
Vienna about the year 1670. He engraved some 
of the portraits for Priorato's * History of the 
Emperor Leopold,* 1670 ; and in conjunction with 
Hoffman executed a large print, in three sheets, of 
the ' Siege of Brandenburg.' 

LEROUX, Jean Marie, a French line-engraver, 
was born in Paris in 1788, and was a disciple of 
David. He died in Paris in 1871. Among his 
best plates are : 

La Madonna della Scala ; after Correggto, 

Leda ; after Leonardo da Vinci, 

St. Catharine ; after Raphael, 

Thalia ; after the same. 

Jeanne d Aragon ; aftfr Raphael, 

St. Theresa ; after dtrard. 

The Rendezvous of Bianca Capella ; after L. Ducts, 

The Flight of Bianca Capella ; after the same, 

St. Jerome ; after Donvenichino, 

Francis L, King of France ; after Titian, 

Lafayette ; after Ary Scheffer. 

Ronget-Delisie ; after a medallion hy David, 

46 



Le Boy 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP 



LeaUe 



La Vierge k TEtoile ; after Pinturlcchio, 
La Vierge i TAurtole ; after MuriUo, 
La Vierge auz Ange« ; (tfter the eame. 
The Magdalen in the Desert ; after Gennari. 

LE KOY, Claude, a French engraver, flourished 
in Paris about 1709. He engraved the portraits of 
Fleury, Boileau, Bossuet, and Cardinal Dubois, all 
after Kigaud. His name is also affixed to the por- 
trait of Cardinal de Fleury, engraved after Autreau. 

LE ROY, Henry, was an engraver, by whom 
there is a set of six plates of butterflies, beetles, 
and other insects, etched in a style resembling that 
of Hollar, and retouched with the graver. They 
are inscribed Henry le Roy fecit jE» 72, 166L 

LE ROY, Jacques, a French line engraver, was 
born in Paris in 1739. There is a portrait by him 
of Voltaire, engraved after the death of the latter 
in 1778. 

LE ROY, Joseph Annb, a Flemish genre painter, 
was born at Brussels in 1814. He was the son of 
Pierre Fran9ois Le Roy, the elder, and studied 
under his brother and Eugene Verboeckhoven. He 
died at Brussels in 1860. His best known work is 
'Cavaliers in an Inn Yard.' 

LE ROY, PiERBE FfiANgois, the elder, a Flemish 
animal and battle painter, was born at Namur in 
1772. He was the son of the sculptor Lo Roy. 
He gained various medals, one of which was 
awarded for his ' Battle of Waterloo,* which found 
an English purchaser. There are several good 
examples of his skill with the etching needle. He 
died at Brussels in 1861. 

LE ROY, Pierre FRANgois, the younger, a 
Fleini.sh genre painter, the son and pupil of Pierre 
Frangois Le Roy the elder, was born at Brussels 
in 18U3. Several works were painted by him in 
conjunction with Eugene Verboeckhoven. There 
are etchings by him. He died iu 1833. Amongst 
his pictures are : 

Haarlem. FaviHon, The Schoolmaster. 

Ghent. Academy. A young Boy preparing Break- 

fast. 

LE ROYER, Jean and Aubin Olivier, were 
brothers, who lived in the middle of the 16th cen- 
tury, and were both in the service of Henry II. of 
France, the one as a printer, the other as a 
medallist. Both were skilful engravers on wood, 
and jointly executed the figures for the * Livre de 
Perspective,' by Jean Cousin, printed and published 
by Jean Le Royer, in 1560. These geometrical 
figures are very beautiful, and consist of about 
sixty illustrations. Jean availed himself of his 
knowledge of drawing to embellish the works that 
he printed ; so that the greater part of the fleurons, 
vignettes, and ornamental letters, whether on metal 
or on wood, employed in his editions, are his own 
work. In 1553 he obtained letters patent, in which 
he is designated *' Printer in ordinary to the King, 
and especially in mathematics.** Jean Le Royer 
flourished until 1581. 

LERPINIERE, Daniel, though from his name 
apparently of French extraction, was bom in Eng- 
land about 1745, and was a pupil of F. Vivares. 
He followed the style of his master, using both 
graver and point He worked in London, where 
lie died in 1785. He engraved several landscapes, 
among which are the following: 

A Landscape, with the Flight into Egypt ; after Claude 

Lorrain. 
The Companion^ with Bt. Greorge and the Dragon ; after 

the sanie. 
A Landscape, with the Israelites worshipping the 

Qolden Calf ; after the same. 
46 



A Sea-pieoe, a Oalm ; after Vernet. 
The Companion, a Storm ; after the same. 
Two Italian Landscapea ; etfter John Taylor, 
Two lAndsoapes, witn Cattle ; after Cuyp. 
A Landscape, Evening ; after Pynaeker. 
Six Views of Sea-fights, so. ; after R. Paton, 

LESCOT-HAUDEBOURG, Hortbnsk ViCTorBB, 
a French genre and portrait painter, was born in 
Paris in 1784. She studied under Lethiere, whom 
she followed to Rome, on his appointment as 
Director of the French School in that city. Her 
works first appeared at the Salon in 1810, and in 
1820 she married M. Haudebourg, an architect. 
She died in Paris in 1845. Amongst her works 



are: 



Be8an9on. 
Dijon. 



Museum. 
Museum. 



Elisring the Feet of the Statue 

of St. Pet9r. 1812. 
OonArmation. 1814. 
Portrait of the Axchitect Paris. 
Old Man and Children. 1819. 



LESLIE, Charles Robert, a subject painter, 
was born in London in 1794, of American 
parents, who soon after returned to Philadelphia. 
In 1808 he was bound apprentice to a bookseller, 
but, desiring to become an artist, in 1811 he sailed 
for England, where he entered the schools of 
the Royal Academy in 1813, and obtained two 
silver medals. Amongst his instructors were 
Benjamin West and Washington Allston. His 
first picture was ' Saul and the Witch of Endor,' 
which was bought by Sir John Leicester, after- 
wards Lord De Tabley, for 100 guineas, in 1817. 
The same year saw his first exhibited work, * Mur- 
der.* At this period he produced several historical 
works, and he also practised as a portrait painter. 
It was not till after a visit to the continent in 1817 
that he settled down to the class of works — 
humorous genre subjects from the standard 
authors — on which his reputation rests. His pro- 
gress then was rapid. In 1821 he was elected an 
Associate of the Royal Academy, and in 1825 his 
prospects were sufi&ciently assured to admit of his 
marrying. In the following year he became a full 
member of the Academy. With the exception of 
one year, 1833, when he was induced to go to 
America as teacher of drawing at the West Point 
Military Academy, the remainder of his life was 
spent in England. From 1847 to 1852 he held the 
Professorship of Painting in the Royal Academy, 
and he published the substance of his lectures as 
a ' Handbook for Young Painters.* This was not 
his only literary venture. He published in 1845 
* Memoirs of Constable,* and his materials for a life 
of Reynolds were posthumously brought out by 
Tom Taylor, who also edited his autobiography. 
He died in London in 1859. The following are 
some of his principal works : 

Bowood. Marquis q/* ) Sir Roger de Coirerley going to 
Lansdowne. } Ohurch. 

„ * Sir Roger de Coverley and the 

Gipsiea. 
„ Rebecca in her Dungeon. 

Caasiobury. Earl of \ Don Quixote, the Duchess, and 

Essex. } Sancho. 
„ „ Doa Quixote and Dorothea. 

M n Portrait of Miss Stephens, 

afterwards Countess of Essex. 
Baton HaU.^^^^j^^/|^^^O^^^y^y 1833. 

London. Buckingham \ The Queen receiving the Sacra- 
Falace. v meut after the Xk>ronation. 
j 1843. 
„ „ Christening of the Princess 

Royal 
n M Scene from * Comua.' 



»> 



»» 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAV^ERS. 



liO Sueur 









>» 



«) 



LosuJon. Nat, Gallery, My Unde Tobj and l^dow 

Wadman. 18B1. 
^ „ Sancho Panza in the Apartment 

of the Dacheas. 1844. 
^ South Kensinff- \ The Taming of the Shrew. 

ton Museum.) 1832. 
^ „ My Uncle Toby and liVldow 

Wadman. 1832. 
M M AutolycuB. 1836. 

Florizel and Perdita. 1837. 
The Dinner at Mr. Page's House 
(• Meiry Wives of Windsor *). 
1838 
Who can this be? 1839. 
Who can this be from ? 1839. 
Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme. 
1841. 

„ » Le Malade Imaginaire. 1843. 

„ „ Lea Femmea Savantes. 1845. 

„ Nat. Port. Gall. Lord Holland. 
„ Holland House. The library at HolLmd House. 
Petwortb . Lord Lseott- \ Sancho Panza in the Apartment 
field. j of the Duche«8. 1824. 
M n Gathanne and Petruchio. 

Lady Qariisle carrying the par- 
don to her Father in Prison. 
Charles H. at Tillietudlem. 
Gulliver's Introduction to the 
Queen of Brobdingnag. 
Wobum. Ahbejf. Lady Jane Grey prevailed on 

to accept the Crown. 1827. 

LESSING, Earl Fbiedbich, a German historical 
and landscape painter, the grandnephew of the 
poet, was bom at Breslau in 1808. He was originally 
intended for an architect, but, evincing a love of 
painting, he received his first instruction from 
Rosel and DahKng, at Berlin. In 1827 he went 
with Schadow to Diisseldorf, where he speedily 
became famous both for his masterly landscapes 
and his historic paintings. The latter show a strong 
Protestant feeling ; three of his masterpieces being 
scenes inspired by the history of Hus, the Re- 
former. In 1858 Leasing was appointed Director 
of the Gallery of Carlsruhe, a post which he held 
till his death in that city in 1880. The following 
are his principal works : 

Berlin. National Gall. Bitterbnrg. 1828. 

„ „ View in the Eifel Honntaxns. 

1834. 
A Hnssite Preaching. 1836. 
A Chapel in a Wood. 1839. 
View on the Havel. 1841. 
Has at the Funeral Pyre. 1850. 
Defence of the Paas. 1851. 
ft „ Stormy Landscape. 1875. 

Carlsruhe. Gallery. DiscuMion ot Lather and Eck 

at Leipaio. 
Gallery. Evening Landscape. 1837. 
Gallery. Landscape in the character of 
the ' Teufelamauer,' near 
Blankenbarg. 1877. 
DBaselddrf. Gallery. Peasants defending a Height. 
Fnmkfort. Stddel Inst. Landscape. 1835. 

n „ Ezzelin IV. in prison after the 

Battle of Cassano, 1259. 
1836. 
„ „ Oaks of a Thousand Years. 

1837. 
w w Landscape. 1839. 

„ ft Hus before the Council at 

Constance. 1842. 
Heltdorf. Castle. Scene from the Life of Bar- 

baroesa. 
Ldpdc. Gallery. Convent in Snow. 1828. 

LESSORE, ^MiLE AuBERT, a French genre 

Skinter, and a native of Paris, was a pupil of 
ersent and of Ingres, and exhibited at the Salon 
between 1831 and 1869. He also designed for 
the Sevres manufactory, and afterwards for the 
Wedgwoods, He died in 1876. 



» 



»j 



Darmstadt. 
Dresden. 



LE STRANGE, Hamon, an amateur, was bom 
at Hunstanton Hall, Norfolk, in 1816. As a labour 
of love he undertook to paint the nave of Ely 
Cathedral, but died suddenly in London in 1862, 
after which his work was carried on by Mr. Gambier 
Parry. 

LE SUEUR, EuSTACHE, a French historical 
painter, was bom of humble parentage in Paris in 
1616. He was one of the many celebrated artists who 
received instruction from Vouet, and his progress 
was such that he was selected by his master to 
assist him in various works. Although he did not 
visit Italy, he lost no opportunity of studying the 
works of the great Italian masters which found 
their way to France. The style of Raphael greatly 
attracted him, and the works of his fellow-country- 
man, Nicolas Poussin, also had an import^mt 
influence in the development of his art. In 1640 
he became a member of the guild of master- 
painters, and painted for them a picture of ^St. 
Paul expelling Evil Spirits at Ephesus.' He quitted 
this confraternity, however, on the formation of 
the French Academy, of which he was one of the 
twelve original members. The position which lie 
early achieved among French artists rendered him 
the chief competitor of Le Brun, when the latter 
settled in Paris after his return from Italy. Many 
stories of their rivalry are extant, not altogether 
to the credit of Le Bmn, if they may be trusted. 

Le Sueur was much engaged in decorative 
works. He was one of the numerous band of French 
artists who worked at the hotel of the President 
Lambert de Thorigny in the He de la Cit^. At 
the Louvre, he decorated the apartments of the 
Eang and of the Queen-Mother. His greatest work 
in this line was the series of paintings in the 
cloisters of the Chartreuse at Paris, illustrating the 
life of St. Bruno, the founder of the order. These 
were afterwards sold by the community to Louis 
XVI., and are now in the Louvre. So great is the 
number of his productions, that, however un- 
wearied his industry, he could not possibly have 
found time during his short career to execute them 
without assistance. This help he obtained from 
his brothers, Pierre, Philippe, and Antoine, and 
his brother-in-law, Thomas Gouss^. The elder 
Patel also is said to have inserted the landscape 
backgrounds in his compositions. 

Concerning the life of the painter, many tales 
have obtained currency. Such are the accounts 
of his narrow means, of his melancholy at the 
loss of his wife, of his being left childless, and 
of his subsequent retreat among the Carthusians, 
where he is said to have died. These fictions 
have, however, been dispelled by recent research. 
He died in Paris in 1655, at the early age of 
thirty-eight. For many years his art was not 
duly appreciated, owing to its eclipse by the 
pretentious works of his rival Le i^run. His 
reputation has, however, recovered. He is now 
justly considered to hold a place in the front 
rank amongst the artists of his country, and he 
has sometimes been styled the French Raphael. 
This position he owes to his gracefulness, and 
freedom from affectation. Another merit is the 
originality of his ideas, although founded on the 
best traditions of the great masters. The follow- 
ing is a list of his works in the chief European 
galleries : 



Berlin. 

Bordeaoz. 

Caen. 



Gallery. St. Brano. 
Museum, Urauia. 
Museum, Sacrifice of Manoah. 



47 



Le Sueur 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Lethidre 



Cherbourg. 



Mu$mm. 



tf 



» 



Dijon. Palais de Justice. 
Frankfort. Stdilel Inst. 
Grenoble. Museum. 



LyonB. 

Marseilles. 

Mhutpelller. 

Munich. 



*» 

Nantes. 

Ntmes. 
Paris. 



dfuseum. 

Museum. 
Museum. 
Oailery. 



ft 
Museum. 

Museum. 

Louvre. 



9» 

tt 



n 

n 
*» 



Petersburg. Hermitage. 



M 

»f 

tf 
ft 



»> 
tf 

ft 
tt 
tt 
tt 



Toulouse. 
Tours. 



Museum. 
Museum. 






19 
tt 



Vienna. 



Academy. 
,f Liechtenstein G alien/. 
Ccernin Loll. 
Count Harrach, 



tt 



tt 



tt 



Our Lord teaching. 
Divine Justice. 
The Crucifixion. 
Death of St. Bruno. 
Thanksgiving of Tobit's 

Family. 
Martyrdom of St. Gervais 

and St. Protais. 
Presentation in the Temple. 
Tobit's Wedding Night. 
Christ in the House of 

Martha. 
St. Louis of France at Masa 
The Birth of Aurora. 
The Burial of Christ. 
The Life of St. Bruno. (22 

pictures.) 
History of Cupid. (6 pic- 
tures.) 
The Muses. (5 pictures.) 
The Descent from the Cross. 
St. Paul preaching at Ephe- 

sus. 
Moses exposed by his Mother. 
Nativity of the Virgin. 
The Virgin and St. Anne in 

the Temple. 
The Presentation. 
Death of the Virgin. 
Martyrdom of St. Stephen. 
Darius Hysta.spes at the 

Tomb of Nitocris. 
Sacrifice of Manoah. 
St. Sebastian. 
The Mass of St. Martin. 
Chri.st with Martha and 

Mary. 
St. Louis healing the Sick. 
£«<ponRa1 of tSo Virgin. 
Death of Cupid. 
Joseph and Potiphar's "Wife. 
Massacre of the Innocents. 
Binaldo. 

0. J. D. 



LB SUEUR, Nicolas, the son of Pierre Le Sueur 
the younger, was born in Paris in 1690. He ex- 
celled as an engraver on wood, and was the most 
eminent of his family. He executed, chiefly in 
chiaroscuro, several fine cuts for the Crozat Collec- 
tion, from the works of the great masters, especi- 
ally Goltzius. He also engraved, in a very tasteful 
style, the ornaments which embellish the edition 
of La Fontaine's Fables, from the desigus of 
Bachelier. He died in Paris in 1764. Some of bis 
works are signed N. L. jS., others with a monogram. 
The following cuts were executed by him for the 
Crozat Collection : 

Fishermen drawing their Nets ; after Giulio Romano. 

The Mass ; after Polidoro da Caravaygio. 

The Egyptians overwhelmed in tlie Bed Sea; after 

G. F. Penni, called // Fattore. 
Christ with the Apostles ; after Baffaello dal Colle. 
The Man and the Lion ; after Baidassare Peruzzi. 
The Death of St. Francis Xavier; after Lodovico 

Gimujnani. 
The Descent of the Holy Ghost ; after G. B. Lenardi. 
The Annunciation ; after G. Morandi. 
The Virgin appearing to St. Philip Neri; after L. 

Garzi. 
The Virgin on a Throne, surrounded by Saints ; after 

P. Pietri. 

LE SUEUR, Pierre, the elder, a French en- 
graver on wood, was born at Kouen in 1636. and 
was a disciple of Du Bellay. Among other prints, 
he executed a woodcut, representing ' Judith.' after 
Van Sichem. He generally used a monogram 

composed of the letters P. L, S., thus, ^J • He 

died at Rouen in 1716. 
48 



LE SUEUR, Pierre, the younger, the son of 
the elder artist of the same names, was bom at 
Rouen in 1669, and was instructed in drawing 
and engraving on Avood by his father. He 
engraved many figures and vignettes, and some 
devout subjects and Biblical prints; and Papillon 
mentions an emblematical subject by him, called 
* Alpha and Omega,' in which the Christian Religion 
is represented by a naked figure, and Idolatry 
concealed by a veil. He died in 1760. He usually 
marked his prints with the initials P. L. S.^ or a 
monogram composed of the same. Among his 
other works were cuts for the following books : 

The Fables of ^sop. 1678. 

Ozanam's * Cours de Math^matiques.' 1603. 

Erasmus's * Eloge de la Folie.' 1745. 

LE SUEUR, Vincent, the brother of Pierre Le 
Sueur the younger, was bom at Rouen in 1 668. After 
being instructed in the principles of the art by his 
father, he was sent to Paris, where he became a 
pupil of Jean Pnpillon. He distinguished himself 
as an engraver on wood, and Papillon mentions as 
his best print * The Soldier's Farewell,' engraved 
in 1702. He executed several cuts in chiaroscuro, 
among whicli is * Mercury and Prometheus,' after 
P. Furinato. He marked his prints with the 
initials F. L. 8. 

LB SUISSE, — , is mentioned by Papillon as an 
engraver on wood, who, among other prints, exe- 
cuted a large cut, reprefienting the Turkish army 
arranged in order of battle, at the bottom of which 
is an eulogy in praise of the artist He is probably 
the same as Christoph Stimmer. 

LETELLIER, Charles Francois, a French 
engraver, was bom in Paris in 1743, and died in 
1800. He was a pupil of Fran9ois Boucher, and 
engraved several plates, representing conversations, 
&c., after the French and other masters. 

LETELLIER, Jean, a French portrait and his- 
torical painter, was bom at Rouen in 1614. He was 
the nephew and pupil of Nicolas Poussin, and owed 
much to his teaching. His heads of the Virgin are 
full of candour and grace. Later in life he adopted 
a more careful finish than his early works display. 
He was the master of Jacques Restout, and for a 
time painter and secretary to the prior of the abbey 
of Moncel, near Vitry, on the Marae. He painted 
the * Death of St Alexis' for the church at Grave- 
lines, and a *Holy Family' and the * Miracles per- 
formed at the Tomb of St. Augustine,' both in the 
church dedicated to that saint at Rouen, are works 
of great' merit. He died in 1676. Many of his 
pictures are at Rouea 

LETH, Henprik de. See De Leth. 

LETHBRIDGE, Walter Stephens, a miniature 
painter, was born at Charlton in Devonshire in 
1771. His father was a fanner, who apprenticed 
him to a house painter, but he afterwards became 
assistant to a traveling artist, and after visiting the 
principal cities in England and Scotland, he settled 
in London. He then became a student of the 
Royal Academy, where he exhibited from 1801 
to 1829. In April 18.S0 he removed from London 
to Stonehouse, wliere he died in 1831. In the 
National Portrait Gallery are portraits of Bishop 
Ilorsley and Dr. John Wolcot ('Peter Pindar'). 

LETHIERE, Guillaume GuiLLON,a French his- 
torical painter, was born of Creole parents at Sainte- 
Anne. in the island of Guadeloupe, in 1700, but 
came to France when young, and received a good 
general education. The knowledge of the classics 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Le VoBseur 



Amieiu. 
Ai>gen. 
Boideaox. 



he thus obtained proved valuable to him in the 
phase of French art contemporaneous with the 
Revolution. His art training wos obtained in the 
studio of Doyen. Although he only succeeded in 
obtaining the second prize by his version of the 
'Canaanitish Woman 'in 1784, he was by special 
favour allowed to proceed to Rome to complete his 
studies. After a stay of four years in Italy, he 
returned to Paris, and settled down to the practice 
of his art. His reputation was first made by the 
designs, exhibited in 1795 and 1801, for his ' Vir- 
ginius * and ' Brutus.' The actual pictures were not 
completed by him. until many years after. He had 
the good fortune to find a patron in Lucien Bona- 
parte, whom he accompanied on his embassy to 
Spain. There he remained two years, selecting" 
pictures from the Spanish collections to enrich the 
French galleries. Subsequently, he succeeded 
8uv6e as Director of the French School at Rome, 
which office he held for the exceptionally long 
period of ten years, and his authority was wielded 
to the great advantage of French art Returning 
to Paris in 1817, he opened a studio, and pupils 
flocked to him so rapidly that their numbers 
rivalled even those in the studio of Gros. In 1818 
he was elected a member of the Institute, and also 
became a professor in the ficole des Beaux-Arts. 
He died in Paris in 1832. At one period of his 
career, Lethiere*s reputation stood so high that he 
was considered the rival of the great David ; but in 
the rapid rise of the Romantic school, his fame, 
like that of many other classicists, was quickly 
obscured. Amongst his chief works are : 

JfustMm MncM and Dido. 1819. 
Jfuteum. The Woman taken in Adultery. 
Museum. Louis IX. visiting the Plague- 
stricken at Carthage. 
Louvre, Death of Yirgiuia. 1828. 
„ Brutas condemning his Son to 
death. 1812. 
SC, Xoch. The Magdalen. 
Gallery. The Peace of Leoben. 1805. 

OJ.D. 

LETTERINL See Litterini. 

LEU, Db. See De Leeuw. 

LEULLIER, Louis F^lix, a French landscape 
painter, was bom in Paris in 1811, and died in 
1882. He was a pupil of Baron Gros, and has left 
a picture of the ' Inundation of the Loire,' which 
is in the Lille Museum. 

LEDPENIUS, J., (or Leupen,) was a Dutch 
landscape painter and engraver, by whom there 
tre a few slight etchings, retouched with the 
graver. They represent views in Holland, and 
appear to be the works of a painter. He was a 
pupil of Rembrandt, and flourished from about 
1660 to 1677, probably at Utrecht 

LEUR, Nicolaus van der. See Van der Ledr. 

LEUTZE, Emanuel, a German historical painter, 
was bom at the village of Emingen, near Rent- 
lingen in Wlirtemberg, in 1816. He went when 
a diild to Philadelphia, w^here he was instructed 
by John A. Smith, a portrait painter. In 1841 
he returned to Europe, and pursued his studies nt 
Dusseldorf under Lessing ; but as he did not hold 
with the views of that Academy, he established an 
atelier of his own. In 1842 he visited Munich, 
Venice, and Rome, and returned in 1845 to Diissel- 
dorf, where he executed a considerable number of 
p^nttngs. He obtained in 1850 the gold medal at 
jBerlin for his * Washington crossing the Delaware/ 
now in the Kunsthalle at Bremen. After having 
been in America in 1851, and again in 1859, he 

VOL. II. E 



Tenailles. 



established himself there in 1863, and died at 
Washington in 1868. The following is a list of 
his chief productions in chronological order : 

Hagar and Ishroael. 

The Indian gazing at the Setting Sun. 

Golumbufl before the Council of Salamanca. 1841. 
(Ai't Union of Dusseldorf.) 

Tlie third Return of Golumbus from America. 

Raleigh taking leave of his Wife. 

Cromwell at the Death-bed of his Daughter. 

The Landing of the Norsemen in America. 

John Knox admonishing Mary Stuart. 

Raleigh spreading his Cloak before Queen Elizabeth. 

English Iconoclasts. 

Torquemada and the Embassy of the Jews. 

The Reception of Columbus at Court. 

Washington crossing the Delaware. 1850. (His chef* 
(ToBuvre.) 

Washington at the Battle of Monmouth. 1852-54. 

Tlie Rose 'of the Alhambra. 

Cromwell visiting Milton. 

The last Evening of Charles I. 

Henry VIII. and Anne Boleyn. 1858. 

The Voyage of the Artist in the Lagunes. 

Frederick the Great before his Mother. 

The Maid of Saragossa. 

Lafayette in Prison. 

Elizabeth in Prison. 

The first Landing of Columbus in America. 

Tne first Mass of Mary Stuart in Scotland. 

Cromwell searching the State Papers. 

The Triumph of the Cross. 

Lady Godiva. 

The Advance of Civilization to the West. {Fresco in 
Vte Capitol at Wanhimfton.) 

Portraits of President Lincoln, General Grant, Washing- 
ton, &c. 

LEUX, Fbanz von. See Lurx von Luxenstein. 

LEVACHEZ, Charles Francois Gabriel, was 
a French engraver and publisher, who flourished 
at the close of the 18th century and the commence- 
ment of the 19th. He executed in aquatint the 
portraits of the 'Tableaux historiques de la 
Revolution Fran9ai8e,' beneath which are memor- 
able scenes by Duplessi-Bertaux. He also engraved 
an equestrian portrait of Napoleon I., after Carle 
Vemet. 

LE VASSEUR, Jean Charles, a French Hne 
engraver, was born at Abbeville in 1734. He was a 
pupil of Daull^ and Beauvarlet, and has engraved 
chiefly after the works of the modem French 
painters. He became an academician in 1771, and 
died in Paris in 1816. Among other prints by him 
are the following : 

The Triumph of Venus ; after Boucher. 

The Death of Adonis ; after the same. 

The Continence of Scipio ; after Le Maine. 

Diana and Endymion; after J. B. win Loo. {Hit 

reception work for the Academy.) 
Apollo and Daphne ; after Lwca Giordano. 
The Triumph of Galatea ; after J. F. de Troy. 
Diana and ActsBon ; after the same. 
The Rape of Proserpine ; after the same. 
The Parting of Hector and Andromache ; after Rettout. 
Alexander and his Physician ; after the same. 
Tarquin and Lucretia ; after A . Peters. 
The Milk-maid ; after J. B. Greuze. 
Thais, or the Beautiful Penitent; after the same. 
The Step-Mother ; after the same. 
The Widow and the Curate ; after the same. 
The "Will destroyed ; after tlie same. 

The Curious Lovers ; after Etienne Aubry. 

Paternal Love ; after the same. 

Leonardo da Vinci expiring in the arms of Francis I. ; 

after Minageot. 
Holy Family ; after R. Mengs. 
Cardinal de Luyoes. 

Jean Bestout, painter ; after J. B. Restont. 
The Pleasures of the Satyrs ; after Poelenhorch. 

49 



Levati 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Lewis 



LEVATI, Giuseppe, an architectural painter, 
was born at Cuncorezzo, near Milan, in 1739. He 
worked first under a decorator, and afterwards 
applied himself to . the study of the works of 
Barocci, Paliadio, Serlio, and especially the per- 
spectives of Barbaro and ZanottL In 1802 he 
was elected director of the school of perspective 
at Milan. He also executed architectural subjects 
and landscapes in pencil, pen-and-ink, and water- 
colour. He died in 1828. His chief works are 
decorations in the house of the Marquis Litta at 
Lainate ; in the residence of Count Borromeo, and 
the archducal palace at Milan ; and in the palace 
at Monza. 

LEVEAU, Jean Jacques Andr£, a French 
engraver, was bom at Rouen in 1729. He went 
when young to Paris, where he became a pupil of 
J. P. Le Bas, in whose style he has engraved several 
plates. He died in 1785. Among his works are 
the following : 

Two Views iu Flanders, by moonlight ; ttfter Van dtr 

Neer. 
Boiuan Shepherds ; afUr Mettay. 
View of Montserrat ; after Vernet, 
The Fishermen ; after the same. 
La Cuisine ambulant des Matelots ; after the same. 
The Cascade of Tivoli ; after La Oroix, 
View of Pozzuoli ; after the same. 
The Village Blacksmith ; after Berchem. 
A Landscape, with a Shepherd watching his Flock; 

after Ruisdael. 
Abraham sending away Hagar ; after Dietrich, 
The Shepherdess of the Alps ; after Aubry, 
The Dangerous Encounter ; after Baudouin, 
The Judge, or the Broken Pitcher; after Dehuamrt, 
The Curious Lover ; after Loutherbourtf. 
The Pet Lamb ; after the same. 

LEVECQ, Jakob, (or Laveoq,) a Dutch portrait 
painter, was bom at Dordrecht about 1624. He 
was a pupil of Rembrandt, and a most successful 
imitator of his style, for portraits by him have 
passed as genuine works of Hembrandt. He visited 
France, and afterwards painted in the style of De 
Baau. In 1665 he became a member of the artists* 
guild in his native town, where he died in 1674. 
The Duke of Leinster possesses a ' Portrait of a 
Young Man,* by him, dated 1654. 

L£V£ILL£, PiERRB, a French engraver, was a 
native of Orleans, and a pupil of Janinet. His 
best plates are * Le Charlatan * and * Le Bascule,* 
after Borel, engraved in 1785. 

LEVESQUE, PiERBE Charles, a French etcher 
and writer, was born in Paris in 1736, and died in 
1812. Ho is perhaps better known for his share 
in the publication oi the ' Dictionnaire des^Arts de 
Peinture, Sculpture et Gravure,* 1792, begun by 
M. Watelet, than by his works as an engraver. 
There are, however, several plates by him which 
possess considerable merit. Among them are the 
following : 

PORTRAITS. 

Louis Philippeaux, Duke de La Vrilli^re ; after Van Loo. 
Michel Francois Sedaine ; after J. Z. Davtd. 
Jean Causeur, aged 130 years ; after Caffieri, 

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS. 

The Conquest of Erigone ; after Deahayes, 
Augustus embellishing Rome; after Saint- Jubin. 
Venus and Oupid ; after Pierre. 1770. 
Cupid sharpening his arrows ; after Cazes, 
Sleeping and Waking ; two prints ; after Boucher. 1765. 
The Dutch Toilet ; after Meisu. 
Lot and his Daughters ; after Diepenheeck. 
Jupiter and Danae ; after De Troy. {Begun by DauXU, 
and faished by Levestjue.) 
60 



LEVIEUX, Renaud, a French painter and etcher, 
was bom at Ntuies, about 1625, and died after 
1698. He was the son of a goldsmith, and after 
having learned the elements of drawing in his 
native city, he studied in Italy. His only etching 
is a * Holy Family.' Among his paintings, besides 
several portraits, are: 

Aix. St. Jean de MalU. St. Bruno. 1665. 

„ JIadeleine. The Visitation. 

Nimes. Cathedral, Christ at Bmmaus. 

Paris. Louvre. Tlie Arrest of John the Baptist. 

1685. 

LE VILLAIN, GERARD RAne, a French line 
engraver, was born in Paris in 1740, and died 
there in 1812. His best works are * La Jeunesse 
studieuse ^ and * La Jeunesse laborieuse,' after 
Grimoux, and * Repentir tardif,' after Lavreince. 
He also engraved plates for the ' Galerie de 
Florence,* ' Galerie du Palais-Royal,' and ^ Mus6e 
Francais.' 

LEfVRAC TOURNIERES, Robert, a French 
historical and portrait painter, was born at Ifs in 
Calvados in 1668. He was a pupil of the Carmelite 
monk Lucas de La Haye, and of Bon de Boullongne. 
In 1702 he was received into the Academy as a 
painter of portraits, upon those of Mosnier and 

Michel Corneille, now in the ^cole des Beaux- Arts 
and at Versailles ; and in 1716 as a painter of 
history, his reception work being ' Dibutade 
drawing by the light of a lamp the Portrait of 
her Lover,' which is now in the Louvre. He died 
at Caen in 1752. 

LEVYN, Crutl, (or Livins,) was bom at Ghent 
in 1640. He was an ecclesiastic who visited Rome, 
and there designed antique and modem build- 
ings, and adorned them with figures, many of 
which he etched in a spirited manner. He was 
living in 1684. Among his etchings are views of 
the Pantheon and of St Peter's. 

LEWIN, William, was an amateur, who in 1789 
published, with plates drawn and engraved by 
himself, seven quarto volumes of the ' Birds of 
Great Britain,' followed in 1795 by the * Insects of 
Great Britain.* 

LEWIS, Chableb, a still-life painter, was bom 
at Gloucester in 1753. In early life be decorated 
japanned tea-trays, and then went on the stage. 
After a visit to Holland in 1781, he practised his 
art, painting birds and fruit, in London and in 
Scotland successively. He died at Edinburgh in 
1795. 

LEWIS, Charles George, an etcher and en- 
graver in line and mezzotint, was bom in 1808 at 
Enfield, Middlesex. He was the son and pupil 
of Frederick Christian Lewis, and a brother of 
John Frederick Lewis, RA. He died in 1880, at 
Felpham, near Bognor. Many of his better known 
works are after the paintings of Sir Edwin Land- 
seer, and the more important of them are included 
in the following list : 

Hawking in the Olden Time ; after Sir Edwin Landseer. 

The Cat's Paw ; after the sanu. 

Islay, Macaw, and Love Birds ; after the same. 

Breease ; after the same* 

Shoeing ; after the same. 

The Otter Hunt; after the same. 

The Wood-Cutter ; after the same. 

The Peregrine Falcon, and the Hawk ; a pair ; after 

the same. 
Collie Dogs ; after the same. 
The Random Shot ; after the sanhe. 
Sleeping Bloodhound ; after the satne. 
Hunters at Grass ; after ^he same. 



Lewii 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Leybold 






Tlia Sanctuary ; after the same, 

A Grand Hart ; after the same. 

The Mothers ; a at)t of eight etchings ; after the tame. 

A Oover Hack ; after the same. 

Hie Waterloo Banquet ; after J. P. Kniaht. 

The Allied GenenJs before Sebastopol; after T. J. 

Barker. 
The Melton Breakfast ; after Sir Frands Grant. 
Robinson Crusoe reading the Bible to his man Friday ; 

after A. Frater, 
Asking a Blessing ; after ike same. 
Hie Village Festival ; after iiir David WWcie. 
The Caid-PlByers ; after the same. 
Interior of a Highland Cottage ; after J. F. Lewis. 
Bay of Spezsia ; after Bonington, 
Sea-Shore ; after the same. 
Sunset ; after the same. 
Picking out the Lambs ; after Ansdell. 
Sheep-Shearing ; after the same. 
Highland Larder ; after F. Tayler. 
Morning in the Highlands ; after Rosa Bonheur. 
The Raid ; after the same. 

LEWIS, Fredbbick Christian, an English en- 
graver and landscape painter, was bom in London 
m 1779. His instruction was derived from Stadler, 
a German engraver, and in the schools of the 
Royal Academy. The first work on which he was 
engaged was Ottley's 'Italian School of Design* 
(1823), and for some years he engraved in the 
stipple manner many of Lawrence's portraits. But 
he aid not neglect original work, for he sketched 
mach from nature about Enfield and in Devon- 
shire, exhibiting landscapes at the Water-Colour 
Society, the British Institution, and the Royal 
Academy. He was engraver to Qeorge IV., 
WiUiam IV., and Queen Victoria. He died at 
Enfield in 1866. Amongst his best plates are : 

Hie Calmady Children ; after Sir Thomas Lawrence. 
Mis. 3iAm Fairlie ; tfter the same, 
William IV. ; after the same. 
Elisabeth, Duchess of Devonshire ; after the tame. 
Caztfinal Ck>nsalvi ; after the same. 
The Conntess of Blessington ; after Sir Edwin Landseer. 
Cottage Industry ; after the same. 
Qneen Victoria ; after Winterhalter. 
Market Gardeners ; after Witherington. 
The Works of Mercy ; eight plates in aquatint ; after 
Flaxman. 

As specimens of his work with the brush, mention 
should be made of : 

Three Yiews of Berry Pomeroy Castle. {South Ken- 

tiuaton Mueeum.) 
Two Viows of Oxford. (The same.) 
View on the Tkmar. {OU.) (Wobum Abbev.) 
Endslagh. {Oil.) {The same.) 

Amongst the works he illustrated and engraved 
are: 

'Picturesque Scenery of the Dart.' 1821. 

* Scenery of the Rivers Tamar and Tavy.' 1823. 
' The Scenery of the River Eze.* 1827. 
Salriati 8 * Mondo rovesciato.* 1822. 

* Scenery on the Devonshire Rivers.' 1841-43. 

' Sooiery of the Rivers of England and Wales.' 1845-47. 

' liber Studiorum of Claude Lorrain.' 1840. 

' Imitations of Sir T. Lawrence's Drawings.' 1840. 

LEWIS, Qkobqe Robert, a portrait, subject, 
and landscape painter, was bom in London in 
1782. He studied in the schools of the Royal 
Academy, where he was a pupil of Fuseli. In 
1818 he accompanied Dibdin through France and 
Germany, furnishing the illustrations for the 
'Bibliographical Tour' and the 'Bibliographical 
Decameron.* He exhibited at the Royal Academy 
from 1820 to 1859, and obtained a good practice 
as a portrait painter. He died at Ilampstead in 
1871. Several works were published by him, 
illustrated by himself ; amongst them are : 

£ 2 



' Muscles of the Hnman Frame.' 1820. 

* Illustrations of KUpeck Church.' 1842. 
' Ehrly Fouts of England.' 1843. 

* British Forest Trees.' 

* Description of Shobdon Church.' 1856. 

LEWIS, John Frederick, a painter of Italian, 
Spanish, and Oriental subjects, in oil and water- 
colours, was born in London in 1805. He was the 
eldest son of Frederick Christian Lewis, the engraver, 
from whom he received his first instruction in art. 
His earliest efforts were in animal painting, and he 
exhibited at the British Institution from 1820, and 
at the Royal Academy from 1821. Devoting him-, 
self ciiiefly to water-colours, he became an Associate 
of the Old Water-Colour Society in 1827, and a full 
member in 1830. In 1832 he went to Spain, and 
did not return to England until 1834: this visit 
caused a complete change in the current of his 
art The Carlist War furnished him with many 
subjects, and he also made a large number of 
studies of the works of the great masters, which 
were purchased by the Scottish Academy. In 
1843 he went to Egypt, and remained several years 
in the East. This sojourn turned his attention to 
Oriental subjects, which inspired some of his best 
works. On his return to England in 1851 he 
married, and settled at Walton-on-Thames. In 
1855 he succeeded Copley Fielding as President of 
the Society of Painters in Water-Colo urs, but did 
not long hold the office. He resumed oil-painting, 
and was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy 
in 1859, and an Academician in 1865. He died at 
Walton-on-Thames in 1876. Amongst his chief 
works are : 

WATER-COLOUR DRAWINGS. 

Monks preaching at Seville. 1835. 
A Bull-Fight at Seville. 1836. 
A Christmo Spy. 1837. 
Easter Day at Rome. 1841. 
Interior of a Hareem. 1851. 

Halt in the Desert. 1853. {South Kensington Museum.) 
A Frank Sacampment in the Desert of Mount Sinai« 
1856. 

OIL PAINTINGS. 

The Greeting in the Desert, Egypt. 1856. 

A Kibab Shop, Scutari. 1858. 

Waiting for the Ferry-Boat, Upper Egypt. 1859. 

A Bedouin Sheikh. 1861. 

Door of a Caf6 at Cairo. 1866. {Royal Academy.) 

The Prayer of Faith shall save the Sick. 1872. 

LEWIS, William, an amateur landscape painter, 
and brother of Frederick Christian Lewis, exhibited 
at the Royal Academy from 1815 to 1838. There 
is a • View of Raby Castle ' by him in the South 
Kensington Museum. 

LEXMOND, Jan van, was bom at Dordrecht in 
1769, and was a pupil of A. and J. van Strey. He 
executed some views of towns, though he was 
mostly employed as a teacher. He died at Dor- 
drecht in 1838. 

LEYBOLD, JoHANN Friedbich, an engraver and 
miniature painter, was bom at Stuttgart in 1755. 
He was instructed in design by the court sculptor 
Bauer, and began to paint at the Karlsschule under 
Guibal in 1772, and to engrave under G. von Miiller 
in 1776. He went to Coburg in 1797, and to 
Vienna in 1798, where he brought himself into 
notice by his miniature paintings. He died at 
Vienna in 1838. His best plates are : 

The Death of Mark Anthony ; after Pitt. 

The Death of Papirius ; after Iletseh. 

Two plates for Lucau's * Pharsalia ' ; after Wdchter. 

Several pbites after Fuger's designs for KJopstock's 

'HessiBh.' 

51 






Zeybold 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Iaa£o 



LEYBOLD, Karl Jakob Thbodor, the son of 
Joliann F. Leybold, was born at Stuttgart in 1786, 
and studied under Wachter at the Academy at 
Vienna. He was in Rome from 1807 to 1815, 
after which he returned to Vienna, and in 1821 
went to Stuttgart, where he became in 1829 a 
professor in the Academy, and in 1842 Inspector 
of the Gallery. He died at Stuttgart in 1844. He 
distinguished himself as a painter of history and 
portraits. His best works are : 

Heinrich von Cotta. 

Johann Heinrich von Dannecker, the sculptor. 

William, King of Wiirtemberg, and his Oon>ort,Pauluie. 

Sophia, Queen of the Netherlauds. 

The Beneflceuoe of Cimon (in oil). 

Charon, from a modem Qreek myth. (A duign.) 

LEYDEN, Ghrrabd van. See Zyl. 

LEYDEN, Lucas van. See Jacobsz. 

LEYENDECKER, Mathiab, a French portrait 
painter, was bom at Demau in Rhenish Prussia in 
1822. He studied under Drolling and Winterhalter, 
and died in 1871. ' Quail and Larks ' by him is in 
the Luxembourg Gallery. 

LEYS, Jean Auguste Henri, Baron, a Belgian 
historical and fen re painter, was bom at Antwerp in 
1814. He studied in the Academy of that city, and 
under his brother-in-law, Ferdinand De Braekeleer. 
His works were first exhibited in 1833 at Brassels, 
and he rapidly acquired a reputation ; the subjects 
which he chose — scenes from the medisBval history 
and customs of his country — contributing much to 
the popularity of his works. In 1862 he was 
created a Baron. His latter years were much 
occupied in the execution of decorations for the 
H6tel-de-Ville at Antwerp, where he painted a 
series of pictures illustrating the history of the 
city. He died in 1869, and a statue has been 
erected in his honour in the park at Antwerp. 
Alma Tadema was one of his pupils. Amongst 
bis works are : 



Amsterdam. Van der 

Hoop Mus. 

Antwerp. Academy. 



Berlin. 



n 



Briusels. 
»> 



n 



» 



«» 



Frankfort. Stddel Inst. 
London. South Kensing- 
ton Muaeum. 
Iilunich. NewPinakothek, 



)Lad7 in satin and Man read- 

j ing. 
fiubens at a Fete of the Arque- 

busiers. 

Gallery. Religions Service in Holland, 

17th century. 

Dutch Society in the 17th cen- 
tury. 

Durer painting Erasmos. 

Studio of Frans Fiona. 

Entry of Charles V. into Ant- 
werp. 

Mam for Bertall de Haae. 

Rich and Poor. 

Re-opening of Antwerp Cathe- 
dral. 

Interior of an Inn Yard. 1842. 

\ The Knight's Funeral. 



Gallery. 



n 
» 
»» 






"Windsor. 



CastU, 



A Street in a Dutch Village. 

1841. 
The Armourer. 



LEYSEBETTEN, Pieteb van. See Libebetten. 

LEYSSENS, NicoLAAB, called Cassenoix, was 
bom at Antwerp in 1661, and was a scholar of 
Pieter Ykens. On leavine that master, he went 
to Bome, where he passed some time, and would 
have prolonged his studies in that metropolis of 
art, had he not been under the necessity of return- 
ing to his native city for the purpose of succouring 
an aged parent in his last illness. Leyssens had 
acquired in Italy a correct and tasteful design, and 
was much employed in ornamenting the saloons 
and ceilings of the principal mansions at Antwerp, 
in which he was assisted by Boschaert, Verbruggen, 

52 



&c., who painted the flowers and other accessories. 
For what reason his surname was given to him is 
not stated ; it will bear the interpretation of a nut 
cracker, a magpie, or a blackbird. He died in 1710. 

LEYTO, Andres, a painter of historical subjects 
and interiors, resided at Madrid in 1680. He 
painted, in conjunction with Josef de Sarabia, the 
pictures of the cloister of the convent of San 
Francisco at Seguvia ; but his chief excellence lay 
in painting interiors, in which he had few equals 
among the Spanish artists of his time. 

LEYVA, Diego de, was bom about 1580, at 
Haro, in Old Castile. He is supposed to have spent 
his youth at Rome, Avhence he returned to Spain a 
painter, und settled at Burgos. In 1628 he was 
commissioned by the Chapter of Burgos to paint 
the portraits of certain dignitaries for the chapel 
of St. Catalina in the cathedral, and for the chapel 
of the Virgin he painted a picture of the * Presentr 
ation.' In 1633 he retirea to the Chartreuse of 
Miraflores, where in 1634 he took the final vows, 
and devoted himself to the perfoimance of his 
duties, and the production of religious pictures, 
among which were fifteen large compoHitions on 
the life of Sc. Bnmo, eleven martyrdoms, ten 
pictures of Saints of the Order, a Crucifixion, and 
some pictures of the Virgin. His style was some- 
what weak. He died at Miraflores in 1637. 

LEZIER, Padl, a native of Dordrecht, who 
flourished in the 17th century, and was a contem- 
porary of Cuyp, was the painter of a large picture 
representing the principal citizens of Dordrecht. 

LHERIE, Ferdinand, an engraver, was a native 
of Purls, who went to Antwerp about 1831, and 
became a pupil of Baron Wappers, after whom 
alone he engraved. He died insane, as did his 
brother, who was an actor. The following plates 
after Wappers are by him : 

H61oise and Ab^lard. 

Agn^s Sorel reproaching Charles VII. 

The Defence of Toumai hy the Oountess of Epemay. 

The Entombment. 

Devotion of the Burgomaster Van der Werff. 

L'HOMME, Jacques, an historical and landscape 
painter, born at Troyes at the commencement 
of the 17th century, was a pupil of Vouet at 
Rome. He painted a * St Catharine * and a * Lady 
playing the. Lute * ; the latter he also etched. 

LHORFELIN, Antonio, a Spanish painter, was 
born at Saragossa in 1587. He was the son of an 
obscure artist, named Pedro L'Horfelin, who sent 
him to Rome for improvement when he was very 
young, and he there studied the works of Michel- 
angelo and Raphael. His principal work is a 
picture of * St. Joseph,' with two laterals, in the 
church of the Bare-f ooted Augustines at Saragossa. 
He die(i in 1660. 

LI A NO, Felipe de, a Spanish portrait painter 
and etcher, was born at Madrid in 1556, and 
was a scholar of Alonso Sanchez Coello. He 
is supposed to have resided in Italy, where he 
executed the plates signed Teodor. FUippo da 
Liagno. He particularly excelled in painting 
portraits of a small size, which he executed witb 
such fidelity of resemblance and beauty of colour- 
ing that he acquired the title of *£1 Titiano 
Pequeno,' or simply * £1 Pequeno.' He died at 
Madrid in 1625. His most esteemed portrait is 
that of Don Alvaro de Bazan, Marquis of Santa 
Cruz, which was painted for the Emperor Rudolph 
in 1584. His best etchings are *St. John the 
Baptist in the Wilderness/ a set of twelve plates 



Zdaao 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Liberi 



of Soldiers and Moore, 'The Nymph surprised/ 
^ The Nymph and the Satyr,' and fifteen plates of 
the skeletons of acimals. He signed his works 
F.J Felippo Liay /. / and as above. 

LIANG d'ANGELI, Filippo dk. See Angeli. 

LIART, Matthew, was born in London, of 
French descent, in 1736, and studied under Ravenet, 
as well as with the Society of Artists, and in the 
schools of the Royal Academy, in the latter of 
which he gained the silver medal. He was em- 
ployed in engraving some plates for Boydeli's 
coUection. He died about 1782. Among otliers, 
the following prints are by him : 

The Sacrifice of Noah ; after Andrea Saecki. 

The CoDvention between Jacob and Laban ; after Pietro 

da CorUnta. 
The Joyial Oompanions ; after Ostade. 
Venus lamenting the Death of Adonis ; after West. 
Cephalos and Procris ; after the same, 

LIBERAL, Georo, was a German painter and 
wood engraver, probably of Meissen, who flourished 
about 1560, and in conjunction with Wolfgang 
Miererpeck executed the large cuts of the animals 
and plants for Mattioli's ' Commentaries on Diosco- 
lides/ published at Venice in 1565. 

LIBERALE, who is described as the son of 
'Magistri Jacobi a Blado de S. Joanne in Valle,' 
and who was commonly called ' Liberale de 
Jacomo da Verona,* in that city^s account-books, 
was bom there in 1451, and brought up as a 
miniaturist. He was a disciple of Vincenzo di 
Stefano, and his first works were performed at the 
chapel of the Monte della Pietk in the church of 
San Bernardino, where he painted a 'Deposition 
from the Cross.' In the church of Sant' Anastasia 
is a-pictore of the * Dead Christ.* He left Verona 
when he was eighteen, and worked for the Bene- 
dictines of Mont* Oliveto, near Siena, painting in 
miniature and illuminating books, and was after- 
wards employed in the cathedral of that city. 
His miniatures are considered masterpieces of art, 
and his paintings, after the style pf Bellini, only 
too clearly show the effect of his early training. 
In the cathedral of Verona is an 'Adoration of 
the Magi' by him; and in the archiepiscopal 
palace is a predella containing ' The Nativity,* ' The 
Epiphany,* and * The Death of the Virgin,' painted 
by Liberale between the years 1480 and 1490. In 
the Casa Scotti, Milan, is a * Madonna * by him that 
was formerly assigned to Andrea Mantegna. The 
churches of San Fermo, Santa Maria del Paradise, 
and the chapel of Comune alia Vittoria, Verona, 
all possess panels with saints by this artist. In 
the Brera, Milan, is a * St Sebastian,* of which the 
Berlin Gallery possesses the replica ; the last- 
named gallery also possesses a * Virgin and Child 
enthroned, between SS. Lawrence and Christopher, 
dated 1489. The Gallery of Verona has a * Holy 
Family ' and an ' Adoration of the Shepherds ' by 
this master. He was an umpire in the Municipal 
Council of Verona in 1493. He died in 1536, and 
was buried in San Giovanni in Valle, a suburb of 
Verona. The following are some of his chief works : 

Frescoes and Altar-pieces. 

St. Sebastian. (A replica of the 
picture in the Brera Gallery. ) 

The Annanciation ; Virgin, 
Child, and Saints ; painted 
on the two fronts. 14o2. 

Frescoes ana numerous Altar- 



Paris. 



Berlin. 
Botogna. 

Foligno. 
Milan. 



Gallery, 
Gallery. 

Museum. 
Brera. 



Pemgia. 

>» 
Rome. 



i> 



Louvre. Predella in three oompartments, 
comprising — Christ in the 
Garaen ; the Flagellation ; 
the Way to Calvary; the 
Crucifixion ; Nioodemus and 
Joseph of Arimathea; Two 
Angels, holding a cartel with 
the names of the Donatrix 
and the Artist. 
Gallery. The Annunciation. 

,, Frescoes and Altar-piecea 

VcUiean. Coronation of the Virgin. 
Spada Falaee. The Virgin rescuing an Infant. 



pieces. 
St. Sebastian. 



LIBERALE, Gennesio, (or Gensio,) a painter 
of the Venetian school, was bom at Udine, and 
flourished in the second half of the 16th century. 
He was a pupil of Pellegriuo da San Daniello, and 
painted animals and fish. 

LIBERATORE, Niccol6 di, called in error 
by Vasari, Niccol6 Alunno, was a native of 
Foligno, and was bom about the year 1430. His 
earliest work still extant, dated 1468, is in the 
Franciscan church of La Dimta, near Perugia. 
He signed his pictures Nicolaus Fulginates. A 
* Madonna enthroned,* painted in 1465, is in the 
Brera, Milan. There is an altar-piece representing 
the 'Annunciation,' dated 1466, in Santa Maria 
Nuova at Pemgia. Tliere are also altar-pieces 
by him in the Castle of San Severino and in San 
Francesco at Gualdo. A * Pieta,' of which frag- 
ments only remain, in the cathedral of Assisi, 
was one of his best works. Vasari says of two 
angels represented as weeping in this * Pieta/ that 
their emotion was so naturally expressed that no 
painter in Italy at that time could have painted 
them better. In 1499 he painted the altar-piece 
of Sant* Angel o, in La Bastia, near Perugia. Over 
a side-altar in the church of San Niccol6 at Foligno 
is a picture of ' St Nicholas and the Infant Christ,' 
painted in 1492. It was one of the many paintings 
which were sent to Paris, and when it went back 
it was without its predella^ which is still in the 
Louvre. An ' Ecce Homo ' m the National Gallery 
is given in the catalogue to Niccold ; but Mr. J. A. 
Crowe thinks it is probably by Matteo da Siena. 
Niccold died, a rich man, in 1502 ; and was buried 
in Sant' Agostino, in his native town. He exe- 
cuted his pictures in tempera, and excelled espe- 
cially in rendering the expression of the face ; he 
also painted standards, called 'Gonfaloni,' which 
were used in religious ceremonies ; there is still a 
gonfalone by him in Santa Maria Nuova at Perugia, 
which bears the following inscription : " Societas 
Annunciata fecit fieri hoc opus 1466." He is 
supposed by Mariotti to have been the master of 
Pietro Perugino, Pinturicchio, and Andrea di Luigi. 
A very interesting memoir conceming this painter 
has been written by Professor Adamo Rossi, of 
Perugia, and printed in the ' Giomale d'Emdizione 
Artistica ' for 1872. 

LIBERI, Marco, the son of Pietro Liberi, was 
born at Padua about the year 1640, and was edu- 
cated under his father, whose style he imitated 
with little claim to originality. He copied his 
father's works almost to illusion, and painted easel 
pictures of fabulous subjects, some of which are in 
the Palazzo Ercolani, at Bologna. He died after 
1687. In the Dresden Gallery is * Venus caressing 
Cupid,' and ' Venus and Cupid smelling a Flower.' 

LIBERI, Pietro, called Libertino, was bora at 
Padua in 1605. He was a scholar of Alessandro 
Varotari, and is considered one of the ablest de- 
signers of the Venetian school. His studies at 

53 



Libour 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Licinio 



Rome, after Raphael and MicbelaDgolo, at Parma, 
after Correggio and Parniigiano, as well as after the 
most distinguished of the Venetian painters, led 
him to a style which may be said to partake of 
every school. Few artists have discovered a greater 
variety of character in their works than Pietro 
Liberi. He was used to say, that when employed 
for the intelligent, his pencil was frank and expe- 
ditious, without the appearance of labour or finish; 
but when working for the less experienced, his 
pictures were painted with the utmost minuteness, 
in which every object, even to each hair, was pre- 
cisely attended to. In his works for the churches 
he exhibits a grandeur which is not to be found in 
his other productions. Such are the 'Murder of 
the Innocents,' at Venice ; ^ Noah leaving tlie Ark/ 
and the ' Destruction of Pharoah's Host,' at Vicenza; 
and the ' Deluge/ and ' Moses striking the Rock,' 
at Bergamo. He was more employed in ^subjects 
of the fable, which he treated witn elegance and 
grace, in the style of Titian ; but sometimes with 
a freedom which procured him the title of * Liber- 
tino.' He died at Venice in 1687. He signed his 
works /*. X., or with a monogram. His chief 
works are as follow : 

Bergamo. ^ Maria ) Marriage of St. Catharine. 

Dresden. Gallery. Judgment of Pans. 

„ „ Yonth under the Shield of 

Wisdom. 

Petersburg. Hermitage. Diana and Callisto. 

„ „ The Graces and the Loves. 

Venice. Palace. Battle of the Dardanelles. 

Academy. An Allegory. 

San Pietro. The Plague of Serpents. 

^* ^^^if "* j ^*"^~ imploring St. Anthony. 
San Stefano. The Trinity. 

Madonna del X f.. nn,^„^^ 
Carmine, j St. Theresa. 

San Moiee. The Invention of the Cross. 

„ San Giovanni ) St. John writing the Apoca- 

Evanyeliiia. j lypse. 
Vicenza. Cathedral. Sacrifice of Noah. 

LIBOUR, Esprit Aim^ an historical and portrait 
painter, was born at Laval in 1785. He went 
to Paris and became a pupil of David, Regnault, 
and Gros. In 1805 he received a first prize for 
his * Arab dying in the Wilderness.* Among his 
other works were * The Death of Abel,' * Cephalus 
and Procris,' and * Venus in the Water.* 

LIBHI, Dai. See Dai Libbi. 

LICALDE, Juan de, was a scholar of Pedro de 
Las Cue V as, who displayed considerable ability, 
but died young. One of his drawings, * A Crowned 
Lion upholding a Shield of the Arms of Spain and 
Portugal,' neatly executed with the pen, was seen 
by Cean Berraudez in the collection of Don Pedro 
Gonzalez de Sepulveda. It bore the signature 
Juan de LiccUde en el amor de Dios d 10 Novem- 
hre de 1628, which places his death after that year. 
He made a clever pen-and-ink portrait of the Duke 
of Olivarez, Philip IV. 's minister. 

LICHERIE, Louis, was bom at Houdan (Seine- 
et-Oise) in 1629, and was instructed by the elder 
Louis de Boullongue. He was employed by Le 
Brun from 1666 to 1670 as a teacher at the 
Gobelins, and in 1679 became a member of the 
Academy, presenting * David and Abigail* (now 
in the Louvre) as his reception picture. Other 
paintings by him are in the churches of the Invalides 
and St. Germain I'Auxerrois at Paris. He died in 
Paris in 1687. 

54 



>» 

n 
It 

w 
w 



LiCHT, Ferdinand, a German painter, was born 
in 1750 at Troppau in Silesia. He was instruoted 
by Joseph Burkart, and painted portraits as well 
as altar-pieces, of which there are two in the church 
of Obrowitz. He died at Briinn, but in what year 
is not recorded. 

LICUTENREITER, Franz, was bom at Passau 
in 1700. He went to Italy and studied at Venice 
under Vincentini. After some years he returned 
to Germany and settled in Prague, painting por- 
traits and historical pieces. He died in 1775. 

LICHTENSTECHER, Georg, a German en- 
graver, was bom at Nuremberg in 1700. He 
executed several portraits and anatomical engrav- 
ings. He died about 1780. Among his works 
are: 

Cattarina Comaro, Qaeen of Cyprus ^ after Titian. 

Portrait of H. von Behaim. 

Portrait of the Artiat; after C. B. MoUer, 

LICINIO, Bernardino, was a distant relation of 
Pordenone, who flourished in the 16th century. He 
received his early education in Friuli, and after- 
wards resided in Venice. Of his birth and death 
nothing certain is known. His pictures have been 
frequently confounded with those of Pordenone, 
and chiefly consist of portraits and family groups, 
the earliest known being dated 1524, and the latest 
1541. His finest religious composition is the altar- 
piece of the Frari at Venice, representing the 
* Virgin and Child enthroned between Saints.' The 
following are his principal paintings : 

Ahiwick. Castle. The Artist and his Papil. 

Brescia. Cathedral. Holy Family. (Attributed to 

Giorgione.) 
Florence. UJisi. Virgin and Child, with St. 

F^rands. 
Holy Familv. {Attributed to 

Polidoro da Caravaggio.) 
A Family Group of Ten Per- 
sona 1524. 
ladies plaving the Spinet. 
\(enus and Cupid. • {Attributed 

to Giorgione.) 
A Man's Portrait. 1528. 
Virgin and Child, with St. 

John and St. Jerome. 
Adoration of the Magi. 
Portraits of a Family. 
A Family Portrait. 1524. 
Herodiait. {At.ributed to Gior- 
gione.) 
Frari. The Virgin and Child, with 
Saints. {His best tcork.) 
Gallery. Ottavio Grimani. 1541. 



Genoa. Balbi-Piovera \ 
Palace. j 
Hampton Court. Palace. 

Hanover. Hausnumn ) 
Collection.) 
London. Mr. Perkins. 
„ Sir l9or Guest, 

Petersburg. Hermitage, 

Borne. Borghesi Palace. 
„ Setarra Palace, 



Venice. 

Vienna. 



'LICINIO, Giovanni Antonio, (or Cutickllo,) 
called Pordknonb, from the name of his native 
town, twenty-eight miles from Udine, was bom in 
1483. He assumed various surnames, and was 
called at one time ' Licinio,' at another time 
* Regillo,' but more often * Pordenone,* and with 
this name he signed many of his works. His father 
was a builder or architect living in Pordenone, 
named Angelo di Bartolommeo de Lodesanis, and 
also * de Corticellis,' from the name of his faUier's 
birthplace, as well as ^ Sacchiensis,' or * de Sacchis.* 
Pordenone received a liberal education, and is said 
to have been a pupil of Pellegrino da San Daniello 
at Udine. Ridolfi relates that Giovanni's first 
commission was given to him by a shopkeeper of 
Pordenone, and that its subject was a ' Madonna,* 
which the artist began and finished in the time 
that his patron heard masd. Vasari states that 
Pordenone was driven for some years from his 
home by an epidemic, and that he employed this 



Licinio 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



LieMnck 



tiroe in decorating the snrroiiTidingvillajBre churches. 
In the church of Vacile, fifteen miles from Porde- 
none, are a series of mural designs which may be 
his workmanship ; at Colatto^ near to Conegliano, 
there is a chapel dedicated to San Salvatore, which 
is decorated witli frescoes representing the 'An- 
nanciation,'the * Epiphany,* the * Flight into Egypt,* 
the *■ Meeting of Jesus and Martha/ the * Raising 
of Lazarus/ the ' Last Judgment/ the Evangelists, 
Prophets, and Angels, painted by him in the early 

{>art of the 16th century. Of this period in his 
ife is the ' Madonna and Saints ' of the church of 
Susigana. In 1513 he again returned to Pordenone 
and married his second wife, Elisabetta Quagliata. 
In 1514 he painted 'The Glory of St. Anthony, 
with attendant Sainta/ in Sant' Antonio of Gone- 
gliano ; and also adorned with frescoes the church 
of Sant' Odorico of Vilianuova. In 1515 he pro- 
duced the * Virgin of Mercy, with SS. Joseph and 
Christopher/ in the Cathedral of Pordenone. In 
1516 he contracted to paint the frescoes which 
formerly adorned the church of Rorai Grande. 
He next went to Travesio, where he painted a ' St. 
Christopher * on the faqade of the church, and thence 
to Udine, where he completed a * Virgin and Child ' 
on the Loggia of the Town Hall. In 1519-20 
Pordenone ezecated the frescoes in the Malchiostro 
chapel in San Niccol6 of Treviso, for which Titian 
painted the altar-piece.. The frescoes represent 
the ' Eternal in Benediction,' the ' Epiphany/ the 
' Visitation/ and figures of St Liberiue and other 
Saints, Doctors of the Church, and Angels. In 
1520 he went to Mantua, where he covered the 
facade of the Ceresara palace with mythological 
subjects ; from thence he journeyed to Cremona, 
where the authorities of tne cathedral contracted 
with him to paint tlie frescoes of * Pilate delivering 
op Christ,* the * Procession to Calvary,* the * Pre- 
l^ration for the Crucifixion,* and the ' Crucifixion.' 
During a second visit paid to Cremona in 1522 he 
finished that series by the ^ Deposition,* and also 
executed the altar-piece in the Schizsd Chapel in 
the Cathedral, representing the * Virgin and Child, 
between SS. Paul and Dominick.* In 1524 he went 
to Spilimbergo, and executed a series of .distempers 
for the organ of the church of Santa Maria, repre- 
senting the * Assumption,' the * Fall of Simon 
Magus,' and the * Conversion of St. Paul * ; he 
also painted five panels for the well of the same 
organ, and an altar-piece for the church that is 
now lost From 1525 to 1527 he completed a 
great quantity of pictures and frescoes for the 
churches of Travesio, and in the adjoining towns 
and villages of Galeriano, Biessano, Casarsa, Udine, 
and Valvasons. The frescoes in the cathedral of 
Travesio cover the entire octagon of the choir, and 
include seven scenes from the life of St. Peter, 
seven subjects drawn from Old Testament history, 
the * Conversion and Martyrdom of St Paul,* the 
* Epiphany,* the ' Last Supper,* the * Entombment,' 
and 'Christ in Glory.' In 1628 Pordenone went 
to Venice, where he decorated the tribune of 
the church of San Rocco with frescoes which have 
now disappeared, and also designed two colossal 
panels of SS. Christopher and Martin, which are 
still remaining. In 1529 he was again in Porde- 
none, and from there went to Piacenza, where he 
decorated two chapels in the church of the Madonna 
di Campagna with frescoes drawn from the lives 
of the Virgin and St Catharine. His next journey 
was to Genoa, where he went by invrtation of 
Andrea Doria, and embellished his palace with 



allegorical designs which are now lost. About 
1534-5 were finished the altar-pieces of the * Trinity ' 
for the cathedral of San Daniele, and the * Glory 
of St. Mark * for the cathedral of Pordenone. In 
1535 Pordenone received the patent of knighthood 
from King John of Hungary, and thenceforward 
took the name of * Regillo.* Soon afterwards he 
settled at Venice, where he decorated the house of 
Martino d'Anna, the palaces of the Mocenigos 
and the Morosinis, the brotherhood of San Francesco 
de' Frari, and the cloisters of San Stefano with 
frescoes, which gained for him such renown that 
he received from the Council of Ten the order to 
finish the decorations and ceiling of the Sala del 
Scrutinio, which he completed by 1538. His work 
here was so much approved that in 1537 the 
Council deprived Titian of his patent in the Fon- 
daco de* Tedesdii, and ordered of Regillo in 1538 
a picture for the Sala del Senate. All these last- 
named works have perished. In that same year 
he left Venice to pay a visit to Ercole, second 
Duke of Ferrara, for whom he had already designed 
subjects drawn from the Odyssey, for embroidery 
in arras. He arrived there in the month of Decem- 
ber, and before he had been there many days, was 
taken sick (some accounts state he was poisoned), 
and died at the Angel Inn, Ferrara, in his 56th 
year, in January 1539, and was buried in the church 
of San Paolo in that city. Authentic pictures by 
this artist are very scarce, many of those under his 
name in public and private collections being by 
his pupils and imitators. Some authentic examples 
may be found in the different collections in Venice. 
Especially worthy of mention are the following : 



Edinburgh. iVof . Oallery, 
Floreooe. UJ^, 



London. 



n 



Nat, OaUei 



If 



TV. 

Earl of North' 
oTooh, 

Petenbarg. Hermitage. 
Borne. Doria Palace, 



Venice. 



»» 



Christ on the Meant of Olives. 
Portrait of the Artist. 
A Portr^t. 

The Conversion of St. Paul. 
An Apostle. 
) Portrait of a Man, half-length, 
) life-size. 
An Old Man and a Girl. 
The Daughter of Herodias with 
her Maid. 
Academy, The Glory of St. Lorenzo 
Giustiniani. 
„ The Virgin of Mercy, with B. 

Simon Stock, and B. Aagelo. 

LICINIO, Giovanni Antonio, the younger, called 
II SA(x;hiense, was a brother of Giulio Licinio, and 
a nephew and pupil of Pordenone. He was bom 
about 1515, ana died at Como about 1576. 

LICINIO, Giulio, of Pordenone, is said to have 
been the nephew of Pordenone, and to have been 
at Rome during some period in his life. Records 
remain to prove that he was in Augsburg as late 
as 1561, and he is thought to have died there. 
In the Philippinewelser Strasse, Augsburg, can be 
seen the remains of frescoes, representing ' Pluto, 
Venus, and Janus,* that are assigned to him. 

LIEBE, Christian Gottlieb August, was an 
engraver of Leipsic, who worked under Oeser, and 
died about 1810. Among his plates are : 

The Holy Family ; after Gtddo Rent. 
An Assembly of Monks ; after the satne, 
Juno and Argus ; after Jordaens. 
The Tavern ; after Amtihale Carracci. 
Portrait of ZoUikofer; after Bouse, 

LIEFRINCK, C, who flourished at Amsterdam 
about 1620-40, was a painter and designer. There 
are two etchings by him, a very rich frieze, repre- 
senting an ^ Expedition of Soldiers and Baggage- 
waggons,' and a battle piece. 

65 



Xiiemaker 



A BICXJRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



lAgTLon 



LIEMAEER, Nicolaes db. See De Liemakeb. 

LIl&NARD, Edouard, a French historical and 
portrait painter, was born in Paris in 1779. He 
was the son or Jean Baptiste Li^nard, and v^as 
originally intended for an engraver, but preferring 
painting, he studied under Ree^nault and afterwards 
under Isabey. Settling at Lille, he became in 1823 
a professor in the Academy there. He painted a 
great number of portraits in the style of David, 
and also miniatures. He died at Lille in 1848. 
The Museum at Rheims has by him 'The Oath 
of Allegiance of the Inhabitants of Rheims,' and 
tliat at Lille has some of his portraits. 

LI6NARD, Jean Baptiste, a French engraver, 
was born at Lisle about the year 1750. He was a 
pupil of Jacques Philippe Le Bas, and has engraved, 
m a neat style, several views and landscapes. He 
executed some of the plates fot the * Voyage 
pittoresque du Royaume de Naples et de Sicile/ 
by the Abb^ de St. Non, and the * Voyage pittor- 
esque de la Suisse.' He died after 1807. The 
following engravings also are by him : 

The Pleasures of Summer ; after J. B. Le Prince. 
TiewB of the principal Moauments of Borne; after 

ff, Robert, 
Three plates in the first edition of Beanmarchais's 

* Ia Folle Joomde, ou la Manage de Figaro,' Paris, 

1785. 

LIENDER, Paulub van, a Dutch engraver, bom 
at Utrecht in 1731, was a brother of Pieter van 
Liender. His uncle Jakob sent him to Amsterdam 
to learn drawing, and he afterwards painted flowers, 
landscapes, and views. He also executed some 
etchings. He died at Utrecht in 1797. 

LIENDER, Pieter van, a Dutch landscape 
painter, was bom at Utrecht in 1727. Many of 
nis subjects are views of cities, and scenes on the 
borders of the Rhine. He died at Utrecht in 1779. 

LIENDO, DiEQo ViPAL DE. See Vidal de Liendo. 

LIER, Adolf, a German landscape painter, was 
bom in 1827, and died at Brixen in 1882. There 
is by him in the New Pinakothek at Munich a 
view of * The Theresien Wiese at Munich, with the 
colossal Bavaria.' 

LIERNUR, Alexander, a Dutch draughtsman 
and engraver, was bom at the Hague m 1770. 
Having had the misfortune at an early age to lose 
his parents, he was adopted by the Stadtholder, 
William v., who placed him in the Home of the 
Lutheran Orphans. Showing a disposition for art, 
he was sent to the Academy, where he gained the 
gold medal. In 1794 he went to Rome, but 
owing to political affairs in Holland being so 
disturbed, he was obliged to return the following 
year. He was very successful with his drawings, 
as well as with the graver. He died at Amsterdam 
in 1815. 

LIERRE, JoosT VAN, was bom at Bmssels in 
1630. He was a painter of landscapes and figures, 
but resigned art to become a minister of the re- 
formed religion at Zwyndrecht near Antwerp, 
He died in 1583. 

LIES, Joseph, a Flemish genre and historical 
painter, was bom at Antwerp in 1822. He studied 
under N. De Keyser and Leys, and received a gold 
medal at Brussels in 1853. He died in 1865. 
Amongst his pictures are : 

Baldwin, Count of Flanders, panishing Robbers. {Brus^ 

sels Oallery.) 
Rapine, Plunder, and Oonflagration. {The same.) 
The Prisoner. (Atitwerp Gallery.) 
The Approach of the Enemy. (The $an:e.) 
56 



A Military Envoy returning from aa Expedition. 

The Promenade. 

The Pleasures of Wmter. 

LIESBORN, Master of, is known by an ex- 
cellent altar-piece, which was formerly in the 
second church of the convent at Liesbom, near 
Munster, and consecrated in 1465. It was 
sold in 1807, and the new proprietor made 
several pieces of it. Some of them are in the 
possession of Dr. Haindorf at MUnster, and others 
are now in the National Gallery in London. A 
copy of the whole by one of the artistes pupils 
was in the Protestant Church at Liinen, but it 
is now destroyed ; it represented, in the middle, 
' Christ on the Cross, surrounded by St. John, St 
Scholastica, and St Benedict, the Virgin Mary, St 
Cosmas, and St Damian ' ; and on the sides eight 
scenes in the Life of Christ, — ^the 'Annuncia* 
tion,' 'Nativity,' 'Adoration of the Magi,' 'Pre- 
sentation,' 'Resurrection,' 'Ascension,' 'Descent 
of the Holy Ghost,' and ' Last Judgment' The 
whole is a mixture of the school of the Van Eycks 
and that of Cologne. The Master of Liesbom 
had several pupils, whose works are still partly 
preserved. 

LIEVENDAL, Isaac, was a Spanish engraver, 
who resided at Granada in the reign of Phuip IV. 
(1621-1665). 

LIEVENS, Jan. See Livenbz. 

LIGARIO, Cesare, a painter, bom at Milan in 
1716, was a son of Giovanni Pietro Ligario. He 
studied at Venice under Pittoni, and afterwards 
with his father. He was living in 1755. 

LIGARIO, Giovanni Pietbo, was bom at 
Sondrio, in the Valtelline, in 1686, and having 
learned the first mdiments of art in his native 
country, went to Italy, and resided some years at 
Rome, where he improved his design by frequenting 
the school of Lazzaro Baldi, and afterwards visited 
Venice, where he studied the works of the most 
eminent masters of that school of colouring. On 
his return to his native town in 1727, he was 
employed in painting some historical pictures for 
the churches and private collections. He died at 
Sondrio in 1748. He has left a ' St Benedict ' in 
the church of the nunnery at Sondrio, and a 
' Descent of the Holy Ghost ' in the church at 
Morbegno. In the Brera at Milan are portraits 
of the painter's father and the Abbot Mottalini. 
He also engraved a ' Virgin ' and ' The Martyrdom 
of St Peter.' 

LIGHTBODT, John, an English engraver, has 
left a few small etchings of Beggars. 

LIGHTFOOT, William, was an English painter 
and engraver. He excelled in painting landscapes 
and perspective views, and was employed by 
Wren in the decoration of the Royal Exchange. 
In the ' Sculptura,' by Evelyn, he is mentioned as 
an engraver, in the following terms : " Lightf oot 
hath a very curious graver, and special talent for 
the neatness of his stroke, little inferior to Wierix ; 
and has published two or three Madoiinas, with 
much applause. He died about 1671." 

LIGLl, Ventura, was a painter of the Neapolitan 
school, who lived in the second part of the 17th 
and the commencement of the 18th centuries. 
He was a pupil of Giordano, and went to Spain, 
where he was called 'Lirios.' In 1682 he was 
living at Madrid, where there is a picture of the 
* Battle of Almansa' painted by him. 

LIGNON, 6tienne Fr6d]4ric, a French line en- 
graver, was bom in Paris in 1779, and died there 



JAspay 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Limosiii 



in 1833. He studied under Morel, and among his 
best plates are : 

Boee Homo ; after Cftddo Beni. 
Tbe Rape of I>eianeira ; after the same. 
The Virgin with the ilsh ; after Baphael, 
Leo X. ; after the same. 
KiooUs Pousdn ; after himself. 
The Duchess of Asgonldme ; after Jugustin. 
Louis Philippe ; afUr L. Buprt. 
Oharies X.; after Gh-ard, 
Kile. Man ; after the seane. 
' Alexander I., Emperor of Bosaia ; after Vigneroru 
Oamoens ; after the ^ame, 
F^anooia Joseph Tahna ; after IHcct. 
pi^che and Chipid ; after the same. 
The Duke de Richelieu ; after Sir Thomas Lawrence. 

LIGNY, FRANgois de, a French engraver, 
executed two landscapes after Gaspard Poussin. 

LIGORIO, PiBBO, an architect, engineer, sculptor, 
and antiquary, who also executed some paint- 
ings, was bom at Naples in 1493. He went early 
in life to Rome, where he studied under Giulio 
Romano. He was employed in an architectural 
capacity by Paul IV. and Alphonso II. ; but he 
produced some fresco works at Rome, of which 
the principal is the * Feast of Herod,' in the oratory 
of me Gompagnia della Misericordia. He also 
painted several friezes and ornaments in the public 
edifices. He died at Ferrara in 1580. 

LIGOZZI, Babtolommbo, a nephew of Jacopo 
Ligozzi, was bom at Verona, and flourished at 
Florence about 1620. He painted flowers and 
genre subjects, and died at the age of 75 . 

LIGOZZI, Giovanni Ebmanno, a native of Verona, 
flourished about 1570. By some he is supposed to 
have been a son of Jacopo Ligozzi. In the Church 
of the Apostles at Verona is a picture by him 
entitled * The Name of Jesus,* dated 1573, and a 
fresco over the principal door of the church of SS. 
Nazzaro e Celso. 

' LIGOZZI, Jaoopo, was bom at Verona about 
1543, and was a disciple of Paolo Veronese. 
His principal residence was at Florence, where 
he was made painter to the Grand-Duke Ferdi- 
nand II., and superintendent of the Ducal Gallery, 
a distinction honourable to his talents, as it 
was conferred on him in preference to the many 
able Florentine painters of the time. He diea 
after 1632. He has left some admired fresco 
paintings in the cloister of the Ognissanti There 
are several of his oil pictures in the churches at 
Florence. In Santa Maria Novella is a grand 
picture of ' St Rajonond resuscitating a Child * ; 
but his most celebrated work is his * A^rtyrdom of 
St Dorothea,' at the Conventuali at Pescia. He was 
very successful with easel pictures of a small size. 
He signed his works Jacob Ligot. pinxit Some 
of them have been engraved by Agostino Carracci, 
and other artists. Andrea Andreani executed 
several woodcuts after him, and it is said that he 
engraved some prints, both on copper and on wood, 
from his own designs. The name of Fbancesco 
Ligozzi is found on a painting in San Luca ; and 
that of Paolo Ligozzi (died 1630) on one in Sant' 
Eufemia. 

LILIENBERGH, Cobnblis, (or Leliknbebgh^ a 
painter of dead game and subjects of the chase, in 
the manner of Weeninx, was bom at the Hague 
about 1600. His works are distinguished for cor- 
rectness of drawing, good colouring, and truth to 
nature. He died at the Hague after 1663. Several 
of his paintings are in the galleries of Berlin, 
Dresden, Christiania, Count Gzernin at Vienna, and 
Castle Howard, 



LILIO, Andbea, called Andbba d'Ancona nella 
Mabca, was born at Ancona (?) in 1555. He went 
to Rome, where he was employed by Pope 
Sixtus V. in the decoration of the library of the 
Vatican, and in the palace of St. John Lateran, 
where he painted in fresco on the Seal a Santa 
* Moses striking the Rock,* a gtand composition of 
many figures, and ^ Moses with the Brazen Serpent' 
In a chapel of tbe Chiesa Nuova, he painted 
'The Archangel Michael driving the Evil Spirits 
from Heaven ' ; and in Santa Maria Maggiore a fine 
fresco of * Christ washing the Feet of His Disciples.' 
After the death of his protector he continued to orna- 
ment several of the churches and convents of Rome 
in the time of Pope Clement VIII. He also painted 
allegorical subjects, some of which have been 
engraved. At Ancona, in the church of San Stef ano, 
is a picture of the ' Stoning of St Stephen.' He 
died at Ascoli in 1610. 

LILLY, £., an English portrait painter and 
engraver, practised at the end of the 17th and 
the beginning of the 18th centuries. There is 
a portrait of Queen Anne by him at Blenheim 
Palace. 

LILLY, Hen BY, an English illuminator and 
draughtsman, flourished in the early part of the 
17th century, and held the office of Rouge-Croix 
pursuivant at arms. There is a genealogy of the 
Howard family by him containing portraits, &c. 
He died in 1638. 

LIMBORCHT, Hendbik van, was bom at the 
Hague in 1680, and studied under H. Brandon, 
Robert Du Val, and Adriaan van der Werff, whom 
he imitated with success. Limborcht excelled in 
painting landscapes, historical subjects, and por^ 
traits. He died m 1758. There are by him : 

Amsterdam. Museum, Oapid and Psyche. 

„ „ Chlldreii playing. 

„ „ The Shepherds. 

Dresden. Gallery. Venus and Cupid. 

Paris. Zouvre. The Bepose in Egypt. 

„ „ The Golden Age. 

Botterdam. Jfusextm. Ulysses at the Court of Lyoo- 

medes. 

Two engravings by him are known — * Pandora' 
and * Hercules and Lichas.' 

LIMOSIN FAMILY. The history of this family 
of enamel painters of Limoges is veiled in a cloud 
of obscurity, which the researches of M. Maurice 
Ardant among the archives of Haute-Vienne, and 
of M. A. Thomas in the municipal archives of 
Limoges, have not been able entirely to dispel. 
Nevertheless, the following genealogical table will 
show approximately the relationship which existed 
between several members of the family of Limosin, 
but there are others also who practised the art of 
enamel painting, whose lineage has not yet been 
ascertaiied. Three only of these are of sufficient 
importance to merit separate notices, viz. Leonard 
I., Jean 1., and Fran9ois I. 

Francois Limosin 
(Innkeeper]. 

-I- 



LiOHARD I. 

a606r-d. before 1677). 



Martin 
(d. 1671?). 



Leonard IL 
(1660?— 1086?). 

I — . ' _ I 



.Tkan I. 
(16287-1610?). 



Francois Jean Martial Fran<joi8 
(b. 1699j. (b. 1004 (b.l007). (b. 1616). 



FKA9(X>1B I. 
(b.befcrel664; 
d. 1640). 



Ltenard. 



Leonard 
(b. 1610). 



Francois 
(b..l006). 



L^nard 
(b. 1630). 

67 



liimosin 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP 



Limosin 



M 






» 



»y 



»> 



n 



•» 



LIMOSIN, FRANgois, the younger eon of Martin 
Liiaosin, was bom before 1564, and with his 
brother, Leonard II., was co-heir of his uncle, 
Leonard I. He died in 1646. His enamels are 
more like those of the De Courts ; they are deep in 
colour and sometimes heightened with gold, and 
his backgrounds are often of dark violet. He 
Irequently copied the designs of Virgil Solis and 
^lienne Delaune. The following may be mentioned 
as examples of his style : 

London. British Muteum, Neptune. 1833L 

Paris. Louvrs, Neptune; after Virgil 9oU», 

1633. 
Orion pierced by the arrows of 

Apollo. 
Psyche imploring Venus. 
Orpheus before Pluto and 

Proserpine; afttr VirgUSclis, 
Orpheoschsrmuig the Animals ; 

after Etienne Delaune, 
Venus and Oupid. 

LIMOSIN, Jbhan, a younger brother of Leonard 
I. and Martin Limoein, was bom before 1628, and 
died about 1610. The earliest enamel signed by 
Jehan Limosin is a portrait of Bardon de Brun, 
the founder of the confraternity of Penitents at 
Limoges, which bears the date of 1697. His style 
approaches nearer to that of Jean and Suzanne de 
Court than to that of his uncle, and he gives to his 
heads the sharp profile which is characteristic of 
French art at the close of the 16th century. Hunt- 
ing scenes were his favourite subjects, and green 
backgrounds and reliefs of gold dominate in most 
of his works. Among them may be mentioned : 

London. Britith Museum. Charon ferryinff Psyche across 

the Styx ; ovsl plaoue. 1680? 
„ „ St. Margaret. 1600? 

„ South Kensinffion ) Oblong Gasket, painted with 
Museum. j Bacchanalian procession and 

medisBval dancing groups. 
(Formerly in the Debruge and 
Soltykoff CoUeetitms.) 
„ M ^Hie Death of St. Benedict; a 

plaque. 
Paris. Louvre. Esther before Ahasuem& 

„ The Wife of Uriah. 

The Rape of Buropa; after 

Virgil Solis. 
Pompey. 

Julia, wife of Pompey. 
Divine Love conquering Pro- 
fane Love. 



n 



LIMOSIN, LiiovABD, the greatest of the enamel 
painters of Limoges, whether in regard to the variety 
of his works, or to their artistic merit, was bom at 
Limoges about 1505, a*hd was probably a pupil of 
Nardon P^nicaud. His first works were mspired 
by German masters, ai.d the earliest date found 
upon any of them is 1532, which occurs upon 
a series of eighteen plaques of the 'Passion,' 
after Albrecht Diirer. From 1535, however, he 
came under the influence of the Italian school, 
and of the artists who had been engaged by 
Francis I. to decorate his palace at Fontainebleau. 
Nevertheless, his copies even of Raphael are exe- 
cuted with such freedom as to render them almost 
his own works. In 1541 he was establislied at 
Limoges, and subsequently he was appointed 
court- painter to Francis I., and patronized by 
Henry II. The latest enamels upon which L^onai^ 
Limosin has placed a date bear that of 1574. He 
died between January, 1575, and February, 1577. 
He practised all the processes known to the enamel 
painters who had preceded him, but his predilection 
was for brilliant colours, which towards the end of 
58 



his career he placrd on a deep blue ground. His 
portraits in enamel are ver^ fine, and often of 
large size. He also painted in oil the * Incredulity 
of St Thomas,' dated 1551, in the Museum at 
Chartres, and other works. Hi^ works are signed 
with his name, the initials Z. Z., or a monogram. 
There are by him : 

Berlin. Kuns hammer. A Madonna. 

99 ,t Buth and Boas, 

Chantilly. l}uke ) Antoine de Bourbon, King of 

iTAumale.) Navarre. (Formerly in the 
Debruge and Soltykoff Col- 
lections.) 
ft „ Jean de Bourbon, Due d^Bii- 

ghien. (Formerly in the 
Soltykoff ColUetioH.) 
„ f, Jeanne d'Albret, Queen of 

Navarre. (Formerly in the 
Visconti Culeetion.) 
„ f, Louis de Bourbon, Duke of 

Montpenaier. 1550. (For- 
merly in the Debruge and 
Soltykoff Collections. ) 
Ohartres. Saint-Pkre. The Twelve Apostles. 1547. 

(This feriesteas executed from 
the desians of Michel Kochetel, 
and formerly adorned the 
ehavei of the CSidteau d'Anet.) 
London. British Museum. The Twelve Sybils ; half-length 

figures. 1550? 
„ f, Cupid and Psyche, forming the 

centre of a large round dish, 
and snnoundra by a very 
nch border of figures, fish, 
animals birds, ^. (Formerly 
in the Fountains Collection. ) 
South Kensington) The Crucifixion; a plaque in 
Museum. } transparent colours on * pail- 
Ion,* or metallic foil. 1539. 
„ Taxza, or Shallow BowI« with 

the figure of Laocoon,painted 
in grisaille. 1589. 
9, The Hibtory of Cupid and 

Psyche (after Raphael) : two* 
plaques in light colours oa 
white ground. 1540 ? 
f9 „ Charles Tiercelin, Chancellor of 

France; a square plaque. 
1540? (Formerly tn <A# 
Soulages Collection.) 
„ „ Antoiue de Bourbon ; a square 

plaoue. 1540-50? (Formerly 
in we Soulages Collection.) 
M p The Banquet of the Qods ; an 

eUiptic plaque. 1560? (For- 

merly in the Bemal Collection.) 

„ „ Charles de Guise, Cardinal de 

Lorraine; a large oval medal- 
lion. (Attributed to Leonard 
Limosin.) 
„ „ Si. Thomas, St. Matthew, St. 

James the Qreater, and St. 
James the Less ; medallions. 
(Attributed to Lionard Ia^ 
mosin.) 
„ Mr.Magniac. Hunting Horn, decorated on 

one side with the Conversion 
of St. Hubert and scenes of 
the chase, in colours, and on 
the other side with David 
slaying Goliath, and medal- 
lions in grisaUle. 1538. (For- 
merly in the Strawbtrry Hill 
Collection.) 
„ Jfr. 2>aii2y ) Francis L, King of France. 

S^mour.j (Formerly in the Strawberry 
Hill Collection.) 
„ f, Catharine de' Medici. 

Munidi. Treasury. The Manna in the Desert; a 

dish. 
Paris Lcuvre, Psyche carried off by Zephyr 

(after Raphael). 1535. 
„ „ St. Thomas (Francis I.). 



n 



n 



» 



Lin 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



liinet 



Pferia. 



iMLvre. 



» 



» 



» 
91 






Jfusie de Cxuny, 



u 



n 



„ Legislative Chamber. 



St Paul (Admiral Cbabot). 

Votive Tablet for the Sainte 
Ohapelle, consisting of 
twenty-three plaques, that 
in the centre representing 
the Crucifixion. 1553. 

Votive Tablet for the Sainte 
Ohapelle. consisting of 
twenty-tnree plaques, that 
in the centre representing 
the Resurrection. 1553. 

Francis U. 

Catharine de' Medici, in widow's 
costume. 

Venns and Capid. 1555. 

A Concert. 

Eleanor of Austria, Queen of 
Francis I. 1536. 

!nie Life and Passion of Christ ; 
twelve large oval medallions. 
1557. 

The Judgment of Paris (erfter 
Raphael)', a circular aish, 
with figures iu grisaille on a 
blue ground. 1562. 

Two glass paintings represent- 
ing Henry II. and Catharine 
de' Medici. 1553. 

The Adoration of the Kings; 
a triptych. 1544. 

The Manna in the Desert. 
1568. 

Henry II. on honebaek, with 
Diana of Poiotiers riding 
behind him. 1547. 

Anne d'Este, Dudiess of Guise. 

Charles IX., as ApoUa 1573. 

Henry III., as Jupiter. 

Catharine de' Medici, as Venus. 
1574. 

Anne de Montmorency, Con- 
stable of France. 

Pius V. 

The Last Supper. 1546. 

Claude de France, first wife of 
Francis L 1550. 

Four etchings, according to Robert-Dumesnil, were 
executed by Leonard Limosin, after his own com- 
positions ; they are done with a broad and spirited 
point, with large figures and small heads; they 
are as f oUow : 

Christ entering Jemialem. 1544. 
The Last Supper. 1544. 
Christ on the Mount of Olives. 1544. 
The Resurrection. 1544. 

LIN, Hans van, called Stillheid, or de Stille, 
floarished from 1664 to 1675, according to dates 
on his pictares. He painted battles and hunting 
pieces, and some of bis works are to be met with 
at Copenhagen and Dresden. His pictures are 
marked H, V, L, There exists a plate of animals 
engraved by him. G. F. Boetius executed after 
him an engraving of ' A Company in an Alehouse.' 

LINAJUOLO, Bebto, was a Florentine painter, 
who lived in the first part of the 15th century. His 
pictures gained him sufficient fame to cause him to 
be summoned to the court of Hungary, where he 
was received with favour. 

LINCK, Hans von, is mentioned as an engraver 
by Professor Christ, who says he marked his prints 

with the monogram TJP . 

LINCK, JoHANN Anton, a painter and enp-aver, 
was a native of Geneva, who worked with his 
father, Johann Conrad Linck, till 1788. He exe- 
cuted a large number of Swiss views, especially of 
Cbamouniz^ which -are correct in drawing and good 
in colour. 





Baron Alphonse 
de Rothschild. 
Baron Gustave ' 
de Rothschild. 

Baroness James \ 
de Rothschild, f 


» 


n 


n 


n 


tt 


*9 


t* 


i» 


St 


}> 


n 


ft 


n 


Prince Soliykoff\ 
{now dispersed), j 



L'INDACO, Jacopo, an Italian painter, was born 
at Florence in 1476. He was the eon of Lazzaro 
di Pietro, a baker^ and received from his contem- 
poraries the surname of 'L'Indaco.* He was a 
pupil of Domenico Ohirlandaio, and worked in 
Rome with Pinturicchio. There he became intimate 
with Michelangelo, who instructed him in the art 
of painting in fresco. He died at Rome about 
1544, at the age of 68. He was a good artist, but 
all his works mentioned by Vasari have perished. 
He had a brother, Francesco^ also called L*Indaco, 
who was bom in 1492, and was living in Rome in 
1558. His talents were inferior to those of Jacopo. 

LINDEMANN, Christian Philipp, a German 
engraver, was bom at Dresden in 1700. He 
worked in Italy, Nuremberg, and Ratisbon, and 
devoted himself chiefly to reproducing Italian 
masters. He died at Nuremberg in 1754. Among 
his works are : 

St. John the Baptiat ; after Bcmin, 

ApoUor and Marsyas, £ndymion, Zcphyrui and Flora ; 

after Corradim, 
Venus and Cupid ; after BaUstra. 

LINDENSCHMIT, Wilhelm, was born at 
Mayence in 1806, and studied in the Academy at 
Munich under Comelius in 1823. In 1824-25 he 
was at Vienna, but established himself at Munich 
in 1826. He was subsequently employed in the 
castle of the Duke of Saxe-Meiningen at Lands- 
ber^. He died at Mayence in 1848. The following 
are by him : 

Castle. The Hifterv of the Fortress of 
Hohensch wangan . 
„ The History of the Hohen- 
staufen and Guelfs. 
Castle, Encaustic Frescoes of the His- 
tory of Saxony. 
Munich. Court Garden. The Victory of Louis the Rich 

at Giengen 
„ Royal Palace. Several scenes from Schillt r's 

Poems. 
Royal Gallery. Some scenes from the life of 

Leonardo da Vinci. 



Hohen- 
sch wangaa. 

Landsberg. 



» 



LINDER, Franz, (or Linderen,) a Gennan 
painter and engraver, was bom at Elagenfurt in 
1738. He studied the elements of art under Lay- 
bach, and then went to Venice and afterwards 
to Vienna, where he attended the Academy. In 
1776 the Empress sent him to Rome, whence after 
four years he returned to Vienna. He painted 
portraits in the style of Palko, and among his Hitters 
were the Grand-Duke Maximilian, Joseph II., the 
Royal Family of Naples, and several others. He 
died about 1809. 

LINDMEYER, Daniel. See Lintmeyer. 

LINDNER, Franz. See Linder. 

LINDSAY, Thomas,, a landscape painter in 
water-colours, whose specialty was Welsh scenery, 
was in 1837 elected a member of the New Society 
of Painters in Water-Colours. In the latter part 
of his life he lived near Brecon, where he died 
in 1861. 

LINESy Samuel, a landscape painter, was born 
in 1778 at AUersby, near Coventry. Being an 
orphan, he was brought up by an uncle, a farmer, 
whom be assisted. He was then apprenticed to a 
clock-face enameller at Birmingham, and after- 
wards designed for art-manufactures. He found 
his true vocation in 1807, when he opened a draw- 
ing academy, and during the remainder of his life 
he took a prominent part in all matters relating to 
art in Birmingham. He died in 1863. 

59 



Lines 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP 



Linnell 



LINES, Samuel Restbll^ a landscape painter, 
the third son of Samuel Lines, by whom he was 
taught, was bom at Birmingham in 1804. His forte 
was the depiction of trees, and he had also a keen 
eye for the picturesque in architecture. He died 
at Birmingham in 1833. There is a water-colour 
drawing by him at the South Kensington Museum 
of the ' Dais and Dining-Table at Haddon Hall.' 

LINGE, Bernhabd van, was a native of the 
Netherlands, who established himself in England 
about the middle of the reign of James I. He 
distinguished himself as a painter on glass, and 
his oldest known work is at Wadham College, 
representing the * History of Christ,' 1622. It is 
said that several other glass paintings by him are 
tliere, as well as at Lincoln College, 1629-31. 

LING^E, Charles Louis, a French engraver, 
was born in P.uis in 1751. He worked with the 
point and the burin, and engraved several prints, 
among which was *The Vintage,' after Louther- 
bourg. He died in Paris about 1805. His wife, 

Th^r£sb l&LioNORB H^MERY, who was bom in Paris 
in 1753, executed several plates in the crayon style. 
LINGELBACH, Johannes, was born at Frank- 
fort on the Main in 1625. It is not mentioned by 
whom he was instructed ; but the ability of the 
master may be presumed from the talents of the 
pupil. He went to Amsterdam in 1637, and after 
spending five years there he returned home and re- 
mained two years, and then in 1644 visited Italy. 
He passed six years at Rome, assiduously employed 
in sketching the most remarkable objects m and 
near that capital. In 1652 he retumea tu Amster- 
dam, with the studies he bad accumulated during bis 
residence in Italy, of which he made an ample use 
in the composition of his pictures. His works 
frequently represent Italian sea^ports, in which he 
introduced an infinite number of small figures, 
habited according to their different nations. His 
pictures are embellished with architecture, and the 
ruins of ancient monuments and statues. He was 
equally successful in his representation of fairs, 
Italian markets, and the amusements of tlie Carni- 
val, with appropriate figures, ingeniously grouped, 
of quack aoctors, surrounded by crowds of spec- 
tators, and similar assemblages. His ability in 
painting small figures and animals induced several 
of the landscape painters of his time to have re- 
course to him to decorate their pictures, particularly 
Wynants and Wouwerman, by whom his style of 
painting was largely influenced, and also Koninck, 
Yerboom, Moucheron, and Hackaert. He signed his 
works with his name or a monogram. Zylvelt 
engraved after him four * Genoese Harbours,' and 
Gronsvelt twelve 'Italian and Oriental Ports.' 
There are by Lingelbach a few slight but spirited 
etching^ of landscapes, sea-ports, &c., after his own 
designs. He died at Amsterdam in 1687. The 
following are among his paintings (besides others 
at Augsburg, Copenhagen, Christiania, Brunswick, 
Dresden, Frankfort, Munich, St. Petersburg, and 
Vienna) : 

AniBterdam. Museum, DentiRt on Horseback. 

„ An Italian Harbour. 1664. . 

„ The Riding School. 

Toten Hall. The plan of that baildiog. 1656. 

Hague. Gallery. An Italian Port. 1670. 

London. JVot. Gallery. Hay Harvest. 

Paris. Lo.vre, The Vegetable Market. 1670. 

„ „ A Sea-port. 

Botterdam. Museum. Italian Landscapei 

60 



w 



n 



LINNELL, John, a portrait and landscape painter, 
was born in 1792 in London, where his father was a 
picture-dealer and wood-carver. He soon showed 
remarkable aptitude for art, and by the advice of 
Benjamin West he attended the schools of the Royal 
Academy at Somerset House, into which he was 
admitted in 1805. He became too a pupil in 
John Varley's studio, where he learned more from 
his fellow pupil, Mulready, than from his master. 
His progress was so rapid that in 1807 he con- 
tributed to the Academy exhibition 'A Study 
from Nature,' and * A View near Reading.' About 
this date he and William Hunt worked lor George 
Dawe on a large transparency which was required 
for an illumination intended to celebrate a victory 
over the French. Like the ablest of his con- 
temporaries, he could paint a panorama or a minia- 
ture, or engrave a portrait. Besides old masters' 
works, Linnell engraved in mezzotint John Varley's 
* Burial of Saul,' and CoUins's ' Feedmg the 
Rabbits ' and a ' Scene on the Brent' In 1807 he 
gained a medal for a drawing, and in 1810 one 
for a model in the Life School of the Academy ; 
and in 1809 he gained in the British Institution 
a prize of fifty guineas for a landscape called 
'Removing Timber.' He soon devoted himself 
to portrait painting and to pictures of scenery near 
London. At this time ne established himself 
with Mulready in Francis Street, Tottenham 
Court Road. In 1810 appeared ' Fishermen wait- 
ing the return of the Ferry Boat, Hastings,' and 
in 1811, 'The Ducking, a scene from Nature.' 
After this Linnell ceased to contribute to Somerset 
House till 1821, but from 1818 to 1820 he exhibited 
in Spring Gardens with the Society of Painters in 
Oil and Water-Colours. He executed many minia- 
tures on ivory, and produced several portraits, 
some of which he reproduced in mezzotint. One 
of the first of his subject landscapes was painted 
in 1835, ' Christ's Appearance to His Disciples on 
the way to Emmaus,' which attracted a great deal 
of attention owing to its originality, and 3)e pathos 
imparted to the landscape, which was the distin- 
guishing characteristic of all his work. * Windsor 
Forest' was painted in 1837. In 1852 Linnell 
retired from London to Redhill, where he died in 
1882. He published * Michael Angelo's Frescoes 
in the Sistine Chapel,' 1834; 'The Royal GaUery 
of Pictures,' being a selection of the paintings 
in Buckingham Pulace, 1840 ; and a tract entitled 
' The Royal Academy, a National Institution,' 1869. 
A drawing of Sarah Austin by him is in the 
National Portrait Gallery. The following is a list 
of his principal pictures : 

PORTRAITS. 

Sir Augustxii Wall Callcott, BA. 1832. 

William Malready, R.A. 1833. 

Thomas Phillip8,R A. 

Rev. Thomas Robert Malthas. 

William Collins, R.A. 

Archbishop Whateley. 

John Sterling. 

Thomas Carlyle. 

Sir Robert Peel, Bart. 

Lord Lansdowne. 

Lord Monteagle. 

Sir Francis Thomhill Baring, Bart., afterwards Lord 

Northbrook. 1842. 
Samuel Rogers. 1835. 
Sir Henry Toirens. 
Lady Lyndhurst. 
Marshal Espartero. 
General Sir Ralph Darling. 
Charles Chetwynd, second Earl Talbot. 1840. 



laAO 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



liiotard 



SUBJECT picrruiiBs. 

Ohrist and the Woman of Samaria. 

The Disobedient Prophet 1854. 

The Lest Gleam before the Storm. 

Crosaiug the Brook. 1868. 

The Lost Sheep. 1869. 

The l^ber Waggon. 

Bariey Harvest. 

Hampstead Heath. 

Under the Hawthorn. 

The Woodcutter. 

The Eve of the Deluge. 

The Betum of Ulysses. 

Wood-Catters. {National Gallery.) 

The Windmill. 1847. {The iame,) 

LINO, PiETRO Di, or Pereolino, was an old Sien- 
nese painter, who flourifihed in the 12th century. 
Be is the oldest Tuscan master known, but no work 
has been assigned to him with certainty. 

LINSCHOTEN, Cornelis Adriaan van, a Dutch 
historical painter, was born at Delft in 1590. As 
Boon as he had learned the rudiments of the art, 
he went to Borne, where he is stated to have been 
a pupil of Bibera, and to have attached himself 
to the study of the works of Michel Angiolo da 
Caravaggio, whose vigorous style he followed with 
some success. On his return to Holland he painted 
some historical erubjects; but his dissipated cha- 
racter rendered it difficult for his employers to get 
their pictures out of his hands. Two of his most 
esteemed works, representing *St. Peter denying 
Christ ' and the ' Bepentance of St. Peter,' were at 
the Hague. He died at the Hague in 1679. 

LIN SEN, Jan, was a Flemish painter, who re- 
sided some years in Italy. He painted marines 
and sea-fights, of which the most remarkable was 
the representation of an engagement at which he 
had himself been present, and in which he was 
taken by an African corsair. He is said to have 
been killed in a quarrel with a gamester. 

LINTy Hendrik vANy called Studio, the youngest 
son of Pieter van Lint, was bom at Antwerp in 
1684. In 1697 he entered the studio of Pieter 
Tan Bredael, and afterwards went to Rome, where 
he passed the remainder of his life. He was 
assiduous in sketching the most picturesque views 
in the vicinity of that city, from which he formed 
the subjects of his landscapes, which are painted 
in a style imitating that of Claude Lorrain. He 
acquired the name of ' Studio ' from the society of 
Flemish painters at Rome, through his application 
to his studies. He was still living in 1726. His 
paintings include the following : 



Augsburg. 

Smnswick. 

Turin. 



GaUery. Two Landscapes. 
Gallery, Betum from the Chase. 
Gallery. Landscape. 1726. 



LINT, Pieter van, was bom at Antwerp in 
1609. At the age of ten he entered the studio 
of Koeland Jacobs, and having become in 1633 
a master of the Guild, he went to Italy, and 
passed several years at Rome. Soon after his 
arrival, his talents attracted the notice of Car- 
dinal Domenico Ginnasio, Bishop of Ostia, who 
employed him in several considerable works for 
bis cathedral, and in the chapel of La Santa Croce 
in Santa Maria del Popolo, at Rome. After an 
absence of nine years he returned to Antwerp, 
and was employed in painting some altar-pieces 
for the churches, as well as pictures of a smaller 
size fur private collections. He died at Antwerp 
in 1690. Among his chief historical works were 
the ' Virgin and Child, with Saints,' in the church 
of St. Jacques, at Antwerp ; and a fine picture in 



the church of the Carmelites, representing the 
* Virgin presenting to some Monks the Order of 
their Community, painted in the style of Van 
Dyck. He also painted portraits with great suc- 
cess, many of which are highly esteemed in the 
Low Countries. Besides five other paintings, there 
is the portrait of Cardinal Ginnasio in the Antwerp 
Gallery. But apart from these the only other 
picture by Pieter van Lint now to be seen in his 
native city is * The Parting of St. Peter and St. 
Paul before their Martyrdom,* which adorns one of 
the altars in the church of St. Jncques. He exe- 
cuted also an etching, representing * Virtue and 
Vice.* 

LINTHORST, J., a painter of fruit and flowers, 
was bom at Amsterdam in 1755, and died there in 
1815. Two fine specimens of his work are in the 
Museum of his native city. 

LINTMEYER, Daniel, (or Lindmetbr,) was 
bom at Schaf^ausen about the year 1540. He 
was chiefly known as a painter on glass, and 
flourished from about 1560 to 1591. 

LINTON, J., an English portrait painter, flour- 
ished at the close of the 17th century. He painted 
a portrait of Sir William Ashurst, Lord Mayor of 
London in 1694. 

LINTON, William, a landscape painter of the 
classic or ideal school, was bom at Liverpool in 
1791. He was educated at Rochdale, and then 
placed in a merchant's office at Liverpool. At- 
tracted by art, he studied Claude and Wilson, and 
made his first appearance at the Royal Academy 
with three pictures in 1817. He also exhibited at 
the British Institution, and at the Society of British 
Artists, of which he was one of the founders. 
Considerable time was spent by him in travel 
among the scenes of classical antiquity, and he 
exhibited a collection of his sketches in 1842. He 
paid considerable attention to the composition of 
colours, and published a pamphlet on * Ancient and 
Modem Colours.* He died in London in 1876. 
Amongst his chief works are : 

The Temples of FsBstum. {National Gallery.) 

Embarkatioii of the Greeks for the Trojan War. 

A Fdte Day at Venice. 

Venus and jffineas. 

Greek Armament. 

Marius at Carthage. 

Lake of Ort-a. 

Italy. ( Wobum Abbey,) 

Bellinzona. 

View on Coast of Southern Italy. {Bridgewater Gallery.) 

LION, A., is a name inscribed, with the date 
1628, on a good picture in the Town Hall of Amster- 
dam, representing twenty-five archers. No other 
work is Known by this master. 

LION, PiERBE, a Belgian portrait painter, was 
born at Dinant about 1740. He went to Paris, 
where he became a pupil of De Vien. He lived 
for several years at Vienna, but eventually returned 
to his own country, where he died in 1814. 

LIONARDO DA VINCI. See Leonardo. 

LIOTARD, Jean Etienne, called *The Turk,' 
was bom at Geneva in 1702, and was intended by 
his father for mercantile i)ur8uits, but having suc- 
ceeded in copying a miniature by Petitot, he was 
permitted to follow his inclination for painting. 
He went to Paris in 1725, where he became a 
pupil of J. B. Ma6s6 and made the acquaintance 
of Lemoyne. He soon got into practice in paint- 
ing portraits in crayons, miniature, and enamel. 
In 1738 he accompanied the Marquis de Puysieux 
to Naples and then to Rome, where he painted the 

61 



Liotard 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



lippi 



»» 



If 



Dresden, 
w 



» 






It 
II 



II 



likeness of tho Pope, and became acquainted with 
two English noblemen, who engaged him to ac- 
company them to Constantinople. During his 
journey fo the Levant, he put on Turkish cos- 
tume, which he wore, with a long beard. He re- 
mained in the Turkish capital four years, and was 
next employed at Jassy by the Prince of Moldavia, 
and then in 1749 by the Empress Maria Theresa 
at Vienna. From there he proceeded to Paris 
and thence to London, where he painted por- 
traits of the Princess of Wales and the young 
princes. He met with considerable employment, 
for which he was probably indebted more to the 
notoriety of his masquerade than to his talents as 
a painter. He went in or about 1756 to Holland, 
and there married ; but returned to London in 
1772, bringing with him a valuable collection of 
pictures by celebrated masters, as well as glass 
paintings of his own workmanship, and these were 
sold by auction for large sums. His chief forte 
lay in crayon portraits, which he exhibited at 
the Royal Academy in 1773 and 1774. In 1776 
he returned to Switzerland, and died at Geneva 
in 1779. Among his paintings are : 

Amsterdam. Museum. La Belle Lyonnaise (Mile. La- 

vergue). 1746. 
Marshal Saxe. 
Maria Theresa, Empress of 

Austria. 
Lord Bessborough. 
Louis, Dauphin of France. 
Marie Josephine, DauphinesB 

of France. 
Ooont Algarotti. 
Countess of Ck>y6ntr7, in Turk- 
ish costume. 
Oountess of Marlborough. 
The Viennese Chocolate Girl. 
La Belle Lyonnaise. 
The Artist's Portrait. 
Count Maurice of Saxony. 
- ) A Turk seated. 
. j A Profile Portrait. (Sir Everard 
Fawkener ?) 
Gallery. La Belle Lyonnaise. 
„ ' n An Old Woman sleeping. 

There are a few etchings by this artist, among 
which are the following ; 

The Empress Maria Theresa, in a Turkish dress. 
The Archduchess Maria Christina, as above. 
Ren^ H6rault, Lieutenant-General of Police. 
Portrait of Himself, with a long beard. 
The Sick Cat, with some French verses. 

LIOTARD, Jean Michel, bom at Geneva in 
1702, was a twin brother of Jean Illtienne Liotard. 
He learned engraving at Paris under Benoit Audran, 
and in 1736 went to Venice, whence after a time 
he returned to Paris, and finally to his own country, 
where he died in 1788. He engraved the following 
prints : 

Seven large plates from the Cartoons painted in fresco 
in the Palace of the Duke of Parma, by Carlo Cignani ; 
viz: 
Love conquering the World. 
Cupid riding on pn Eagle. 
Cupid^s Fight with Pan. 
Apollo and Daphne. 
Bacchus and Ariadne. 
The Triumph of Venus. 
The Rape of Europa. 
Apollo rising from the Waves. 

A set of subjects from the Bible ; after Sebastiano 
Bicci. 

LIPPARINI, Lunovico, was born at Bologna in 
1800, and was instructed in ait in that city, where 
he brought himself into notice at the age of 

62 



Gallery. 



n 



n 



London. Soulh Kensing 
ton Museum. 



Vienna. 



fifteen. In 1820-21 he was at Home and Naples, 
and in 1822, and again in 1825, at Venice, where 
he became Professor at the Academy in 18^-^8, and 
Professor of Painting in 1848. He died at Venice 
in 1856. Among his chief paintings there are : 

Erigone. 1827. 

Byron's Oath at the Grave of Bozzaris. 

The Ascension of Mary [Gran Cathedral.) 

Achilles. 

Bacchus and Ariadne. 

The Youth of Jupiter. 

Pisani. ( Vienna Gallery.) 

LIPPERT, Joseph, a portrait painter, was born 
at Neuburg in 1764. He went to the Art Academy, 
and afterwards to Vienna, where he became ac- 
quainted with a painter' named Gerringer, with 
whom he travelled for seven years. He died at 
Pressburg in 1812. 

LIPPI, Fra Filippo, was bom at Florence about 
the year 1400. He was the son of a butcher called 
TommasoLippi ; but he lost both his parents at an 
early age, and was left to the care of an aunt, 
whose poverty rendered her unable to afford him 
much material aid. In 1412 he entered the Car- 
melite community at the Carmine of Florence, and 
studied painting from the frescoes of Masaccio in 
the chapel of the Brancacci. In 1430 his name 
first appears as a painter, and in 1432 he seems to 
have left the monastery. The story told of bis 
capture by the pirates of Barbary at Ancona, and 
of his captivity, is now considered to be more 
than doubtful, since no traces of this event can be 
found in any authentic records or works of this 
artist. A letter exists, written by Fra Filippo in 
1439 to Piero de' Medici, in which he calls himself 
" one of the poorest friars in Florence," and as 
having under his charge six marriageable nieces 
for whom he has to find means to live and dowries. 
When about twenty-six he painted the altar-piece, 
representing the * Virgin and Child enthroned* 
with a predella of four subjects, for Gherardo oi 
Bartolommeo Barbadori, which exhibited wonder- 
ful talent at even that early age. The upper part 
of this altar-piece is now in the Louvre, and its 
predella is in the Academy of Arts at Florence. In 
1441 he executed for the nuns of Sant' Ambrogio 
a * Coronation of the Virgin, with Saints and 
Bernardino Monks,* one of the latter of whom is 
his own portrait with the tonsure, and holding a 
scroll inscribed *Is perfecit opus.' This clearly 
shows that at that date he had not abandoned the 
robes and marks of his Order. He seems at this 
period to have been highly esteemed, and to have 
received many commissions from the clergy and 
the nobility of Florence. His most powerful 
patron was Cosmo de' Medici, and it is probably 
owing to his patronage that in 1452 he was 
appointed chaplain to a convent of nuns in 
Florence ; and in 1457 was made rector of San 
Quirico at Legnaia. In 1456 Fra Filippo began 
the frescoes at the Pieve, now the cathedral of 
Prato, having already painted a * Death of St. Ber- 
nard ' for the provost of that church, where it is still 
preserved. It is whilst he was employed at Prato 
that Vasari tells the story of Fra Filippo having 
abducted a nun named Lucrezia Buti, whose child 
is known as Filippino Lippi. One of the finest 
paintings executed by Fra Fiiippo whilst at 
Prato is a * Nativity,' now to be seen in tlie 
refectory of tho convent of San Domenico in 
that city. His frescoes in the choir of the 
cathedral of Prato represent events in the liv 



Xappi 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Lippi 



oX SS. John the Baptist and Stephen. They are 
remarkahle for their harmonious grouping and 
colour* as well m for the richness of the costumes, 
head-dresses, and other accessories. After frequent 
interruptions, these frescoes were completed ahout 
1468 by the one which represents Uie ' Death of St 
Stephen/ in which he introduced the portraits of 
Carlo de' Medici, Fra Diamante, and himself. He 
afterwards went to Spoleto, where he commenced 
the frescoes which adorn the choir of the cathedral. 
They represent the * Annunciation,' the 'Nativity,* 
and the ' Coronation of the Virgin,* and were com- 
pleted after Fra Filippo*s death in 1469 by his 
pupil and assistant, Fra Diamante. Examples of 
tliis artist's work may be found as under : 

The Yh-gin aod Child 

The Yirgtn adoring the Child. 

The Virgin as the Mother of 

Pity. 
The Annunciation. 
The Yirgin adoring the Infant, 

borne by two Angels. 
The Yirgiu, with SS. Jtaohim and 

Anne. 
The Nativity. 
Coronation of the Virgin. 
Martyrdom of St. Sebutian. 
Temptation of a Bishop. 
The Annunciation. 
St John the Baptist with six 

Sttnts. 
The Virgin seated. 
Vision of St. Bernard. 
The Yirgin and Child, with Angels 

and Stints. (Formerly in San 

Spirito^ FUfrenee,) 
The Annunciation. 
The same {smaller). 
The Virgin and Child. 
TheNaiirity. 
The Yirgin and Child. 
Scenes from the Life of St. John 

the BwtiBt. 
Scenes from the Life of St 

Stephen. 
The Yirgin giving her Girdle to 

St. Thomas. 
The Natirity. 
Coronation of the Yirgin. 
Frescoes. 



Berlin. 


GaOery. 


•f 


St 


91 


t9 


Florence. 


8. Zarenzo, 
Uffn, 


n 


Pitti Pal. 


n 


Academy, 


n 

Liverpool. 


(9 

Institution. 


London. 


Nat" Gall. 


» 


tt 


ry 


M 


n 


W 


ft 


9» 



Munich. GalUry. 



«* 
Paris. 

Piato. 



n 
t» 

Louvre, 



Collsffiale. 



f> 



„ Municipal Gall. 

„ S. Domenico. 

Borne. Lateran Gall. 
Spoleto. Cathedral, 



LIPPI, Finppo, called Filippino, to distinguish 
him from his father, was the natural son of Fra 
Filippo, a Carmelite, and Lucrezia Buti, a novice. 
He was born about 1457 at Prato, and received 
his early^ education in that city, and after the 
death in 1469 of Fra Fiiippo, whose relatives 
were also living there, he came under the care 
of Fra Diamante, and received his first lessons in 
painting from him, and not from Botticelli, as has 
been pretended. This can be judged from his 
early paintings, and from contemporary records. 
In 1480 be painted, by commission of Pietro del 
Pugliese, the 'Vision of St Bernard,* which is 
now above the altar in a chapel of the Badia, 
Florence. Another altar-piece, executed at about 
this time, is the one in the church of San Michele, 
Lace A, representing * SS. Roch, Sebastian, Jerome, 
and Helena.* Both the above-mentioned pictures 
strongly recall Fra Filippo's style. Between 1482 
and 1490 he painted the frescoes in tlie Brancacci 
chapel in the Carmine, Florence, where Masaccio 
had already commenced the decorations, and left 
unfinished the fresco representing 'St. Peter re- 
storing a Boy to Life,* which was completed by 
Filippino. ilis own frescoes are those of the 
1 Visit of St Paul to St. Peter in Prison,* * St. Peter 
liberated from Prison,* * SS. Peter and Paul before 



the Proconsul,* and the * Crucifixion of St Peter.' 
That he was highly esteemed by the Florentines of 
his time is proved by the fact that he was chosen 
by the Council in 1482 to replace Perugino in the 
decorations of the hall of the Palazzo Pubblico. 
The * Madonna and Child, between SS. Victor, 
John the Baptist, Bernard, and Zanobius,* painted 
in 1485, and originally intended for the Safa degli 
Otto of the Palazzo, is now in the UfBzi Gallery. 
In 1487 he received the commission to adorn the 
Strozzi chapel in Santa Maria Novella, but seems 
to have left that work unfinished and gone to 
Rome, where he entered the service of Cardinal 
Oliviero Caraffa, whose chapel in Santa Maria 
sopra Minerva he embellished with frescoes repre- 
senting different scenes from the life of St Thomas 
Aquinas. These frescoes were probably finished 
by about 1493, when Filippmo returned to 
Florence, and in 1495 painted for the Confraternity 
of San Francesco at Palco, near Prato, the altar- 
piece of * Christ appearing to the Virgin,* which 
nas upon the gradino the Body of Christ in the 
tomb, and SS. Francis, Dominick, Clara, and others. 
This painting is now in the Munich Gallery. 
In 1498 he adorned a tabernacle at Prato with a 
* Virgin and Child, between Angels and Saints,* 
and in that same year he formed one of the 
Council called to decide the question of the 
repair of the lantern above the cupola of Santa 
Maria del Fiore, that had been struck by lightning. 
Both Perugino and Lorenzo di Credi likewise 
assisted at these deliberations. Soon afterwards he 
recommenced and finished the frescoes at the 
Strozzi chapel, which represent various scenes in 
the lives of SS. John the Evangelist and Philip. 
These all show a certain decline in the artist's 
powers in their general design, colour, and execu- 
tion. Filippino died at Florence in 1504, and was 
buried in the church of San Michele Bisdomini. 
Other works by him are : 

Portrait of a Youth. 

Christ Crucified, between three 

Angels. 
St Catharine before the Virgin. 

1501. 
Madonna with Saints. 1485. 
The Vision of St. Bernard. 

1480. 
The Adoration of the Magi. 1496. 
The Virgia and Child, with St 

John. 
The Adoration of the Magi. 
The Virgin and Child. 
St. Francis in Glory. 
Four Saints. 
Holy Family. 



Berlin. 


Gallery, 


» 


N 


Bologna. 


S. Domenico. 


Florence. 


Uffizi. 
Badia, 


»» 


S. Donate. 
Corsini Gall. 


Tiondon. 


Nat, Gall. 


>f 


n 


Lnooa. 


S. Michele. 



Naples. Pal. S. Angela. 
Borne. S. Maria sopra \ 
Minerva, j 



The Legend of St. Thomas. 



LIPPI, GiACOMO, called Giacomo or Giaoomonb 
DA BuDRio, and Giacomo della Lippa, born at 
Budrio, flourished at the end of the 16tlL century. 
He was a pupil of Lodovico Carracci, but oisplayed 
more power of execution than genius. Among 
his works was a set of frescoes taken from the 

* History of the Virgin,' which he executed for the 
church of the Annunciation at Bologna. 

LIPPI, Lorenzo, was bom at Florence in 1606, 
and studied painting under Rosselli. Lorenzo 
Lippi, like his friend Salvator Rosa, divided his 
time between painting and poetry. His poem of 

* II Ma'inantile racquistato,* though perhaps less 
read than the * Satires ' of Salvator, is more elegant, 
and is one of the most admired productions in the 
Italian language. In choosing a prototype worthy 

G3 



Xiippo 



A BIOGBAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP 



LUzewtks 



of his imitation in painting, his taste and feeling 
directed him to Santo di Titi. His pictures are 
not very scarce in Florence, though he passed 
several years at Innsbruck, where he' was painter 
to the court. He died at Florence in 1664. Among 
his best works may be mentioned : 



Florence. 
Yienna. 



J^zi» The Crueifixioii. 
Siff. Gain. The Triumph of David. 
Gallery, Christ with the Woman 
Samaria. 



of 



LIPPO, a Florentine painter, was bom in 
1357. His earliest work was the decoration of a 
chapel in the convent of San Benedetto in his 
native city. From Florence this artist was invited 
to Arezzo, where he decorated the chapel of the 
Magi in the church of Sant* Antonio with a fresco 
representing the * Adoration of the Magi.' In the 
Cathedral also he decorated two chapels. At a 
later period he executed many works at Bologna, 
and then returned to Florence, where he executed 
several scenes from the life of St. John the Evan- 
gelist in the church of Santa Maria Maggiore. He 
also worked largely in mosaic. None of this 
master's works now remain, as most of them 
perished in the sie^e of Florence. He was of a 
quarrelsome disposition, and having used some 
oft'ensive words to an adversary in a law-suit, he 
was stabbed by him and died about 1430. 

LIPPO Dl DALMASIO (or dellb Madonnb). 

See SCAKNABEOCHI. 

LIPPOLD, Fbamz, a German portrait painter, 
was bom at Hamburg in 1688. He was instructed 
by Denner, and employed at several German courts 
until he settled at Frankfort in 1720. He died 
there in 1768. Among his best portraits are : 

The Emperor Charles VII. 1742. 
The Emperor Francis I. 1745. 
The Empress Maria Theresa. 

LIPS, JoHANN Heinbich, was born at Rloten, 
near Zurich, in 1758, and was destined for the 
surgical profession; but his inclination for art 
caused him to abandon that intention, and he 
studied design under Lavater, attending the 
Academy at Mannheim in 1780, and six months 
afterwards that of Diisseldorf , where he executed 
his first plate, representing the ' Martyrdom uf St. 
Sebastian,' after Van Dyck. With his ' Antiochus 
in Love with his Mother Stratonice,* he was 
received a member of the Academy. He visited 
Rome twice, in 1783 and 1786, in which last time 
he began to paint historical subjects in water- 
colours, and his copies after the old masters are 
very faithfully executed. Circumstances forced 
him to return to engraving, and among his 1447 
plates there is not one of inferior quality. From 
1789 to 1794 he was professor at the Academy of 
Design at Weimar, but on account of his health he 
was obliged to return to Zurich, where he died in 
1817. Among the most important of his plates 
may be mentioned : 

The Adoration of the Magi ; after Annibale Cdrracei. 

The Bacchanal ; after N. Ftmsain. 

Charlotte Corday ; oftfr hrea. 

Portraits of Gk)ethe, Wieland, and Ludwig Hess. 

LIPS, JoHANN JakoB; the son and pupil of Johann 
Heinrich Lips, was bom at Zurich in 1790. He 
studied at Munich, whence he returned to his native 
town in 1818 ; he there committed suicide in 1833 
tlirough disappointment over a plate on which he 
had worked for years. He was an engraver of 
ability, and executed various historical subjects 
and portraits the best of which are : 

64 



Dresden. 
Venice. 



M 



Portrait of the Crown-Prinoe Louis of Bavaria. 
Portrait of the poi:t Hebel. • 

St. John ; after Giulio Romano. 

LIRIOS, BuoNAVENTUBA. See Liqli. 

LIS, Jan, called Pan, a Dutch painter, was bom 
at Hoom in 1570. He was a pupil of Hendrik 
Goltzius at Haarlem, and imitated his style ex- 
ceedingly well. He afterwards travelled, and 
visited Paris, Rome, and Venice. On his return 
to his native country he found plenty of em- 
ployment, but his intemperate habits led him to 
neglect his art. He after a time resolved again 
to travel, and visit his friend Sandrart at Rome ; 
but stopping at Venice, he died there of the plague 
in 1629. His paintings represent festivals, pea- 
sant life, masquerades, and nymphs bathing. 
Among his best paintings are : 

Cassel. Gallery, Sailors in an Inn. 

,, Italian Peasants playing at Mora. 

Gallery. The Penitent Magdalen. 

M The Lute Flayer. 

Tol%Hni 1 ®*' ^®'^™® i** *^® WUdcmess. 
„ Adam and Eve lamenting over the 

Body of Cain. 
n fp The Temptation of St. Anthony. 

LIS, Jan van der. See Van der Lts. 

LISCORNET, Jakob, was a native of Dantsic, 
who flourished in the first part of the 17th century. 
He painted historical subjects, and died in 1646. 

LISEBETTEN, Pietkb van, (or Leysebetten,) 
a Flemish engraver, was bom at Brussels about 
the year 1610. In conjunction with Jan van 
Troyen, he engraved part of the plates for the 
Teniers Gallery. Among others are the follow- 
ing: 

The Portrait of David Tenien the elder ; after P. van 

Mol. 
Jupiter and Danae ; after Titian. 
The Marriage of St. Catharine ; after Faolo Veronete. 
The Visitation of the Virgin to St. Eliiabeth ; after 

Palma Veechio. 
The Virgin, with the Infant Jesus and St. John ; after 

the tame. 
Cupid presenting Fruit to Venus ; after Farts Bordone. 
Diana and Endymion ; after the tame. 

LISKA, Johann Chbistoph, (or Lischka,) a 
painter, whose father was a government official 
at Breslau, in 1660 executed some frescoes in 
Prague. Several of his pictures are to be found 
in the churches of Bohemia. He was living in 1692. 

LISMANN, Johann Anton. See Eismakn. 

LISSANDRINO. See Magnasco, Alessandro. 

LIST, Georg Nikolaub, a native of Ulm, was a 
painter of portraits, and worked also at the court 
at Stuttgart. He died after 1657. The following 
portraits by him were engraved : 

The Duchess of Wilrtemberg ; 1*^ E. C. Heist. 
Bberbard III., Duke of Wiirteml>erg ; by Fh. KUtan, 
The Theologian Schubels ; by Bembold. 

LISTER, Martin, a draughtsman and engraver 
of natural history subjects, was bom at Radcliffe, 
in Buckinghamshire, about 1638. He graduated 
M.D., and practised at York and afterwards in 
London, where he became physician to Queen 
Anne. He died in 1711. Assisted by his daughters, 
Anna and Susanna Lister, in the etchings, he 
published : 

* Historia Animaliom Anglias.* 1678. 
< Historia Conchyliorum.' 1685-83. 

LISZEWSKA, Anna Dorothea, afterwards 
TuERBUSCH, was born at Berlin in 1722. She was 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Livensz 



first instructed in painting by her father, Georg 
Liszeweki. She went to Stuttgart in 1761, where 
she painted portraits. Shortly afterwards she 
became a member of the Institute at Bologna, and 
then court painter at Mannheim. Subsequently 
she retumea to Berlin, and executed several 
historical sketches. In 1766 she visited Paris, 
and was received a member of the Academy in 
1767, as well as of that at Vienna. She returned 
to Berlin in 1770, and died in 1782. Among her 
best productions are : 

Ariadne in Naxos. (For the Archduke Charles Eugene 

of Wurtemherff.) 
Diana returning from the Chase. {For Frederick the 

Great, King of Prussia.) 
Her own Portrait. 1773. {BruJiswick Gallery.) 
A Man holding a Glass of Wine. {Louvre^ Fans.) 

LISZEWSKA, Anna Rosina, an elder sister of 
Anna Dorothea Liszewska, was bom at Berlin 
in 1716, and was also instructed by her father. 
She was patronized by the Princess of Anhait- 
Zerbfit at Stettin, whose portrait she painted when 
herself in her fourteenth year. In 1741 she 
married the painter David Mathieu, but he died in 
1755. After this she painted in the Salon des 
Beauts at Zerbst forty of the most beautiful 
women. In 1760 she married her second husband, 
H. voQ Gasc of Berlin, and in 1764 received a 
handsome pension at Brunswick. In 1766 she 
travelled in Holland, and was received in 1769 a 
member of the Academy at Dresden. She died in 
1783. Her best paintings are : 

Honime in the act of throwing off the Royal Diadem. 

{For the Duke of Brunsvrick.) 
Artemisia. 
Portrait of a Lady (Signora Branconi?). 1770. {BrunS" 

toiek Gallery.) 

LISZEWSKA, Friedbbika Julia, born at Dessau 
in 1772, was the pupil of her father, whose name 
also is stated to have been Georg Liszewski, and 
with whom she came to Berlin in 1792. She 
painted the portraits of her father and of the 
Turkish Ambassador at Berlin; also pictures of 
a girl reading, another knitting, and a third 
holding a pigeon, for the Duke of Mecklenburg- 
Schwerin. She was living in 18S8. 

LISZEWSKA, Julia, who was bom m 1724, and 
died in 1794, has left some portraits and family 
Bcenes. 

LISZEWSKI, Christoph Friedrich Reinhold, 
the son of Georg Liszewski, and brother of Anna 
Dorothea and Anna Rosina Liszewska, was born 
at Berlin in 1725, and was probably instructed by 
his father. He was court painter at Dessau in 
1752, worked at Dresden in 1768, visited Beriin 
in 1772, and became in 1779 court painter to the 
Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin at Ludwigslust, 
where he died in 1794. He excelled in por- 
traiture, which he liked to represent by candle- 
fight, and in which branch he was most successful. 
Among his best performances may be mentioned 
the portrait of Eugene, Prince of Anhalt. 

LISZEWSKI, Jrrzy, (or Georg,) wns bom at 
Olesko in Poland in 1674, and was first in the 
employ of Eosander, an architect, who, seeing his 
talent, set him to study painting. He established 
himself in Berlin, and died there in 1750. The 
following portraits by him were engraved : 

A. de Yigaolles, the Mathematician ; bv J. J, Raid. 
Prince l^edrich August of Anhalt loy J. M. Bemi- 

qeroth. 
Pnnoe Friedrich of Hiesae-Oamel ; hy Bosbach. 

LITHUARD. See Liuteabd. 



LITSCHAUER, Karl Joseph, an Austrian 
painter, was bom at Vienna in 1830. He was first 
instructed by Waldmiiller of that city, but studied 
afterwards at the Academy of Diisseldorf under 
Tidemand and by himself. After staying some 
time in his native city he returned to Diisseldorf, 
and became from about the year 1850 a follower 
of that school. He died at Diisseldorf in 1871. 
His best known works are : 



Diisseldorf. 



Herr \ Scenes from the Thirty Years' 
Brewer, f War. 
Vienna. Gallery. The Ambuscade. 

„ Count Arnim, Scenes from the Thirty Years' 

AYar. 
Laboratory. Morning and Night. 



w 



TOUU. 



F 



LITTERINI, Agostino, (or Letterini,) was 
born at Venice in 1642. He was a pupil of rietro 
della Vecchia. At Vicenza, in the church of San 
Geronimo, are two pictures by this artist of 'St. 
Joseph' and ' St John of the Cross.' He was living 
in 1727. His daughter, Catabina Litterini, bora 
in 1675, was also an artist 

LITTERINI, Bartolommeo, (or Letterini,) was 
bom at Venice in 1669, and was instructed by his 
father, Agostino Litterini. He was a happy imitator 
of Titian, and represented Madonnas with exquisite 
sweetness. There are works by him in San Pater- 
niano at Venice, and in the church at Partenkirchen 
is an * Ascension of the Virgin,* dated 1731. 

LITTRET DB MONTIGNY, Claude Antoine, a 
French engraver, was born in Paris in 1736, and 
studied under Cars. This artist visited England 
about the year 1768, but not meeting with much 
encouragement, he returned to France, and died at 
Rouen in 1776. He engraved several portraits 
and other subjects, among which are : 

portraits. 

Madame de Pompadour ; after Schenr/v. 

Mademoiselle Glairon, the actress ; after the same, 

Jean Jacques Rousseau ; after De La Tour. 

Pierre Laurent de Belloy ; afier his oicn designs, 

M. de Sartine, Lieutenant^jreneral of Police; after 

Vigee. 
Antoine de Malvin, Archbishop of Lyons ; after Van 

Loo. 
Charles Simon Favart ; after Liotard. 

VARIOUS subjects. 

Venus sleeping ; after St. Quentin. 

Diana reposing ; eifter the same. ^ 

I.ove conducted by Fidelity ; after Schenau. 

Love distributing his Gifts ; afier the same. 

Two Views of the Bhine ; ofter Weivotter. 

The Concert of the Grand Soltan ; after C. van Loo, 

LIUTHARD, (or Lithuard,) a famous minia- 
ture painter, flourished in the time of Charles the 
Bald, by whose orders in 870 he illustrated with 
miniatures the Codex Aureus, which he wrote with 
his brother Berengarius. It was transferred in 
888 from the Abbey of St. Denis, near Paris, to St. 
Emmeran at Ratisbon, from whence it was removed 
in 976, and is now in the Royal Library at Munich. 
There is also by him a prayer-book of 862-869 in 
the Lourre at Paris. 

LIVENSZ, Jan, (Lievens, or Lyvens,) a Dutch 
painter and engraver, was born at Leyden in 
1607. He was instructed in the first rudiments of 
design by Joris Verschooten, and at ten years 
of age was placed under Pieter Lastman, with 
whom he did not continue longer than two years, 
and it does not appear that ne had any further 
instruction. When he was only twelve years old 
he copied the pictures of * Democritus * and * Hera- 
clitus,* by Cornells van Haarlem, with an exactness 

65 



IiiTerseege 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP 



Lizart 



vhich madd it difficatt to diBtiD^uisli them from 
e originAls. Before be was eighteen^ he had 
estubliahed his reputation aa a portrait painter, and 
his picture of * Students reading at a Peat Fire ' 
opened the way to him in 1630 to visit England, 
where he was favourably received, and painted the 
portraits of Charles I. and his oueen, with several 
of the nobility. On leaving England, he established 
himself at Antwerp, and painted several altar-pieces 
for the churches of the Low Countries. In 1636 
he entered the Guild of St. Luke, and in 1661 the 
• Pictura * Society at the Hague, whence after a 
time he returned to Antwerp, where he was still 
living in 1672. He died about that date. The 
following are among his best paintings : 

Amsterdam. Museum. Portrait of Joort van den Yon- 
del, the Poet. 

Berlin. Gallery, Portrait of m Boy. 

Brunswick. Gallery. The Sacrifice of Abraham. 

Leyden. Ttwn HtUl Scipio Africaniu. 

Munich. Gallery. Two Portraits of Old Men. 

Paris. Louvre. The Visitation. 

Rotterdam. Museum. St. Peter. 

Other portraits by him are at Cassel, Copenhagen » 
Dresden, Stuttgart, and Vienna. 

Jan Livensz distinguished himself not less as 
an enff raver than as a painter. His plates are partly 
etched, and finished with the graver in a manner 
resembling that of Rembrandt His prints amount 
to about sixty, and are usually 8i<^ned with Iiis 
name, but sometimes with the initials 1. L, The 
following are his most esteemed prints : 

PORTRAITS AND BflADS. 

Ephraim Bonas* seated in a chait. 

Joost van den VonAel, the Dutch poet. 

Daniel Heiusius, Professor of History at Leyden. 

Jacobus Gouters, musician. 

The Bust of an old Man, bald, with a long beard. 

Bust of a Man with a furred cap ; after Rembrandt* 

Several Busts and Studies of Heads, &c. 

VARIOUS SUBJECTS. 

The Holy Family, with figures kneeling. 

The Virgin presenting a Pear to the Infant Jesus. 

The Baising of Lazarus ; a grand composition. 

St. John the Evangelist. 

St. Jerome in a Cell, holding a Crudfiz. 

St. Francis holding a Skull. 

St. Anthony ; one of his early plates. 

Mercury and Argus. 

An Oriental Figure, with a furred cloak and cap. 

Another Oriental Figure, with a gold chain. 

The half-length of a Man, wil3i long hair over his 

shoulders ; a woodcut. 
A Landscape, with three trees ; a woodcntb 

LIVERSEEGE, Henry, a painter of genre sub- 
iects, was born at Manchester in 1803. From his 
birth he was weak, and deformed in his person, 
and being neglected by his father, he owed his 
education to an uncle, who watched over him with 
great care and tenderness. It is not said by whom 
he was instructed in art, but his first attempts were 
in portraiture. His touchy sensibility, however, is 
said to have prevented success in that line. Being- 
enamoured of the works of Shakespeare and Sir 
Walter Scott, he turned from the real to embody 
the ideal characters in the writings of those 
authors, and produced a series of pictures of the 
dramatic kind, wliich brought him both money 
and reputation. Among these personifications of 
imaginary characters were Adam Woodcock, from 
Scott's romance of * The Abbot,' in which he hap- 
pily depicted the ridiculous part in that good- 
humoured worthy ; ' Isabella and the Recluse,' 
from *The Black Dwarf'; and *Edio Ochiltree 

66 



and Sir Arthui Wardour/ from ' The Antiquary.* 
To these followed *The Inquiry,* a scene of quiet 
humour, representing a country lad inquiring his 
way from a burly-looking porter at the door of 
a mansion. *The Cobbler' is of the same stamp ; 
he is reading Cobbett's Register, and spelling his 
way with a look of pondering sagacity. * Vercie 
Shafton and Mysie Happer' is another of his 
happy delineations. In 1827 he came up to 
London, and in the following year exhibited at the 
Koyal Academy, * Wildrake presenting Colonel 
Everard's Challenge to Charles II.' After this he 
used to spend three or four months occasionally in 
this city, studying at the British Museum and the 
British Institution, and continuing to exhibit both 
here and at Manchester. The weakness of his 
frame sank under the activity of his imagination ; 
his life was a continued disease, and it was scarcely 
a surprise to his friends when he expired suddenly 
at Manchester in the year 1832. As an artist his 
power lay in delineation of character ; and he has 
left it doubtful whether he was most successful 
in the serious or the humorous. He is excellent 
in both. His works were published in mezzotint, 
under the title * Recollections of Liverseege/ in 
1832-35. 

LIVES AY, Richard, a portrait painter and en- 
graver, was bom about the middle of the 18th cen- 
tury, and about 1781 lodged with Hogarth's widow 
in Leicester Fields. He was a pupil and assistant 
of Benjamin West. Settling at Windsor, he was 
patronized by George III., to whose family he 
taught drawing. Afterwards he removed to Port- 
sea, on being appointed drawing-master to the 
Royal Naval College. Some of Hogarth's and of 
Iiis own works were engraved by him. He died at 
Southsea in 1823. There are by him : 

Portrait of James, first Barl of Oharlemont. (NeUional 

Portrait Gallery.) 
Review of Troops by George IH. {ffajleld ffouse.) 

LIVIN, Menus, a Florentine painter of Dutch 
origin, was bom at Amsterdam in 1630. He went 
to Milan and then to Rome) where he met with a 
gentleman who took him to Vienna. There he 
found a powerful patron in Prince Matthias of 
Tuscany, who placed him with Pietro da Cortona 
at Florence. From thence he ran away and joined 
the players of the Duke of Savoy, but after three 
yenrs he returned to painting, and meeting again 
with Prince Matthias, he joined Stefano del la 
Bella. His chief works were a picture of the 
* Sacrifice of Abraham,' and the decoration of the 
cupola of the church of La Pace at Fiorenc-. 
He was also an engraver. He died at Florence in 
1691. 

LIVIUS, Cruyl. See Levyn. 

LIV155ZANI,GiovANNi Battibta, was an Italian 
painter and poet, who lived in the first part of the 
l7th century. Some of his pictures have been en- 
graved, but he gained more distinction witli the 
pen than with the brush. 

LIZARS, William Homb, a Scottish subject 
painter and engraver, was bom at Edinburgh in 
1788. He received instruction from his father, 
an engraver, and also in the Trustees' Academy. 
His reputation was made by his * Scotch Wedding' 
and * Reading the Will,' exhibited at the Royal 
Academy in 1812, and which are now in the 
National Gallery of Scotland. The death of his 
fathfer, however, compelled him to devote the re- 
mainder of his life to the engraving and printing 
business. He died at Edinburgh in 1869. 



TJfMnftff 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERa 



Loclmer 



LLAMAS, Fkancisco, was a Spanish painter 
who lived at Madrid in 1700. He was a pupil of 
Giordano, whose style he adopted. On the ceilings 
of the halls which separated the two cloisters of 
the College of Monks in the Escorial, he repre- 
sented 'The Trinity,' 'The Creation,' *The chief 
I>octors of the Church/ ' The chief Philosophers,' 
•The Sciences,' *The Virtues,' 'The Elements,' 
and several other suhjects. He also decorated 
the Cathedral of Avila, and the Hermitage of 
our Lady of Prado, near Talavera de la Reyna. 

LLANOS r VALDIS, Sebastian db, a painter of 
Seville, was bom at Granada about 1602. He was 
a pnpil of Herrera the elder, and worked chiefly 
for private and lay patrons. In 1660 he actively 
supported Murillo in founding the Academy of 
Painting at Seville, afterwards making frequent 
donations of oil and other materials for the use of 
the students. He was thrice chosen president of 
the Academy, in 1G66 and the two following years. 
It is probable Uiat he died about 1668. Cean 
Bennudez mentions only two of his works, a 
* Virgin of the Rosary, adured by Angels and 
Neophytes,' in the College of St Thomas at 
Seville, and a ' Magdalene ' iti the Recollet Convent 
at Madrid. Llanos is chiefly remarkable for hav- 
ing remained under tlie despotic Herrera longer 
than any other of his scholars, and for having been 
wounded in a duel by Alonso Cano. 

LLANTA, Jacquss FBANgois Gauderiqub, a 
French lithographer, was bom at Perpignan in 
1807, and died in 1666. He was a pupil of Gros, 
and occasionally painted in oil. Among his litho- 
graphs is a portrait of the Duke of Orleans, Regent 
of France, axter Santerre. 

LLBRA ZAMBRANO, Alonso dr, a native of 
Cadiz, flourished in that city as a painter of banners 
for the royal navy, and executed, in 1639, altar- 
pieces for the oratories of four galleons despatched 
m that year to New Spain. 

LLORENS, Cristobal, was a painter of good 
repute, who lived in Valencia about 1597. He 
painted the histories of St. Mary Magdalene and 
St. Sebastian, which long adorned their altars in 
the conventual church of San Miguel de las Reyes. 
U is uncertain whether these or any of his works 
exist. 

LLORENTE, Bbrnabdo Gbbman. See German 
Llorente. 

LLOYD, Mary. See Mosbr. 

LOARTE, Albxandro, was a painter of Toledo, 
and disciple of El Greco. Cean Bermudez praises 
his works for their correct drawing and a Venetian 
cast of colour, mentioning a large composition of 
the ' Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes,' painted in 
1622 for the Mission Friars of Toledo ; a hunting- 
piece of the next year; and a picture of 'Hens 
and Chickens,' painted in 1626. 

LOAYSA Y GIRON, Juan de, was a Spanish 
painter and archflBolo^st, who lived at Seville in 
1669. He painted with taste, and was canon of 
the cathedral, and one of the founders of the 
Academy of Seville. 

LOBIN, JuLlEN LAorOLD, a French historical 
painter, was bom at Loches in 1814. He studied 
under Steuben and Hippolyte Flandrin, and became 
director of the manuiactory of stained glass at 
Tours, where he died in 1864. 

LOCA, Battista, according to Dominici, was a 
Keapolitan painter, who flourished about the year 
1540. He was flrst a scholar of Giovanni Antonio 
d'Amato the elder, but afterwards studied the 

F 2 



works of Andrea da Sulerno, and became a histori- 
cal painter of some reputation. In the church of II 
Spirito Santo, at Naples, is a picture by this master, 
representing the ' Conversion of St Paul/ painted 
in 1643. 

LOCATELLI, Andrea, (or Lucatklh,) was bora 
at Rome in 1660, and studied under Paolo AnesL 
He painted landscapes, architectural pieces, and 
some historical subjects, and had also an especial 
talent in representing * banibocciate.* There is by 
him at Paris, in the Louvre, a ' Landscape, with 
Shepherds ' ; other works are at Augsburg, Cassel, 
and Stockholm. Joseph Vernet was instructed by 
him. He died in 1741. 

LOCATELLI, Antonio, an Italian engraver, bom 
at Alvisopoli, near Venice, about 1800, was a pupil 
of Raffaello Morghen and Longhi at the Academy 
of Milan. Among his plates are : 

Mater Dolorofia ; after Palagi, 1819. 
Daniel in the Den of lions ; after Ituhtna, 1838. 
Portrait of Giuseppe Parini ; after Albertolli, 
Portrait of Carlo Goldoiii. 

LOCATELLI, Giacomo, (or Lucatelli,) an 
Italian painter, was bom at Verona in 1580. He 
studied at Bologna under Guido and Albani. 
Among his works are two pictures in the church 
of San Fermo Maggiore at Verona. He died in 
1628. 

LOCATELLI. Maria Cattarina, (or Lucatelli,) 
a native of Bologna, was a pupil of Pasinelli. She 
painted historical pictures, and in the church of 
me Madonna di S. Columbano is a picture of ' St^ 
Anthony and St. Theresa.' She died in 1723. 

LOCATELLI, Pietro, (or Lucatelli,) an Italian 
painter, was bom near Rome about 1630. He was 
a pupil of Ciro Ferri, or Pietro da Cortona, and his 
pictures in the church of SanV Agostino and the 
Colonna Palace show boldness and freedom of 
colouring. At Siena are a ^ Beato Galgano * at the 
church of San Francesco, and an 'Assumption' at 
the hospital of Santa Maria del la Seal a. He was 
living in 1690, and died at Rome in the depth of 
poverty and wretchedness. 

LOCHE, Etibnne, a French painter and litho- 
grapher, w^as bom at Nimes in 1786. He was a 
pupil of Duvid and of Baron Gros, and he litho 
gmphed several drawings by Girodet. 

LOCH EM, B. VAN, was a Dutch engraver, who 
flourished at Amsterdam from about 1605 to 1635. 
There are a considerable number of his plates, 
which are partly in the style of Virgil Solis, and 
partly in that of Wierix, as * Christ on the Cross.* 
There is a set of plates of omaments for gold- 
smiths, after Tangen, engraved by him conjomtly 
with Hcndrik Janssens. He also engraved a set of 
small plates of hunting scenes, which, from their 
shape, appear to have been intended for fans. 

LOCHER, N., a painter and engraver, was 
bom at Freiburg in Switzerland in 1770. He 
painted pictures in the style of Teniers. 
* LOCHNElt, Stephan, (or Loethener,) called 
Mbister S'ikphan, a painter of the school of 
Cologne, was bom at Constance in the early 
years of the 15th century. In 1442 he was 
living at Cologne ; and in 1448 he represented 
the Guild of St. Luke in that city as a member of 
the Senate. Again in 1451 he occupied the same 
post of honour, but died poor and neglected in the 
same year. His most famous picture is the * Dom- 
Bild,' or altar-piece, in the choir of the cathedral 
at Cologne, pamted soon after 1426. It is a trip- 
tych, containing on the outside an 'Annunciation,' 

67 



Lochom 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



liOdgre 



and within an 'Adoration of the Magi'; on one 
wing are 'St Gereon and his Knights.* on the other 
* St. Ursula and her Virgins.' Tlie figures are all 
painted on a ^old background, and the green fore- 
ground with its many flowers seems to anticipate 
the rich colours of the oil -painters of Flanders. It 
was originally done for the chapel of the Town 
Hall, and is attributed to his latest and maturest 
period. Another great work of this master is * The 
Madonna of the Rose-Arbour/ in the Cologne 
Museum, attributed to his earliest period. Amongst 
his principal works are : 

Berlin. 



Ooi< 



»» 



n 
n 



If 



tf 



Gallery. Adoration of the CroM. 
„ Adoration of the Magi. 

„ St. Ambroae and others. 

„ . St. Mark and others. 

" ^'^^pS^*' } ^"«^ "'^ ^^^■ 
Darmstadt. Gallery, Presentation in the Temple. 1447. 
Frankfort. Stddel Inst, Two series of small works relating 

to the Martyrdom of the 
Apostles. (Doubtful.) 
London, yat. Gallery, Three Saints ^Matthew, Catharine 

of Alexanaiia, and John the 
Bvangelist). 
Munich. Gallery, Figures of Saints. 

The Annunciation. 
The Visitation. 
The Nativity. 
Adoration of the Ma^. 

LOCHOM, HANa van, a Flemish engraver, pro- 
bably the father of Michiel van Lochom, was bom 
at Antwerp about 1550. He engraved in the style 
of Van den Broeck, and among his plates are ' The 
Last Supper/ after that master, and * The Repent- 
ance of Peter,* after M. De Vos. 

LOCHOM, Michiel van, was a Dutch engraver, 
who resided in Paris about the year 1635. Accord- 
ing to Basan, he engraved several plates for Crispyn 
van de Passe, whose style he attempted to imitate, 
but with little success. He appears to have been 
chiefly employed by the booksellers, and worked 
entirely with Uie graver. One of his best prints is 
a frontispiece to the 'Life of Louis XIII., with a 
portrait of that monarch on horseback, with several 
email figures. He engraved several portraits for 
the works of Hippocrates, published at Paris in 
1639; and others after Ferdinand File. He also 
engraved the plates for Girard^s * Point ures sacr^es 
de la Bible,' published in folio at Paris in 1656. 

LOCHON,RbnA, a French line engraver, was bom 
at Boissy about the year 1632. He resided in Paris, 
where he engraved some historical subjects and 
several portraits, in which he seems to have imi- 
tated the style of Nanteuil. He died in Paris 
about 1675. Among other plates, the following 
are by him : 

PORTRAITS. 

Obarles de Bonrbon, Bishop of Soissons. 1657. 

Eustache de Lesseville, Bishop of Coutancea. 1661. 

F61iz Vialart, Bishop of ChAlons. ' 

Balthasar Ph6Iypeaux de La Vrilli^re. 1667. 

Jerome Bignon. 

Louis de Marillac, Doctor of the Sorbonne. 

Hardouiu de Per^fixe, Archbishop of Paris; after 

Philippe de Champaigne, 
Antoine Amauld, Priest of the Oratory ; after the same, 

SUBJECTS. 

Christ bearing the Cross ; after Carracci. 

The Virgin and Infant, with St. John ; after N, Coypel, 

LOCK, William, an amateur painter, was bom 
about 1767 at Norbury Park, Surrey. His father 
68 



was distinguished as a collector, and an associate of 
artists, and he himself painted several allegorical 
subjects, of which the best known is the * Death of 
Wolsey,' which has been engraved. Fuseli dedi- 
cated to him his * Lectures on Painting.* 

LOCKE, William, was an English portrait 
painter, who lived in London about 1750. 

LOCKEY, Nicholas, was an English portrait 

Eainter, who practised at the end of the 16th and 
eginning or the 17th centuries. He painted a 
portrait of John King, Bishop of London. 

LOCKEY, Rowland, was an English portrait 
painter, who practised in the latter half of tlie 16 th 
century, and was a pupil of Hilliard. He is reputed 
to have painted a picture containing portraits of Sir 
Thomas More, his son and his wife, and all their 
lineal heirs. 

LOCKLEY, David, was an English engraver, 
who flourished about the year 1719. Among other 
prints, he engraved a large plate representing a 
view of the New Church in the Strand ; and his 
name is afBxed to a portrait of Michael Malai-d. 

LODE, GusTAV DK, was a painter and engraver, 
who flourished at Viborg from 1730 to 1737. He 
painted historical pieces and portraits. 

LODE, Odoard Hklmont de, was a Danish 
engraver, who lived at Copenhagen in the middle 
of the 18th century. He died in 1757. Among his 
engravings are : 

Portrait of Christian IV. of Denmark; after C, van 

Mander, 
Portrait of Frederick III. ; after the same. 
Portrait of Count Moltke ; after G, G, Pilo, 
Nikolaj Brorson ; after Erichen, 

LODEL, Heinrich, who was bom at Hameln in 
1798, was first a bookbinder, but afterwards an en- 
graver both on wood and metal. He established 
himself at Gottingen in 1819, and died there in 
1861. He executed several beautiful wood-cuts 
and engravings, among which are : 

A, Scene in a Publio-hoase ; after Jan Steen; an en« 

graring. 
Glmstmas Ere ; after H, Hess ; a woodcut. 
Extreme Unction ; after ^tz ; a woodcut. 
The Nymphs of the Danube; after J, Schnorr; a 

woodcut. 
The Initials of Liitzelbnrger, with the Dance of Death 

and the Alphabetum Mortis, 1849 ; woodcuts. 
The Facsimiles of the woodcuts of Hans Wechtlin. 

LODER, Astolf, was a German painter, bom 
at Frankfort in 1721, who, according to Basan, 
etched several plates after his own compositions. 
He was living about 1760. 

LODER, MatthXus, an Austrian painter, was 
bom at Vienna in 1781, and studied at the 
Academy of that city under Maurer, Braun, 
Lampi, and Fiiger. He first drew flowers and 
architecture, and afterwards painted history, land- 
scapes, and portraits. He became drawing- 
master to the Archduchess Maria Louisa at 
Parma, was received a member of that Academy 
in 1816, and subsequently appointed painter to 
the Archduke Johann. His best work is the 

Sainting of the Cmcifix on the Erzberg. He 
ied at Brandhofe in Styria, in 1828. 
LODGE, John, was an engraver, who practised 
in the latter part of the 18th century. He died 
in 1796. 

LODGE, William, the son of a wealthy mer- 
chant, who left him a handsome patrimony, was 
bom at Leeds in 1649. From school he was sent to 
JesuB College, Cambridge, and he was afterwards 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



XiOffgan 



a stadent of law at Lincoln'e Inn ; but being dis- 
posed to more pleasurable studies, he attended Lord 
Fauconberg in his embassy to Venice, where meet- 
ing with Giacomo Barrils * Viaggio Pittoresco/ in 
which the principal pictures in Italy are particular- 
ized, with an account of the celebrated collection of 
the Canone Settala at Milan, he translated it into 
English, and published it in 1679, with heads of 
the most eminent painters, and a map of Italy, 
etched by himself. During his travels he drew 
various views, which he afterwards etched. On 
his return to England, he assisted Dr. Lister in 
drawing rare shells and fossils, which were trans- 
mitted to the Royal Society, and are inserted in 
their * Transactions.' He died at Leeds in 1689. 
Besides those above mentioned, Lodgers works 
include : 

Hie Pont dn G«rd,in Langaedoe ; with cipher W/j^ 

m 

View of Gaeta, with the Mole and Plancas's Tomb. 

Pozzaoli, Garacalla's Mole, Bai», kc. 

Baina of the Amphitheatre and Aqueduct at Mintur- 

num. 
Promontory of Oirce, Temple of the San, &e» 
Lambeth Palace, from the Thames. 
Westminster Hail and the Abbey. 
The Monnmentw 
Sheriff Button Castle. 
Clifford's Tower. 
View of York. 

Leeds, with Views of Kirkstall and Fountains Abbeys. 
Portrait of Oliver Cromwell, and his Page. 
Portrait of Samuel Malines ; after Claret. 

LODI, Albkbtino de, was a painter of the 
Bfilanese school, who lived about 1640. He worked 
at the court of Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan. 

LODl, Callisto da. See Piazza. 

LODI, Ebmbneqildo, an Italian painter, was a 
native of Cremona, who flourished about 1616. He 
was a pupil of Giovanni Battista Trotti, whose style 
he followed. He had a brother, Manfbedi Lodi, 
who was also a painter. 

LODI, GFiovANNi DA. See Della Chibsb. 

LOEMANS, Abnold, was a Flemish engraver 
and printseller, who resided at Antwerp about the 
year 1690. He engraved a few plates after the 
Flemish masters, and some portraits, among which 
is that of Jacques Callot. 

LOEMBERG, Lobenz, was a native of Sweden, 
who painted historical pictures and decorations. 
He went at the end of the last century to Ham- 
burg, where he resided for several years, but he 
eventually returned to his own country, and di^d 
about 1810. 

LOESCHER, Andbeas, a portrait painter, was 
bom at Scharfenstein in Saxony in 1693. He 
worked for some time at Rome and Venice, but 
afterwards settled at Augsburg, where he died in 
1762. 

LOETHENER, Stbphan. See Loghneb. 

LOFFLER, August, a Bavarian landscape painter 
and engraver, was bom at Munich in 1822. He 
was first instructed by Heinrich Adam, but he 
afterwards imitated Kottmann. In 1846 he visited 
Triest and Upper Italy ; in 1849 the East, especially 
Cairo and the Holv Land ; in 1853 Greece ; and 
in 1866 Milan and Venice, which countries and 
cities he treated with distinction in his paintings. 
He died at Munich in 1866. Among his best 
landscapes are : 

The Oartoon of the Hunt. 



Jerusalem. J Frederick 

Ihe Soune of the Lykns on Lebanon, j William IV,) 

1861. 



•{ 



(For King 
Frt" 



The Palm Forest of Oairo. {For King William of 

WUriemburg^ 
The Bains of Jerusalem. (JSbUtgart Qallery.) 
Delphi. 
Damascus. 
Bethlehem* 
Moses. 

The Lord appearing to Elijah. 
The Gulf of Navarino. 
Lake Gexmesareth. 1860. 
Athens. 

The Boad to ElensiB. 
The Temple at Baalbeo. 
Lakes Garda and Kochel. 1861. 
Bethany. 1862. 

Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives. 1863. 
Four large Forest Landscapes for Bad Kochel. 

Among his etchings may be mentioned two views 
of Athens. 

LOFVERS, Hbndbick, the son of Pieter Lof vers, 
was bom in 1739, and was instructed by his father. 
He painted marine subjects, fruit, and flowers, 
and died at Groningen in 1805. 

LOFVERS, PiBTEB, bom at Groningen in 1710, 
was a scholar of J. A. Wassenburg, and painted 
sea views with great ability. His pictures were 
formerly in great request in England, France, and 
Hamburg. He died in 1788. 

LOGGAN, David, was bom at Dantsic about 
the year 1630. He is said to have received his 
instruction in engraving from Simon van de Passe, 
in Denmark, and afterwards passing through Hol- 
land, he studied under Hendrik Hond, and came 
to England before the Restoration. He was first 
employed in engraving views of the public build- 
ings of tiie University of Oxford, which were pub- 
lished in 1675, in a folio volume, under the title 
of * Oxonia lUustrata,* and comprised forty-four 
plates. He also engraved and published a similar 
volume for Cambridge (* Cantabri&^ia Illustrata *) in 
1688, comprising thirty plates. He executed also 
a set of eleven plates, entitled, * Habitus Academi- 
corum Oxoniss a Doctore usque ad Servientem,* 
which form a distinct series from the plates of cos- 
tumes engraved in the * Oxonia Illustrata.' He died 
in London in 1693. There are a great number of 
portraits by him, which are esteemed his best 
works. They are generally executed with the 
graver in a neat but formal style, and signed 
Z>. L, The following are the principal : 

Charles I., on horseback. 

Queen Henrietta Maria, 

Charles IL ; four plates. 

Queen Catharine of Braganza. 

James, Duke of York. 

George Monck, Duke of Albemarle. 

Sir inward Coke, Lord Chief Justice, 

Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon. 

JameR Stanley, Earl of Derby. 

Lord-Keeper Guilford. 

James, Duke of Monmouth. 

James, Duke of Ormond. 

Nathaniel, Lord Crew, Bishop of Durliam. 

William Siwcroft, Archbishop of Canterbury. 

Sir Henry Pope Blount. 

John Pearson, Bishop of Chester. 

Sir George Wharton. 

George, Prince of Denmark. 

Mother Louse, of Louse-Hall ; one of his earliest prints. 

John Sparrow. 

William Hickes. 

Peter Mews. 

Thomas Isham. 

Itobert Stafford. 

Archibald, Earl of ArgyU. 

Isaac Barrow. 

Edwaxd Reynolds, Bishop of Norwich. 

James Uasher, Archbishop of Armagh. 

69 



liOhde 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



LomazBO 



Peter Qanning, Bishop of Ely. 

Pope Innocent XI. 

John Lake, Biahop of Ohichester. 

Thomas Fuller. 

William Laud, Archbishop of Canterhurj. 

Loggan was also very successful In portraits 
drawn with the pencil, and he has left two painted 
in oil— Gilbert Sheldon, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, and Peter Mew, Bishop of Bath and Wells. 

LOHDE, Max, was bom at Berlin in 1845, and 
was early made acquainted with classical beauty 
by his father, who was a connoisseur. He studied 
painting under Julius Schnorr at Dresden, and 
Cornelius, but he afterwards attended the Academy 
at Berlin, and obtained a prize in 1866 with the 
' Bride of Messina.' Subsequently he travelled in 
Silesia, and devoted himself especially to sgraffito 
painting. He succeeded in inventing a new method 
of hardening the chalk, and imparting increased 
warmth to the colours. He earned great applause 
with the four wall-paintings on the staircase of the 
Sophia Gymnasium at Berlin ; they represent the 
Rape of Helen,' the * Return of Helen,' the 
' Return of Agamemnon,' and the * Arrival Home 
of Ulysses.' He died at Naples in 1868. 

LOIR, Alexis, the younger brother of Nicolas 
Loir, was bom in Paris in 1640. He was brought 
up to his father's profession of a goldsmith, to 
which he added that of an engraver, in which he 
became eminent He became a member of the 
Academy at Paris in 1678, and died there in 1713. 
He etched several plates from his brother's designs. 
The following are esteemed his best works : 

The Education of Marie de' Medici; after Jtubens. 

(Luxembourg Gallery.) 
Time discoveriDg Truth ; after the aame. (The same.) 
Magnificat ; (ifter Guido. 
The Fall of the Rebel Angels ; after Le Brun» 
The Massacre of the Innocents ; after the same. 
The Dead Christ in the lap of the Virgin; after 

Mignard, 
The Finding of Moses ; after N, Poussin, 
Venus giving Arms to .^^eas ; after the iame. 
The Adoration of the Kings ; after Jouvenet. 
The Presentation in the Temple ; after the same. 
The Descent from the Cross ; after the same. 
The Virgin «ith the Infant sleeping ; after N. Loir. 
The Holy Family ; after the same. 
Mary Magdalene praying ; after the same. 
Portrait of Jean Mabillon ; after HaiU. 

LOIR, Nicolas, a French painter and etcher, 
was born in Paris in 1624. He was the son of a 
goldsmith, who, perceiving his inclination for 
painting, placed him under the tuition of S^bastien 
Bourdon and Le Brun, with whom he studied 
until he was twenty-three years of age, when he 
travelled to Rome. In that city he passed two 
years, and being in easy circumstances, he occu- 
pied his time in contemplating, rather than in 
copying, the works of the principal masters ; and 
he possessed so retentive a memory, that on return- 
ing to his apartment, he could trace sketches of the 
pictures which had most attracted his attention. 
The works of Nicolas Poussin were the objects of 
his particular admiration, and his best pictures 
are those of an easel size, painted in the style of 
that master. On his return to Paris he met with 
immediate employment, and was engaged in 
several considerable works for Louis XIV., in the 

Ealace of the Tuileries and at Versailles. In 1668 
e was made a member of the Academy at Paris, 
and painted for his picture of reception * The Pro- 
gress of Painting and Sculpture.* In the church 
of SL Barth61emy is one of his best public works, 
70 



representing the ^Marriage of St. Catharine.* He 
died in Paris in 1679. Many French and Dutch 
artists have engraved after him. He Bas also left 
a great number of etchings from his own designs ; 
they are slightly but spiritedly executed, in the 
style of a painter. They amount to one hundred 
and thirteen, and are described in Robert-Dumes- 
nil*s * Peintre-Graveur Fran^ais,* vol. 3. They are 
signed N. L» I. F. or A^. L., and among them are 
the following : 

Set of Twelve subjects, the Virgin and Holy Families. 

The Infant Jesus embracing the Cross. 

The Judgment of Paris. 

Apollo and Daphne. 

Cleobis and Biton drawing the Chariot of their Mother 

to the Temple of Juno. 
Two large Landscapes. 

L0I8EL, — , a French engraver, resided at Paris 
about the year 1645. He executed port of the 
plates for the folio volume of plans and views 
published by Beaulieu. 

LOISY, Jean de, a son of Pierre de Loisy the 
elder, was bom at Besan^on in 1603. He engraved 
*Lcs Portraits des 8. 8. Vertus de la Vierge con- 
templ^es par feue S. A. S. M. Isabelle Claire 
Eugenie, Infante d*Espagne,* published in 1635. 

LOISY, PiERRB DB, the elder, a French en- 
graver, was bom at Besan^on, and flourished in 
the early part of the 17th century. 

LOISY, PiKRRB DB, the younger, a son or 
nephew of Jean de Ijoisy, was born at Besan^on 
about 16d0. Among his works are several religious 
subjects, the portrait of Philip IV., King of Spain, 
and others. 

LOLI, LoBRNZO, a painter and engraver, was 
bom at Bologna in 1612, and died in 1691. He 
is sometimes called * Lorenzino del Signer Guido,' 
from his having been a favourite disciple of that 
master. He painted some pictures for the churches 
at Bologna, of which the most admired is the * St. 
Anthony of Padua,' in Santa Caterina di Strada 
Maggiore. There are by this artist several etchings 
after Guido and Sirani, whose school he also at- 
tended, as well as from his own designs. He 
sometimes signed his prints with his name, and 
sometimes L. LL. F.^ Lo. /*., Laur, LoL^ &c. 
The following are his best prints : 

The Flight into Egypt ; after Guido Rem. 

The Holy Family, with St. John, in which St. Joseph is 

leaning on a Pedestal ; after the same 
The Holy Family, with 9t. Elizabeth and St. John ; 

after G. A. Sirani. . 
The Virgin with the Infant, to whom an Angel presents 

a Basket of Flowers ; after the same. 
The Assumption of the Virgin ; after the same. 
St. Jerome ; after the same. 
The Virgin with the Infant sleeping; after EXisabetta 

Sirani. 
Mary Magdalene, with a Cradfiz ; a^fter his own deeign. 
The Virgin appearing to St. Francis and St. Aiigastine ; 

after the same. 
Fame flying over a Globe ; after G. A. Sirani. 
Perseus and Andromeda ; aj^er the same. 
Cupid breaking his Bow ; after his own deeign, 
lufaut Bacchanalians ; after the same. 
A similar subject ; after the tame. 

LOLMO, Giovanni Paolo, (or Lulmo,) was bom 
at Bergamo, and died about 1595. In the church 
of Santa Maria Maggiore at Bergamo is a picture 
of *St. Sebastian and St. Roch/ painted in 1587, 
and in the Berlin Gallery is a 'Madonna.' 

LOMAZZO, Giovanni Paolo, a painter and writer 
on art, was bom at Milan in 1538, and was a scholar 
of Gaudenzio Ferrari, and Giovanni Battista della 



Iiombftid 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Londerseel 



Gerva. Of his works as a painter little is known ; 
and it is probable he did not paint much, as he 
became blind when he was thirty-three years old, 
and was chiefly occupied as an author on various 
subjects. In 1584 was published at Milan his 
• Tntttato deir Arte della Pittura, Scultura, ed Archi- 
tettura'; in 1687 his *Rime*; and in 1690 his 
' Idea del Tempio della Pittura.' He died about the 
year 1600. The foUovnng works by him remain : 

Milan. JBrera. Portrait of the Painter. 

^ Cft, Soeckinetii* The History of Melchizedek. 

„ Capuchin Conv. A Fiet4. 

Piaoensa. 8. AgosHno, Several pictures. 

LOMBARD, Lambert. See Susterman. 

LOMBAKDELLL See Della Marca. 

LOMBARDI, GiovAKNi Domenico, called Omino, 
was bom at Lucca in 1682, and was a scholar of 
Pietro Paolini. whose style he followed and im- 
proved by studying the works of the best Venetian 
colourists, and the style of the Carracci. He has 
left two laterals in the choir of the Olivetani, 
representing ' St Bernard succouring those afflicted 
with the Plague.* There are two other pictures by 
him in San Komano, painted with such force of 
colour and relief, that they approach the best style 
of Guercino. His reputation would have stood 
higher if be had always painted with equal care, 
and had not degraded his talents by painting 
pictures at all prices. He died in 1762. 

LOMBARDO, Antonio, was a painter of the Par- 
mese school, who flourished at the end of the 17th 
century. He is supposed to have been a pupil of 
Giovanni Maria Conti, whom he assisted in decor- 
ating with frescoes the oratory of Santa Croce at 
Parma, and painting several figures in the church 
of Sant* lllario. 

LOMBART, Pierre, a French designer and en- 
graver, was bom in Paris about 1620. He is said 
to have learned the principles of design under 
Simon Vouet, but it is not known who instructed 
him in engraving. After acquiring some reputa- 
tion at Pans he came to England, some time be- 
fore the Kestoration, as he engraved a portrait of 
the Protector ; a frontispiece to Ogilby's * Virgil,' 
published in 1664; a title to a small octavo, in 
1668 ; and Sir Robert Stapleton's portrait for his 
* Juvenal,* before 1660. His latest known work 
bears the date 1672, after which he returned to 
Paris, and died there in 1681. During his stay in 
this country he was chiefly employed by the book- 
sailers, for whom he executed a great number of 
subjects, as well as portraits, which are his best 
works. The following are his principal plates : 

PORTRAITS. 

A set of twelve jplatet, half-lengtb, two of the Barl of 
Arundel and Earl of Pembroke, and ten of Ladies, 
called * Hie OouoteMee ' ; aftei' Van Dyck. 

Charles I., on horseback ; after the sam". After the 
death of that monarch, the head of Cromwell was 
■iibstituted for that of the King, bat the latter was 
lesiorod after the Bestoiation. 

Oliver Cromwell, with his Page ; after Walker. 

Bobert Walker, the painter ; after the mme. 

Sir Samuel Morland ; after Lay, 

Anne Hyde, Duchess of York ; after the same, 

Brian Walton, Bishop of Chester. 

Jetmny Taylor, Bishop of Down. 

De Ia Fond, called * Le Gazetier de HoUande ; ' after 
H, Gascmrd, 1667. 

Samuel Malines ; after Claret, 

Sir Henry Wootton. 

Dr. Charlton. 

John Ogiil y. 

The Bmperor Charles Y. 



Dr. Donne. 

William Cartwrigbt. 

Charles Bmmanuel II., Duke of Savoy, 1674 

VARIOUS BDBJBCTfl. 

St. Michael vanquishing Satan ; after Raphael, 

The Yir^n and Infant Jesus ; after Anmbale Carraeei, 

The Nativity, or Adoration of we Shepherds ; qfter HT, 

Foussin, 
The Last Supper ; after the tame. 
The Angel appearing to St. Joseph ; after Philippe de 

Champaigne. 
The Crucifixion ; after the same. 
The Holy Family ; after O, Le Fiwre. 

LOMI, Alessandro. See Loni. 

LOMI, AuRELio, was bom at Pisa in 1556, and 
was first a disciple either of his father Giovanni 
Battista Lotni, or else of Bronzino,but he afterwards 
studied under Lodovico Cardi, called Cigoli, and is 
considered as the head of the Pisanese school. His 
fresco works in the cathedral at Pisa partake of 
the style of both Bronzino and Cigoh. Of his 
numerous works in Florence, the most worthy of 
notice are his picture of *St Anthony of Padua,* 
at the Franciscans, and his * Last Judgment,* in the 
church of Santa Maria di Garignano. Less strik- 
ingly effective, but esteemed by the Pisanese as 
his chef-d'oeuvre, is his *• St Jerome,* in the church 
of the Campo Santo at Pisa, which is marked with 
his initials and the date 1595. He died in 1622. 

LOMI, Bagcio, was an Italian painter, bom at 
Pisa, who flourished about 1585. He was a pupil 
of Taddeo Zucchero, whose style he followed. His 
chief work is an 'Assumption* in the chapter- 
house of the cathedral of Pisa. 

LOMI, Orazio. See Gbntilbschl 

LOMMELIN, Adribn, an engraver, was bom at 
Amiens about the year 1636, and was instructed in 
engraving at Antwerp, where he passed the greater 
part of his life. He has left plates of a number of 
the works of Rubens, but very indifferently exe- 
cuted. The portraits he engraved, after Van Dyck, 
however, are not without merit. The following 
are his principal plates : 

PORTRAITS AFTER VAN DTOK. 

Charles L 

Ferdinand of Anstria, Qoverao? of the Low ConntHes. 

Jacob Le Bot, Seigneur of Herbaiz. 

J. C. de La Faille, Senator of Antwerp. 

Alexander de La Faille, Jesuit. 

Zegher van Hontsnm, Canon of Antwerp. 

Adrian Stevens, Ecclesiastio. 

J. Malderus, Bishop of Antwerp. 

Jan De Wael, painter, of Antwerp. 

Jan Baptist de Bisthoven, Jesuit ; one of his best prints. 

SDBJBGTS APTBR RUBENfi. 

Abigail appeasing DaWd with her presents. 

The Adoration of the Magi. 

The Ciroumoimon. 

The Baptism of Christ. 

Christ washing the Feet of His Apostles. 

Christ appearing to Mary Magdalene. 

The Triumph of Charity. 

Time discovering Truth. 

The Assumption of the Virgin. 

St. Cecilia. 

The Judgment of Paris. 

SUBJECTS AFTER OTHER MASTERS. 

Christ taken in the Garden ; after Van Dyck. 
The Virgin and Infant, with the Foot Doctors of the 
Church ; after Diepenbeek. 

LONARDINO. See Ferrari, Leonardo. 

LONDERSEEL, Assuerds van, an engraver 
on wood and copper, was bom at Amsterdam in 
1548, and died after 1599. He executed several 

71 



Londerteel 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Longhi 



small woodcuts in a yery neat style, resembling 
that of Virgil Sulis, as well as some Bible illustrations 
and some small cuts for a ' Herbal/ by Matthias de 
L'Obel. He also executed the woodcuts for * The 
Voyage and Travels of Nicolas de Nicolay into 
Turkey/ published at Antwerp in 1676. On copper 
he engraved a series of ornaments for jewellers, in 
the style of the Qennan Little Masters. He usually 
marked his prints with one of these monograms : 

LONDERSEEL, Jan van, a Flemish engraver, 
was bom at Bruges in 1582. There are by this 
artist several plates of landscapes, and other sub- 
jects, engraved in a stiff, formal style, after Marten 
De Vos, Coninxlo, Vinckeboons, Qoltzius, and Hen- 
drik Arts. His prints are executed with the graver, 
aTid some of them possess considerable merit. He 
usually signed them with his name abbreviated', 
/. Lond^ or J, Londer fee. Among others the 
following are by him : 

Faith, Hope, and Charity; represented by allegorical 

figures ; from ht$ oicn designs. 
The Five Senses, emblematically repreaented; the sams, 
A set of Landscapes, with figures ; after J. Savartf. 
Four Landscapes, with biblical subjects; after G. De 

Hondecoeter, 
Four Landscapes, with the same ; after O. van Coninxlo. 
Niue Landscapes, with the same : after D. Vinckeboons. 
A View of the interior of St. John Lateran; after 

Hendrik A rU. 

LONDONIO, Francesco, an Italian painter and 
engraver, was born at Milan in 1723. He was in- 
structed by Ferdinando Porta, and at first attempted 
historical painting, but abandoned that branch for 
landscapes with animals, in which he was much 
more successful. His pastoral subjects are highly 
esteemed at Milan, Genoa, and Naples, where they 
are found in the best collections. He also etched 
about seventy plates of landscapes, with figures 
and cattle, from his own designs, having been in- 
structed in this branch by Benigno Bossi. They 
are executed in a spirited style, though his fidelity 
to nature seems to have led him to a selection of 
the ugliest objects. In the Brera at Milan are five 
examples of his art. He died in 1783. 

LONG, John St. John, an engraver, was bom 
in Ireland in 1797. He received some assistance 
from John Martin, and acted as an assistant to 
Ottley. He then took to painting, and in 1825 
exhibited at Suffolk Street ' Elijah comforted by an 
Angel,* *The Temptation,' and 'Abraham enter- 
taining an Angel.* His last occupation was that 
of quack doctor. He died in London in 1834, and 
was buried in Eensal Green Cemetery. 

LONGHI, Alessandro, a Venetian painter and 
engraver, bom at Venice in 1733, was the son of 
Pietro Longhi. He was a scholar of Giuseppe 
Nogari, and is chiefly known as a portrait painter. 
In 1763 he published a volume of the * Lives of the 
modern Venetian Artists,* with portraits etched by 
himself. He etched several other plates of various 
subjects. He died in 1813. Among others, there 
are the following prints by him : 

PORTRAITS OF PAINTERS. 

Giacomo Amiconi. 
Antonio Balestra. 
Sebastiano Ricci. 
Giovanni Battista Piazzetta. 
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo. 

SUBJECTS. 

A Venetian Masquerade. 
A Gondolier dancing with a ^lady. 
72 



n 



II 



i» 
i» 



A Quack Doctor on his stago. 
A Moor beating a Drum. 
The Philosopher Pythagoras. 

LONGHI, Antonio. See Veneziano. 

LONGHI, Barbara, the daughter of Luca Longhi, 
was born at Ravenna in 1552, and was staii living 
in 1619. The Castellani Collection possessed a pic* 
tore by her dated 1589. There also exist by her : 

Paria. Louvre. Virgin and Child. 

Ravenna. Academy. St. Monica. 

St. Jadith. 

The Sacristy of San Yitale. 

The Healing of St. Agatha. 

St. Dominick. 

St. Catharine and St. Agnes. 

LONGHI, Francesco, the son and scholar of 
Luca Longhi, was born in 1544, and died in 
1618. He painted history and portraits in the style 
of his father, though greatly inferior to him. One 
of his best pictures is in the church of the Car- 
melites at Ravenna. Other works by him are : 

Ravenna. San Vitale. Annunciation. 
„ „ Virgin and Saints. 

f, S, Oio. Battista, Madonna and Saints. 

LONGHI, Giuseppe, an Italian painter, and one 
of the most distinguished engravers of recent 
times, was bom at Monza in 1766. His father 
was a silk mercer, and intended his son for the 
Church; but, through his own determination, 
Giuseppe was finally placed with the Floren- 
tine engraver, Vincenzo Vangelisti, professor in 
the Brera at Milan, and the Florentine painter, 
Giulio Travallesi. He studied afterwards, for 
some time, in Rome, where he became acquainted 
with Raffaello Morghen. Longhi soon obtained a 
reputation for himself by his print from the ' Genius 
of Music,' a picture by Guido, in the Chigi Palace. 
After his return to Milan he was chiefly employed 
in miniature painting, until he was ordered by 
Napoleon to make an engraving from Gros's por- 
trait of him. About the same time (1798) he 
was appointed to succeed Vangelisti as professor 
of engraving in the Academy of the ferera, to 
which, during Longhi's professorship, many dis- 
tinguished engravers of the present century in 
Italy owe their education. Among his principal 
works are, ' The Vision of Ezekiel,' ' The Sposalizio, 
or Marriage of the Virgin,' and a * Holy Family,' 
all after Raphael ; ' The Entombment,' and * St 
Jerome,' after D. Crespi ; *The Reading Magda- 
lene,' after Correggio ; * The Madonna del Lago,' 
after Leonardo da Vinci ; * Galatea,' after Albani ; 
and many heads after Rembrandt It would 
occupy too much space to enumerate all the pro- 
ductions of Longhi's graver worthy of being 
specified. In the fine series of portraits pub- 
lished at Milan, under the title *Vite 6 Ritratti 
di Illustri Italiani,' he engraved the portraits of 
Napoleon, with the iron crown on his head, as 
King of Italy ; Michelangelo Buonarroti ; and 
Enrico Dandolo, Doge of Venice: all superb in 
execution. But his 'Fasti di Napoleone il Grande ' 
must not be omitted. This beautiful work, after 
the designs of Appiani, was executed in part by 
Longhi, and the whole of it, as far as it exists, 
under his direction. Six of the plates were en- 
graved entirely by him, in what the Italians call 
the semiltbero manner; five of them represent 
* The Battle of Marengo ' ; the sixth, • Time with 
the Fates ' : the rest are by Michele Bisi, Giuseppe 
Benaglia, and the two brothers Rosaspina, all 
worthy disciples of this great master. This work 
is especially deserving of notice, as having been 



Zadtlghi 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERa 



executed at the expense of the Emperor Napoleon. 
It ]£ said that, not being completed at the time of 
fais abdication, its further progress was forbidden, 
and the plates destroyed He commenced in 1827 
the engraving of the 'Last Judgment/ after Michel- 
angelo, from a drawing by Minardi, but died with- 
out finishing it. The 'Madonna del Velo,' after 
Raphael, he also left unfinished j but it was com- 
pleted in 1834 by his pupil the Cavaliere Toschi. 
Longhi died of apoplexy at Milan in 1831. Among 
bis other works are : 

Bonaparte at Aicole ; after Gros, 
The Good Samaritan ; after Bembrandt, 
The Philosopher ; after the tame. 
The Old Man ; aft.r the game. 
Tho Laughing Negro ; after the eame, 
St. Joeeph carrying the Infant Jesus ; after Gvido Bent. 
The Triamph of Sopio ; after Jfatteini, 
The Virgin ; after Carlo Jbolci. 
The Bepose in Egypt ; after Procaceini. 
The Beheading of St. John the Baptist ; after O. Dcu. 
Lonis Xjy . ; after Bervic. 
Eugene Beaahamais ; after Girard. 
Jmoj Burgherah and Child ; after Sir Thomas Lawrence, 
Pan pursuing Syrinx ; <fter hts own desiqn. 
Portraits of Appiani, Washington, Giovaoni Longhi, 
Carlo Portia, and Francis I. of Austria. 

LONGHI, LucA, was bom at Ravenna in 1507. 
There are several of his historical works in the 
churches of Ravenna, Ferrara, and Mantua. In 
the church of San Benedetto at Ferrara is a 
picture by him representing the * Circumcision * ; 
but his principal works. Madonnas with Saints, 
are in the churches of San Vitale, Sant* Agata, 
and San Domenico at Ravenna. His compositions 
are generally confined to a few figures, but his 
pictures are liighly finished, and very agreeably 
coloured. He also distinguished himself as a por- 
trait painter. He died at Ravenna in 1580. In the 
yerinitage at St. Petersburg is a *St. Catharine,'- 
and in the Brera at Milan a ' Madonna and Saints.' 

LONGHI, PiETBO, a genre painter and engraver, 
was bom at Venice in 1702, and was instructed by 
Antonio Balestra and Giuseppe Maria Crespi. Of 
his paintings there are several in the Academy at 
Venice, among which is a portrait of the architect 
Temanza, and the representation of a tall lady at 
her toilet. There is one etching by him, repre- 
senting ' Country Girls dancing.' He died in 1762. 
Bartolozzi, Cattini, Faldoni, and others, engraved 
after his works. 

LONGMATE, Barak, an engraver, was bom in 
Westminster in 1737. His plates were chieflv 
heraldic, and he edited an edition of Collins s 
'Peerage; 1779-84. He died in 1793. 

LONGMATE, Babak, the younger, son of Barak 
Longmate, succeeded his father as an engraver. 
He was bom in 1768, and died in 1836. 

LONGRAFF, — , a Dutch engraver, flourished 
about the year 1698. He engraved a set of orna- 
mental subjects for goldsmiths, which are executed 
with the graver in a very neat style. 

LONGUEIL, Joseph de, an engraver, was bom 
at Givet in 1736. He was instructed in engraving 
at Lille, and studied afterwards under Le Bas and 
Aliamet in Paris. He died in Paris in 1792. He 
engraved several vignettes for the * Henriade ' of 
Voltaire and the * Contes ' of La Fontaine. His 
talento were not confined to book-plates ; he exe- 
cuted some subjects after various masters, among 
which are the following : 

Two Allegorical Subjects ; after Cochtju 

Heroic Fidelity ; after Moreau. 

Two Runl Sabjeots; after Lipieid and Aubry, 



A pair of Dutch Merry-makings ; after Ostade, 
The Fishermen ; after Vemet. 
View in the Environs of Naples ; after Jfettai, 
A Sea-storm ; after the same, 

LONI, Alessandro, (or Loafi,) was bom at 
Florence in 1655, and was a scholar and imitator 
of Carlo DolcL He was chiefly employed in copy- 
ing the pictures of his master, which he did with 
a precision that renders it difficult to distinguish 
them from the originals. He died in 1702. 

LONJUMEAU, Pierre Joseph Gaillabd db. 
See Gaillard de Lonjumeau. 

LONS, DiRCK Evkrsen, a Dntch engraver, was 
living from 1612 to 1622. He has left an etching 
of the * Holy Family, with St Elizabeth and St 
John,' after A. van Nieulandt There are also four 
landscapes by him, each having a large windmill. 

LONSDALE, James, a portrait painter, was bom 
in Lancashire in 1777, but came to London at an 
early period of his life. He studied under Romney 
and at the Royal Academy, and afterwards pur- 
chased the house in Bemers Street vacated by the 
death of Opie, and there he settled for the remainder 
of his life. He was one of the founders and chief 
supporters of the Society of British Artists, and 
exhibited with them almost regularly from 1824 to 
1837. He was a man of independent mind and 
manners, and perhaps his neglect of the stiaviter in 
modo was the reason that his practice was chiefly 
confined to male sitters. He had a masculine style 
of painting, and showed great discrimination of 
character in his portraits ; and as he painted some 
of the really great men of his time, his pictures are 
hkely to be appreciated long after the works of 
more fashionable portrait painters are forgotten. 
He died in London in 1839. He exhibited at the 
Royal Academy in 1818 a painting of * Talma as 
Hamlet * ; and for the Dute of Norfolk he exe- 
cuted a historical picture of * King John signing 
Magna Chart a.' In the National Portrait Gallery 
are portraits of Lord Brougham, Sir Philip Francis, 
Joseph Nollekens, R.A., William Sharp, Abraham 
Rees, and Queen Caroline. 

LONSING, Frans Jozef^ was bom at Brussels 
in 1743. He was intended for the military pro- 
fession, and entered as a cadet in one of the Belgian 
regiments in the service of Austria, called the 
Walloons. Being in e;arrison at the citadel of 
Antwerp he showed a love of art, and under the 
patronage of Prince Cliarles of Lorraine, governor 
of the Low Countries, he frequented the academy 
which that prince had organized, and in 1759 
obtained the principal prize. After this he entered 
the school or Martin J. Geeraerts, a distinguished 
painter of bas-reliefs, who had been a scholar of 
Theobald Michau. In this school, Lousing made 
such progress that Prince Cliarles and Count de 
Cobentz^'l sent him to Italy, with a pension, to 
perfect liis studies. At Rome he entered the school 
of Raphael Mengs, and there made acquaintance 
with Sir William Hamilton, for whom, in 1772, 
he engraved several prints for the 'Scholss 
ItalicsB Picturae,' among which *The Hunt of 
Meleager,* after Giulio Romano, is noteworthy. 
He afterwards pursued his art at Paris, Lyons, 
and Bordeaux ; and he died at Leognan, near the 
latter city, in 1799, while engaged in painting 
the mansion of a rich merchant. His pictures 
are chiefly portraits, some of which have been 
engraved ; his easel pictures are rare and much 
sought after ; the greater part of his works are at 
Bordeaux. His general style is a mixture of the 

73 



Z«oo 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Xiob 



Italian and Flemish, which gives his pioturea a 
peculiar air, differing from every other master, yet 
reminding the observer of the works of older date. 
In the Museum at Bordeaux are portraits of himself 
and the Duke de Duras. 

LOO, Ohablbs Am^d^b P9ilxppi van, (or Van. 
LOO,) was bom at RivoU in Savoy in 1719, and 
instructed by his father, Jean Baptiste van IjOo. 
in 1747 he became a member of the Academy at 
Paris, and was afterwards appointed court painter 
to the King of Prussia. In 1770 he returned to 
Paris, and oecame professor at the Academy, and 
in 1790 rector* s adjunct He died in Paris in 
1795. At Potsdam there is a painting by him of 
' Psyche watched by Cupid with a Lamp,* an ex- 
cellent performance in chiaroscuro. Other pictures 
by him are at Sanssouci. His works have beon 
engraved by Larmessin, Ch^reau, and Petit, 

LOO, Ohab(iE8 Anor^ van, (or Vani«oo,) usually 
known as Carls van LoOi a painter and sculptor, 
was bom at Nice in 1705. He was a son of Louis 
van Loo, and was instructed by his brother, Jean 
Baptiste, with whom he went to Rome, where he 
studied under Benedetto Luti, and learned sculpture 
under Le Oros« In 1719 they returned tg Turin, 
and thence to Paris, where in 1723 ha obtained the 
first prize for drawing, and in 1724 the first for 
painting, with * Jacob purif ving his House in order 
to make a Sacrifice to God. ^ After having in 1727 
again visited Rome, he obtained the first prize for 
design at the Academy of St. Luke, and was 
knighted bv the Pope. After this he returned to 
Paris, and became a member of the Academy In 
1735, a professor in 1737, director, of the Iloyal 
Art School in 1749, knight of the Order of St. 
Michael in 1751, rector of the Academy In 1754, 
court painter in 1762, and director of the Academy 
in 1763. He died of apoplexy in Paris in 1765. 
His best works are : 

Obuigow. OaUery. Qroup of four figoies pecsonr 

If jing the Seasons. 
Paris. Jjffuvrf, Moeaa caixying his fathsr 

Anchises. 
„ „ Ifuriage of tibe Virgin and St. 

Joseph. 
^ „ ^rtrait of Marie LeaoniiBka, 

Queen of Fraaoe. 
„ , Iphigenia. 

„ ^ Marsyas flayed by older of 

ApoUo. 
„ Petits Phre$, The History of St. Augustine. 

LOO, Ebnkst van, a Flemish landsci4)e and por- 
trait painter, was bom in 1825. He studied in the 
Academy of Ghent, and was employed on decora- 
tive work. He died at Ghent in 1860. 

LOO, Fban^ois van, (or Vanloo,) was bom at 
Aiz in 1711. He was a pupil of his father, Jean 
Baptiste van Loo, but he died at Turin in 1733 
from the effects of a fall from his horse. 

LOO, Jakob van, a portrait painter, was bora at 
Sluys in 1614. He was the son of Jan van Loo. 
From 1652 to 1660 he was at Amsterdam, and 
painted there portraits and figures of a small size for 
the landscapes of the elder \Vynants and Hobbema, 
Subsequently he settled in France, where he was 
naturalized, and in 1663 was received into the 
Academy upon his portrait of Michel Comeille the 
elder, executed in the style of Van Dyck, He died 
in Paris in 1670. Among his works are : 

Berlin. OdUery, Diana and Nymphs. 

Glasgow, Gallery, Susannah and the Elders. 

Paris. Louvrt, Portrait of Michel GomeOle, 

the elder. 
Petersburg. Ilermitage. The Concert. 
74 



LOO, Jan van, born at Loo, near Ghent, about 
1585, appears to have been the first artist of this 
family. There are by him two paintings in the 
Museum at Copenhagen, viz.; 

A Cknnpany of Drinkers and Gsmblen. , 

▲ GlaiuhBead Manufaetory. 

LOO, Jean Baptiste van, (or Vanloo,) bom at 
Aix, in Provence, in 1684, was first instructed by his 
father, Louis van Loo, and at an early age studied 
after the antique and the works of the great 
masters. He had acquired considerable reputation 
by some pictures he painted for the churcnes and 
public edifices at Toulon, when the siege of that 
place, in 1707, obliged him to return to Aix. At 
Toulon he married Marguerite Le Brun, the sister of 
Michel Le Brun, the miniature painter. After this 
he visited Nice, Monaco, and Genoa, and then went 
to Turin and worked two years for tlie Duke of 
Savoy and the Prince of Carignan. Being patron- 
ized by the latter he was enabled to go to Rome, 
where he attended the school of Benedetto Luti. 
In 1719 he accompanied tlie prince to Paris, and 
in 1737 he came to England, where, according 
to Walpole, his first woiiEs were the portraits of 
Colley Gibber and Owen MacSwinney, whose long 
silvery hair was extremely picturesque, and con- 
tributed to give the new painter reputation. He 
was favoured with the patronage of Sir Robert 
Walpole, by whom he was introduced to the Prince 
and Princess of Wales, whose portraits he painted. 
Van Loo soon bore away the chief busmess of 
London from every other painter. His likenesses 
were very striking, though not often flattering. 
His draperies and other accessories were usually 
painted by Van Aken and Van Loo*s scholars, 
Eckhardt and Root, He became a member of the 
Academy of Paris in 1740. In 1742 he found his 
health considerablv impaired, and he was advised 
to try the efEect ox the air of his native country, 
Provence, where he died at Aix in 1745. ^His first 
paintings are designed with correctness, but the 
numerous portraits which he had to execute were 
detrimental to his success in historical subjects. 
He restored some of the paintings of Giulio Romano 
and Primaticcio, and also etched a plate of ' Diana 
discovering Endymion in a Forest,* apparently from 
his own painting in the Louvre, which formed his 
reception piece at the Academy. Among his best 
works are: 

BruMsli. OeiUry. Diana and Endymion. 

Dannstadi. GMry. rortnits of Louis ZV. of 

Finnce, and his Queen, Marie 
JjdncantktL 
M ,, The Slaughter of Zedektah's 

" Children. 

Piris. Loum. Diana and Indymion. 

^ Institution of the Order of the 
Z Holy Ghost by Heniy HI. 

^' ci^J,^ } ^^^^ ~*«'^« Jeiu-alem. 
Petersburg Hermxtage, The Triumph of Oalatea. 
Rome. S.Jf.d4laScala, The FlageUation. 

LOO, JULKS CfcSAB Dbnib vah, (or Vanixk),) a 
French landscape painter, the son of Carle van 
Loo, was bom in Paris in 1743, He became an 
academician in 1784, and exhibited at the Salon 
from 1786 to 1817. He died in Paris in 1821. 

LOO, Louis VAN, (or Vanloo,) was bom at 
Amsterdam about 1641, and was instructed by his 
fiither, Jakob van Loo. He went to France, and 
obtained the first prize at the Academy, into which 
he would hava been admitted had not a duel 



£oo 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Lope4 



compelled him to retire to Nice. He settled at 
Aix in 1683, where several frescoes by him are 
still to be seen. There is by him at Toulon, in 
the chapel of the Black Penitents, one of his best 
prtidactions, '6t Francis.' He died at Nice in 
1718. 

LOO, Louis Michel van, (or Vanloo,) was bom 
at Toulon in 1707, and instructed by his father, 
Jean Baptiate von Loo. After having in 1725 ob- 
tained the first prize at the Academy with * Moses 
treading upon Pharaoh's Crown,* he went to Rome. 
On his return to Paris he became a member of the 
Academy in 1733 : after this he was appointed court 
painter to Philip V. of Spain, and received in 1748 
tlie Order of St Michael. After the death of Philip 
he went to Paris, and was elected director of the 
Royal School of Arts for the Nobility. He died in 
Paris in 1771. There is by him in the Louvre, 
'Apollo pursuing Daphne* (1733). 

LOO, PiETER VAN, a Dutch painter of landscapes, 
fruit, and flowers, was bom at Haarlem in 1*31. 
He commenced by painting choice specimens for 
the florists of his native city. He died in 1784. 

LOOFF, PiETFR, a Dutch engraver, flourished 
about the year 1630. He engraved some portraits, 
among which is one of A. van den Bremen. He 
also executed a print of Frederick Henry, Prince of 
Orange, drawn m a triumphal car. 

LOON, — VAN, a painter of birds, fruit, and 
flowers, was bom at Amsterdam in 1711, and died 
in 1787. 

LOON, H. VAN, a Flemish engraver, was probably 
a relation of Theodorus van Loon. He chiefly 
resided in Paris, where he engraved some plates 
for a work entitled * Les Forces de TEurope, ^pub- 
lished in Paris in 1695. They consist of fortifica- 
tions, plans of towns, &c, 

LOON, Pbteb van, a Flemish marine and his- 
torical painter, was bom at Antwerp in 1600, and 
died there in 1660. 

LOON, Thbodobus van, was bom at Louvain 
about 1595. It is not said by whom he was in- 
stmcted in his native country, but he went to Italy 
when he was young, and at Rome became acquainted 
with Carlo Maratti, whose style he particularly 
admired, and with whom he lived in habits of 
friendship. On his return to Brussels he painted a 
fine picture of the ' Nativity * for the Abbey of Dil- 
linghem, near that city, which gained him great 
reputation. He died in 1630. In the church of 
Bt Gery, at Bmssels, there is a series of pictures 
of the * Life and Passion of our Saviour,' which are 
much admired ; but his most esteemed performances 
are seven pictures of the * History of the Virgin,* 
at Aerschot, near Mechlin, which appear rather 
productions of the Roman tlian the Flemish school, 
and are entirely in the style of Carlo Maratti In 
the Bmssels Gallery is an ' Assumption * and an 
* Adoration of the Shepherds.' 

LOOS, — , a flower painter of Hamburg, who 
flourished in tlie first half of the 18th century, and 
gained a great reputation. He died in 1750. 

IX>08, Fribdrich, an Austrian landscape painter, 
was bom at Gratz in 1797, and died in 1856. In 
the Vienna Gallery is a landscape by this artist. 

LOOSE, Joannes Josephus de. See Ds Loose. 

LOOTEN, Jan, (or Lotbn,) who was bom about 
1618, probably at Amsterdam, painted in England 
during the reign of Charles II., and died here in 
1681. His pictures generally represent rocky and 
til ickly- wooded landscapes, and occasionally views 
of a quieter character, in which tlie figures were 



sometimes painted by Nicolaas Berchem. They are 
well executed and true to nature, but are somewhat 
spoiled by a too dark colouring. The Berlin Gallery 
has a * Landscape with a Stag Hunt,* dated 1659. 
In the Cassel Gallery is4i * Hunting Scene ' by him. 
Three * Landscapes* are in the Dresden Gallery; 
and the National Gallery contains one — a * River 
Scene,* with figures. Looten*8 works are also seen 
in private galleries in England, notably at Combe 
AoDey, Warwickshire, where there are no less than 
five. There also exist of his paintings : 

Copenhagen. Museum. A Fair in a Swiss Village. 
Rotterdam, Museum, A Forest Landscape. 105d. 

Vienna. lAeektenstein Gail. A Landscape. 1673. 

LOPEZ, Cristobal, a pupil of A. Sanchez CoelJo, 
became painter to John III. of Portugal. Ue 
painted many portraits of that prince and his 
family, and some good devotional pictures for the 
chapel at Belem. He died at Lisbon in 1 594. 

LOPEZ, Cbistobal, son of Josef Lopez of 
Seville, painted largely for the South American 
market, and left in fresco, in the church of AH 
Saints, a giant 'St. Christopher* and a 'Lust 
Supper.* He died in 1730. 

LOPEZ, DiEQO, a Spanish painter, was bom at 
Toledo about 1465. He studied under Antonio 
del Rincon, and became an excellent painter of 
frescoes and historical subjects. From 1495 to 
1508 he was engaged in decorating the catliedral 
of Toledo, and in 1519, in company with Alonzo 
Sanchez, he decorated the theatre of the University 
of Alcald de Henares. He died about 1580. 

LOPEZ, Fbancisco, was a scholar of Becerra, 
who painted creditably at Madrid in the reign of 
Philip XL (1556-1598). 

LOPEIZ, Francisco, was a pupil of Bartolommeo 
Cardncci, whom he assisted in pictures executed 
in 1595 for the church of San Felif^e el Real at 
Madrid, which was destroyed by fire in 1718. He 
was appointed painter in ordinary to Philip III. in 
1603, and painted a series representing tiie victories 
of Charles V. in the King's dressing-room at the 
Pardo. He also etched the third, sixth, and seventh 
plates for Vincenzo Carduccrs 'Dialogues on 
Painting.* 

LOPEZ, Gabfabo, bom at Naples about 1677, 
was an excellent painter of flowers, and therefore 
called ^ Gaspare del Fieri.* He studied under J. Bap- 
tiste Du Buisson, Andrea Belvedere, and at Rome, 
Venice, and Dresden. He settled subsequently at 
Florence, where he became court-painter to the 
grand-duke. He was murdered there in 1732. In 
the Vienna Gallery is a flower-piece by him. 

LOPEZ, Jaime, sumamed El Mudo, bom at 
Madrid, was a Spanish painter, who flourished in 
the 15th century. He decorated the Hermitage of 
our Lady of Prado. 

LOPEZ, JossF, a painter, bom aboujb 1650 at 
Seville, was a disciple of Murillo, who followed 
the style of that master, but confined himself 
chiefly to painting representations of the Virgin, 
A * St. Philip ' by him is in the convent of La 
Merced Calzada at Seville. 

LOPEZ, Pedro, a Spanish painter, was a scholar 
of El Greco. He painted, among many others, the 
magnificent picture of the * Adoration of the Kings * 
in the convent of the Trinitarians at Toledo ; it bears 
his name, and the date 1608. 

LOPEZ CABALLERO, Andrea, a St)anish 
painter, bom in 1 647, was a Neapolitan by birth, 
but studied at Madrid under Antolinez. He devoted 

75 



I^opes Oaro 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP 



liOroBsetti 



himself chiefly to portrait painting, though in 
Madrid is a picture of * Christ and the Maries/ 

LOPEZ CARO, Fbanciscx)^ a Spanish painter, was 
born at Seville in 1598. He was a pupil of Juan 
de Las Roelas, and devoted himseif to portrait 
painting. He died at Madrid in 1662. 

LOP£Z T PALOMINO, Francisco, wsb a Spanish 
painter, who flourished in the 18th century. He 
studied at Madrid, and in 1759 became a member 
of the Academy of San Fernando. He excelled 
chiefly in portraiture, though he also painted some 
genre pictures. 

LOPEZ Y PIQUER, Bebnabdo, was bom at 
Valencia in 1801. He was a pupil of his father 
Vicente Lopez y Portufia, and was distinguished 
for his portraits. He died at Madrid in 1874. 

LOi^EZ Y PORTANA, Vicente, a Spanish 
painter, was born at Valencia in 1772. In the 
Madrid Qallery m an allegorical picture and several 

Portraits, among which is that of the painter, 
rancisco Goya. He died at Madrid in 1850. 
LOPICINO, Giovanni Baitista, (or Lupicini,) 
an Italian painter, who flourished at Florence 
about 1625, was a pupil of Cigoli. At Pistoja, in 
the church of San Domenichino, are several figures, 
and in the Vienna Gallery is a picture representing 
* Martha and Mary.' 

LOQUEYSSIE, Emilib von, a painter of portraits 
and miniatures, was bom at Dresden in 1787, and 
gained a considerable reputation. 

LORCH, Mblchiob, (or Lorich, or Lorichs,) a 
Danish painter and engraver, was bom in 1527 at 
Flensburg in Schleswig. He worked first with a 
goldsmith at Lubeck, and then set out on his 
travels, and visited Germany, the Low Countries, 
and Italy. An opportunitv of going to Turkey 
presenting itself, he availed himself of it, and so 
far gained the confidence of the Sultan as to 
engrave his portrait. After his return he stayed 
some time at Copenhagen, and then visited Con- 
stantinople a second time. He was made court- 
painter at Copenhagen in 1582. He is said by 
some authors to have died at Rome in 1586, but 
others state that he was living in 1594. His 
woodcuts are executed in a bold, free style ; and 
his copper-plates are engraved with great neatness 
and aelicacy. He sometimes signed his prints 
with his name, and sometimes marked them with 

the monogram 'TWfj ., vrith the date. The fol- 
lowing are by him : 

COPPEB-PLATSS. 

Portrait of Martin Luther. 

Portrait of Albrecht Diirer. 1550. 

Aristoteles Stagirites Philosophus; with the cipher. 

1561. 
St. Jerome at prayer. 1546. 
A Woman's Head. 1551. 
Two Portraits of the Grand Sigoior and his favourite 

Sultana ; very scarce. 
The Orane. 1549. 
TheBasiUsk. 1546. 
Apollo. 
Portrait of Angre de Bosbec. 1557. 

WOODCDTS, 

A set of 122 Prints of the Habits, Oostoms, &a of the 
Turks ; dated from 1570 to 1581. 

A Sibyl. 1671. 

A woman standing, pressing her breasts, with a variety 
of animals below, with an inscription at the top, ^p8 
Saturni conjux que imaUT Scornm ; dated 1565. 

A Lady in full dress. 1551. 

The Delnge ; a large print* in two sheets. 
76 



LORDON, PiEBRB J6r0mb, a French painter, 
was bom at Guadeloupe in 1780. He was a pupil 
of the Polytechnic School, and became a sub- 
lieutenant m the Artillery, but abandoned arms 
for art. He was a friend of Prud'hon, and became 
his most famous pupil. He died in Paris in 1838, 
Among his works are : 

The DeliTeranoe of Oimon. 1810. 

The Expulsion of Hagar. 1812. 

Hagar in tbe Desert. 1814. 

The Annunciation. 

St. Mark. 

Death of Semiramia (Dijon Museum.) 

Henry IV. after the Battle of Oourtras. 

LORENTE, Felix, was a Spanish painter, bom 
at Valencia in 1712, whose best works are to be 
found in the churches of that city. He died there 
in 1787. 

LORENTINO, Agnolo di, called Lorkktino ni 
Arezzo, flourished in the 15th century. At Arezzo, 
his native town, on the door of the church of San 
Domenico, is a ' Madonna and Saints * by this artist. 

LORENTZEN, Christian August, was born at 
Sonderborg in Denmark in 1749, and received his 
first instruction in art at the Academy of Copen- 
hagen. He then travelled through Holland and 
France, after which he returned to his own country, 
where he gained a considerable reputation. He 
died in 1828. 

LORENZ, Friedrich Gottlob, a landscape 
painter, bom at Dresden in 1722, was a pupil of Louis 
de Silvestre and Johann C. Turner. He died about 
1790. 

LORENZ, J. D., was a German engraver, who 
worked about 1765, and among whose works are : 

The Vision of Jacob ; after JBocktberyer, 

St. Sebastian ; after Diirer. 

The Last Sapper ; after Rembrandt. 

LORENZETTI, Ambrooio, was the son of one 
Lorenzo of Siena, and the younger brother of 
Pietro Lorenzetti, with whom he frequently worked 
in concert. The dates of his birth and death are 
both uncertain, and the first records known of him 
commence in 1323. According to Tizio, his 
earliest frescoes were those painted in 1331 in the 
cloisters of San Francesco, Siena. Ohiberti very 
highly praised them, and when . seen by him they 
represented the lives and martyrdoms of certain 
Franciscan friars ; but their remains, which are now 

E reserved in one of the chapels of the church, 
ardly seem to merit his encomiums. He is 
recorded to have executed certain frescoes illus- 
trative of the Creed and the Life of St. Catharine, 
in the church of Sant* Agostino, Siena, but they 
have now almost completely disappeared. In 1335 
he went to Cortona, and painted frescoes in the 
church of Santa Margherita, which are now lost On 
his return to Siena he painted in the cathedral, and 
aided his brother Pietro in the frescoes at the 
Spedale. From 1337 to 1339 he was occupied 
in decorating the Sala della Pace of the Palazzo 
Pubblico, Siena, witli three immense frescoes, 
which represent allegorically the ' Advantages of 
Peace * and of ' Justice,* and the * Evils caused by 
Tvranny * (or, as they are often called, * The Results 
of Good and Bad Government '). These paintings 
are now damaged by time, especially the one last 
named ; but enough remains to fully justify the 
praises bestowed upon them by Ghiberti, who saw 
them in their prime. In 1340 Ambrogio completed 
for one hundred and thirty-five gold florins an altap* 
piece for the cathedral of Siena, called * La Tayola 



Ii<yrexiBetti 



PAINTERS AND ENQRAVERa 



LorexuBO 



di San Grescenzo/ which is lost. The last record 
known of this artist is a payment made to him for 
work done for the Sala do Nove in 1345, which has 
also disappeared. It is not imlikely that he died 
of the plague in 1348, at the age^ as stated by 
Vasari, of eighty-three. Among extant works by 
him are the following : 

Florenoe. Academy, Flrasentation in the Temple. 1S42. 
„ f, Two panels with floenea from the 

Lives of St. Nicholas and St. 

Proculns. 
Siena. Academy, Madonna dei Donzelli. 1344. 

LORENZETTI, Giovanni Battista, a native of 
Verona, flourished about 1640. He painted several 
firescoes in the churches of Verona. 

LORENZETTI, Pietro, called by Vasari Pibtro 
Laurati, whose father's name was Lorenzo, was 
born in the latter part of the 13th century, and first 
appears as an artist in 1305, when he received one 
hundred and ten livres for painting part of an 
altar-piece at Siena, called ' La Tavola dei Nove.' 
In 1326 he painted an altar-piece for the ^casa 
deir opera * ox the cathedral of oiena, where can still 
be seen four panels belonging to it, with SS. Mary 
Magdalene, Catharine, Francis, and Romualdo. The 
church of oant' Ansano, outside Siena, possesses an 
altar-piece with his signature, and the date 1329. 
It is a 'Madonna and Child, with four Angels, 
between SS. Anthony and Nicholas.* In 1333 he 
painted the 'Madonna' above the new portal of 
the catt.edral, which in 1357 had to be restored by 
Luca di Tom^ ; and in 1335 he executed an altar- 
piece called * di San Savino/ for the same building. 
In that same year Pietro, in conjunction with his 
younger brother Ambrogio, painted the ' Marriage 
of tlie Virgin' on the front of the Spedale of 
Siena, which was destroyed in 1720. A long series 
of frescoes have recently been rescued from white- 
wash in the church of San Francesco in Siena, 
which admirably show Pietro's style and finish. 
They represent different incidents in the Passion, 
from the ' Entry into Jerusalem ' up to the ' Resur- 
rection,' also the 'Miracle of the Stigmata of St. 
Francis,' and the episode of the ' Death of Judas.' 
These frescoes are remarkable for their vigour and 
harmony, and show Pietro to have possessed great 
talents both as a colourist and a draughtsman. 
The Campo Santo, Pisa, contains some frescoes by 
him (for some time ascribed to Orcagna), which, 
although very considerably damaged by damp and 
by time, still show how great his ability as an artist 
was. These frescoes illustrate different legends 
of the lives of the saints and hermits in the The- 
baide, and are admirable in the diversity of their 
incidents, and in the truth and force with which 
they are depicted. The date of Pietro' s death is 
uncertain, bat it is probable that he died in 1348, 
when the plague aevastated Italy. Among his 
extant works are the following : 



Pieve, 
OalUry, 

S, Marco, 
UJiti, 



Berlin. 

Oortona. 
FloreDce. 

mm mm 

London. yiiU, Gall, 

Monte Polciano. JftV 

erieordia, 

Biena. Academy. 



] 



Borne. 



Jfitsto Oris- 
tiano. 



The Virgin and Child, with Samts. 
Madonna and Child, with Saints, 

and five other examples. 
A Crucifix. 

The Thebaide in Egypt. 
Madonna and Saints. 1340. 
A Legendary Subject. 

Coronation of the Virgin. 

Two panels with Scenes from the 

Cannelite Annals, and five other 

examples. 
Sight small panels illustrative of 

the Martyrdom of St. Stephen 

and other Saints. 



LORENZETTI, Sano, or Ansano di Pietbo, a 
native of Siena, flourished in the 16(h century. In 
the Palazzo Pubblico are several frescoes by this 
artist, representing the ' Coronation of the Virgin,* 
and a ' Madonna,' painted in 1459. 

LORENZI, Francksco, an Italian painter, was 
bom at Verona in 1719. He was a pupil of J. B. 
Tiepolo. Uis ^ Holy Family ' at Brescia and his 
frescoes at Verona show great sweetness of colour 
and outline. He died in 1783. 

LOKENZI, LoRhiNzo, an Italian engraver, was a 
native of Vulterra, who flourished about 1760. Ho 
was a pupil of Cigna, and engraved part of tlie 
plates from the pictures in the cabinet of the 
Marquis Gerini. Among his principal works are : 

The Sternal Father between Adam and Eve; after 

Furini, 
The Virgin and Child ; after Annibale Carraeei, 
Landscape ; after Titian, 
Psyche and Cupid ; after Manozei. 

LORENZINI, Pra Antonio, or Gianantonio, a 
Bolognese painter and engraver, was bom in 1665, 
and was a scholar of Lorenzo Pasinelli. He is 
little known as a painter, as he devoted himself in 
the early part of his life entirely to engraving. 
In 1699 he was employed at Florence, in coniuno* 
tion with Theodor Verkruis, Mogalli, and others, 
to engrave the pictures in the gallery of the grand- 
duke, sometimes found collected in a single volume 
under the title of ^ Gallery of the Grand-Duke of 
Tuscany,' in a set containing one hundred and 
forty-seven subjects, engraved on one hundred 
and sixty-seven plates. He died in 1740. Nag- 
ler gives a list of seventy-six engravings by him. 
His plates are almost entirely etched, and the 
following are the principal : 

St. Anthony of Padua working a Miracle ; after Pa^ 

sinelli. 
The Martyrdom of St. Ursula ; after the tame, 
St. John preaching in the Wilderness ; after the eame. 
The Ascension ; at'ier L. Carracei. 
The Vir^n and Child ; after Ayostino Carracei, • 
St. Dommick taken up into Heaven ; after Guide, 
St. Philip Neri kneeling before the Virgin ; after C» 

Maratti, 
St. John, surrounded by Angels ; after Correggio^ 
The Annunciation ; afUr Paolo P'eronese, 
The Baptism of Christ ; after ths same. 
The Baising of Jjazarus ; after the same, 
Noah building the Ark ; after Giacomo Baasano, 
St. Augustine, with a glory of Angels ; after Tintoretto^ 
Joseph sold by his Brethren ; after Andrea del Sarto, 
Joseph governing Eeypt ; after the tame, 
David with the Head of Goliath ; after Ouereino. 
Christ with the Disciples at Bmmaus ; after the eame. 
St. Peter delivered from Prison ; after the same. 
The Holy Women at the Sepulchre; after Pietro da 

Cortona. 
Venus and Cupid ; after Carlo Ciffnani. 

LORENZO, Don, called II Monaco, a Camal- 
dolese monk of the convent of the Angeli at 
Florence, was bom about 1370, and probably iu- 
strncted by Agnolo Gaddi, though his style re- 
sembles that of Spinello Aretino, as well as of Fra 
Angelico. His figures are expressive of religious 
feeling, but somewhat cold. As a miniaturist lie 
is most successful in his smaller works. He died 
in 1425. His best performances are : 

f The Coronation of the Virgin^ 



Ceneto. 



Certaldo. 



Camaldolese\ 
Abbey, 



I 



with side pictures of the 
Adoration of the Magi and 
of the Shepherds, and scenes 
from the life of St. Bernard. 
1413. 

Sig, Landi. The Coronation of the Virgin; 
of a small size. 

77 



I«orenso 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Loth 



Florence. Montt Oliveto. 
6\ TrinitH, 
VJizi, 



>» 
n 



» 



,t Academy, 

London. Nat, Gallery, 

Paris. Mu$ie de Cluny, 



Empoli. Church. The Virgin and Child, with 

Saints. 14<)4. 

Madonna, with Saints. 

The Annunciation. 

Adoration of the Magi. 

Christ on the Cross. 

The Virgin. 

St. John. 

The Annunciation. 

The Laterals of the < Corona- 
tion of tlie Virgin 'at Certaldo. 

Christ on the Mount of Olives. 

The Three Maries at the Sepul- 
chre. 

„ Louvre, St. Lawrence, St. Agnes, and SI. 

Margaret. 

LORENZO, Bicci m. See Biccr. 

LORENZO, FiORENZo Di. See Fiorenzo. 

LORENZO, Fbancesco, called Lorenzo di 
Vkrona, was born at Verona in 1719. He painted 
historical and allegorical subjects and landscapes. 

LORENZO, PiBuo DI. See Piero. 

LORENZO DEL SiGNOR GuiDO. See LoLi. 

LORENZO Di BICCI. See Bicci. 

LORENZO Di NICC0L6. See Gerini. 

LORENZO DI PIETRO, called II Veochietta, 
>va8 bom at Castiglione di Valdorcia, in the province 
of Siena, about 1412. He was a painter, a gold- 
smith, a sculptor, and an architect ; but he did not 
succeed well in any one of these branches of art 
Siena possesses in the Palazzo Pubblico and in the 
sacristy of the Spedale remains of frescoes by 
him, which have been recently freed from m 
covering of whitewlLsh. An altar-piece by him is 
in the cathedral of Pienza, and the gallery of the 
UfRzi possesses a siKr^ed work by Ids hand. The 
dates on Lorenzo di rietro's paintings extend from 
1441 to 1457. He died in 1480. 

LORENZO DI VITERBO, was a painter of the 
15th century, who executed a famous fresco repre- 
senting the ' Marriage of the Virgin,' in a chapel 
of the Servite Church at Viterbo. 

LORENZO VENEZIANO. See Vknkziano. 

LORI, Gabriel. See Lory. 

LOR I CHS, Melchior. See Lorch. 

LORIONE. This name is affixed to a slight 
etching of ruins in a landscape, with several 
figures. It appears to be the work of a painter. 

LORME, Dk. See De Lorme. 

LORRA IN, Claude. SeeGELL^E. 

LORRAINE, Jean Baptiste de, a French en- 
graver, mentioned by Basan, was born in Paris in 
1737, and died at the end of the 18th century. 
He engraved some plates of portraits, and other 
subjects. 

LORY, Gabriel, (or Lori,) a Swiss painter and 
engraver, was boni at Berne about 1763. He 
worked first at Berne, and about 1806 at Herisau, 
from whence he went to assist Osterwald in 
Keufch&tel. He died in 1840. He was a superior 
landscape painter, and among his productions 
are : 

SeTeral collections of Swiss Views ; executed in eonjunc 

Hon with I/ifond and Zehnder, 
A collection of Kiissijm Views ; exeatted conjointly tcith 

his son GeoTfft who vws bam in 1795. 
Romautic Journeys over the Simplon ; the same. 
The Bernese Bathing Girl. 

LOSCHER, Andreas, was bom at Schaffenstein 
in Bavaria. He spent some time in Venice and 
Rome, and afterwards went to Augsburg, where he 
devoted himself to portrait painting. He died in 
1762. 

78 



LOSCni, Bilrnakdino, the son of Jacopo Loschi, 
was born at Parma in 1489. He painted an altar- 
piece, now in the Gallery of Modena, representing 
the * Vii^in and Child, between SS. Anthony and 
Nicholas, with four Angels,* signed by him in 1515. 
He was also the author of many paintings and 
frescoes in the churches and the caatie of Carpi, 
where he died whilst in the service of Alberto Pio, 
in 1540. 

LOSCHI, Jacopo, was born at Parma in 1459. 
He painted in 1488 a standard and an altar-piece 
fur ban Giovanni, Parma ; and in 1496 he produced 
the * Virgin and Child' for the Servi at Carpi, a 
picture that afterwards became famous for its 
miracles, but which has been lost since 1707. The 
Gallery of Parma possesses a * Madonna and Child,* 
signed by him in 1471 ; and in the Gall ry at 
Modena is a ' Magdalene.' Many of the churches 
in that city possess paintings by him an<I by his 
father-in-law, Bartolommeo Grossi. Loschi died at 
Carpi in 1504. 

LOSENKO, Anton Pavlovich, a Russian his- 
torical painter, was bom at Gluchov in 1737. He 
studied at the Academy of St. Petersburg, and 
afterwards travelled through France and Italy. He 
returned to St Petersburg, where he gained great 
reputation, and became Director of the Academy. 
He died there in 1773. 

LOSSOW, Friedrich, was bom at Munich in 
1837, and entered the Academy of that city, where 
from 1860 he studied the technicalities of the art 
under Piloty. For tlie most part, however, he was 
his own instructor, and distinguished himself as a 
painter of anitnak and of humorous pieces, which 
appeared in the * Miinchoncr Bilderbogen ' and in 
the 'Fliegende Blatter.' He died at Munich in 
1872. The following works by him may be men- 
tioned : 

The Story of the Little Roe. 

The Fable Book. 

The House Dog. 1860. 

Dog with Puppies. 

Rat-Oatching. 1861 and 1862. 

Dog aud Monkey Travelling Performance. 1806. 

Skye Terrier in a Child's Carriage. 

LOSSOW, Karl, was bom at Munich in iaS6, 
and studied at the Academy of that city. "On 
visiting Italy in 1856 he became acquainted with 
the Hereditary Prince George of Saze-Meiningen, 
who employed him in his Villa Carlotta at Lake 
Como. He died at liome in 1861. Among his 
paintings for Prince George are the following : 

Horand courting Hilda, the daughter of King Hagen, 

on behalf of Hettel, King of toe Danes; scene from 

* Gudrim.' 
Hagen carried off bv Greif , and how he maintained the 

Fight with the elder Greif. 
Three Cartoons taken from Uhland's • Chapel.' 
Heine's * King's Child/ and a Hauting Song. 
A Cartoon representing the Taking of the Town of 

the Malli by Alexander the Great. 

LOTEN, Jan. See Looten. 

LOTH, Franz, a German painter, was bom at 
Munich in 1641. He was a brother of Johann Karl 
Loth, with whom he visited Venice, where he resided 
for several years. In 1699 he returned to Munich, 
where he died in 1701. 

LOTH, Johann Karl, called in Italy Carlotto, 
was born at Munich in 1632. He was tlie son 
of Johann Ulrich Loth, under whom he studied 
for a short time, and then went to Venice, where 
he worked under Pietro Liberi. After painting 
some historical pictures at Venice, he went to 



XiOih 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVEilS. 



Louis 



Vienna, whore be painted portraits of tbe Emperor 
and other diaiingoiahed penK^nagea. In the churoh 
of the Leaser Hospital at Venice is a picture of a 
* Dead Christ*; in the ohurch of San Giovanni Ori- 
Bostoino ifl an altar^piecSy representing the ' Death of 
St. Joseph * ; and other works are to be found in 
the galleries of Augsbarg, Bordeauj^ Brunswick, 
Cassel, Dreeden, Munich) and Vienna. He died at 
Venice in 1698. 

LOTH, JoBAHH UlbicB, was born at Munich 
about 1690, and was first instnioted bj his father, a 
painter on glass, and afterwards by Pietro Candido ; 
ue probably studied also under Carlo Saraceno at 
Venice during 1 GIO-'IS. After returning to Munich, 
be became about 1620 court painter to the Elector 
Maximilian. He died at that city in 1662. He 
painted in oil, water-colours, and miniature. His 
best works are considered to be : 

AugBbnrg. OaUeiy^ Seveial prodoetioas. 

Mnnicfa. PeUrskirciu, The Last Supper. 

HaliggeitikiTekt, The Desoent of the Holy 

abort. 

liOTH, OiroTRtO, a painter, was bom at Naples in 
1662. He was a pupil of Buoppoli, and painted 
fruit and flowers. He died at Naples in 1717. 

LOTTEH, Tobias Conrad, a German engraver, 
was bom at Augsburg in 1717, and died in 1777. 

LOTTES, CliKisTiAN, a German engraver, was 
bom at Nuremberg in 1701. He Worked also at 
Augsburg, and died in 1740. 

LOTTI, Cosmo, was a painter atid meohanioian 
of Florence, in the service of Philip IV. of Spain. 
He f umished the marine and woodland scenery for 
Lope de Vegans pastoral drama, * Selva de Amor.' 

LOTTO, LoRSNZO, was bom about 1480, pro- 
bably at Treviso. He is said to have learned his 
art from Andrea Previtale, and to have gone in 
early life to Venice, where, according to Vasari, he 
became the journeyman and friend of Palma 
Vecchio, and also studied under both Giovanni 
Bellini and Giorgione. His earliest known paint- 
ings are a * Holy Conversation ' in the Borghese 
Palace, Rome, and an altar-piece belonging to the 
church of San Domenico, Becanati, both having 
the date of 1508. The ohurch of San Floriano at 
Jeai has an * Entombment,' painted by him in 1512, 
and of about this date is the altar-piece of the 
church of San Pietro Martire, at Alzano, represent- 
ing the < Death of St Peter Martyr/ In 1513 
Alessandro Martinengo of Bergamo chose Lotto 
from amongst the Bergamese artists to paint the 
altar-piece for the church of San Stefano. and 
agreed to pay him five hundred ducats in gold for 
it Lotto took three years to complete this immense 
work, which was first exhibited in 1616, and then 
consisted of a central panel with a ' Virgin and 
Child enthroned, attended by Angels, and adored 
by SSl Dominick, Alexander, Barbara, Roch, Mark, 
Stephen, John the Baptist, Augustine, and Sebas-> 
tian"; a triangular tympanum with an * Angel bearing 
the Orb and Sceptre (both of which are now in 
the church of San Bartolommeo at Bergamo) ; and a 
predella containing the * Resurrection,' the ' Stoning 
of St Stephen,* and a ' Miracle of St. Dominick/ 
which is now in the Picdnelli Collection at Seriate, 
near Bergamo. Existing records prove that at this 
same period Lotto painted a standard for the 
Brotherhood of Mercy at Bergamo, designed many 
of the cartoons for the * tarsias ' in Santa Maria 
^i^giore, and furnished the two large altar-pieces 
of the churches of San Spirito and San Bernardino, 
Bergamo. In 1524^ at the request of the Suardi 



family, he decorated the chapel of St Burbara, at 
Novate, near Trescorre, with frescoes illustrating 
the lives of St Barbara and another saint, which^ 
although much injured, can be still seen. Soon 
afterwards were completed the fresco of the 
' Visitation' in the church of San Michele Aroangelo, 
Bergamo, and the * Glory of St. Dominick ' in the 
church of the same name at Recanati. In 1526 
Lotto left Bergamo and travelled towards Venice, 
where he remained for some years. He is known 
to have been in Treviso in 1644, and to have there 
valued an altar-piece painted by Francesco Beoa* 
ruzaL In 1550 he was at Ancona, where he painted 
the altar-piece Of the ' Madonna and Angets) with 
four Saints/ for the church of Santa Maria della 
Pace, and also agreed to paint seven canvases for 
the church of Loreto, whioh are now to be seen in 
the governor's palace in that town* Lotto died 
at Loreto soon after 1654. This painter's most 
celebrated altar-piooes are to be seen in the churclies 
of the Carmine and SS^ Giovanni e Paolo, Venice, 
the cathedral of Asola, and at Monte San Giusto, 
near Anoona, where the churoh possesses a ' Cruci- 
fixion,' containing twenty-three life-size figures. 
Besides these the following are extant : 



Bergamo. XocAtj-Cor- 
rara CoiL 



S. BartolaiMMO, 






Berlin. 

tl 



o. Benutrdtno, 
S, MicheU, 



& Spirito, 
Gailtry, 

$9 
»» 



BrtjKcia. ISsi Galierif. 

Florence. Vffln. 

^ Pitti Fal. 

Hampton Court. Pal. 

London. Aat. GalUry, 






>» 



Marriage of St. Catharine. 

1512. 
, Adoration of the Sleeping 

Christ. 1533. 
Virgin surrounded by Saints 

and Angels. 1516. 
Virgm and Child. 1521. 
Freicoes: The Anuunciation, 

Visitation, Marriage of the 

Virgin. 
Virgin surrounded by Saints 

and Angels. 1521. 
Christ parting from his Mother. 

1521. 
SS. Christopher and Sebastian. 

1531. 
His own Portrait. 
Portrait of an Architect. 
Portrait of a Young Man. 
Nativity. 

HolyFamilv. 1534. 
The Three Ages. 
Portrait of Andrea OdonL 

1527. 
Portraits of Agostino and 

Kicoold deUa Torre. 1515. 
A Family Group. 
Madonna and Child, with 

Saints. 
Marsilio and his Bride, with a 

figure of Amor. 1523. 
APieta. 
Three Portraits. 
Marriage of St. Catharine. 
The Woman taken in Adultery. 
Holjr Family. 
Penitence of St. Jerome. 
Portrait of a Man. 
Marriaffe of St. Catharine. 1524. 
The Virgin and St. Onofrio. 

1508. 
Chastity. 
The Virgin adored hy SS. 

Catharine and James. 

LOTYN, Jan, a native of Brussels, was a flower 
painter employed a long time by Queen Mary II. 
of England, after whose death he returned to his 
native city, where he died after 1695. 

LOUIS, Leonard FRANgois, a portrait painter, 
was bom at the Hague in 1698, and was a pupil of 
Pieter van Kink and Jan Vollevens. He died at 
the Hague in 1786. 

79 



Bridffetoater Gal. 
Madrid. Gallery. 

Milan. Srera, 



Munich. 
Paris. 



Gallery, 
Louvre. 



M 



w 



Petersbnrg. Hermitage. 

Borne. Quirinal. 

„ BoryheH Pal. 

M Sospifflion Pal. 

Vienna. Gallery. 



liOund 



A BIOQRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Iidwenatenir 



LOUND, Thomas, a landscape painter in o3 
and water-coloars, was bom in 1803. He was 
engaged in the brewing trade at Norwich, and 
pursued art as a recreation. His works appeared at 
the Royal Academy from 1846 to 1855. He died at 
Norwich in 1861. There is a water-colour drawing 
of ^Framlingham Castle' by him in the South 
Kensington Museum. 

LOUTHBRBOURG, Phiuppb Jacques de, was 
bom at Strassburg in 1740. He was the son and 
pupil of a miniature painter, who settled in 
Faris, where his son was placed under the tuition 
of Tischbein and Francesco Casanova, and became 
a very popular painter of battles, hunts, sea- 
pieces, and landscapes, with figures and cattle, 
in which last he at that time appears to have 
imitated the charming style of Nicolaas Berchem. 
His works werv3 universally admired, and in 1768 
be was made a member of the Academy of Paint- 
ing in Paris, and afterwards appointed court painter 
by the king. Though he met with very flattering 
encouragement, he in 1771 quitted France, and 
settled in London, where he passed the remainder 
of his life. Soon after his arrival in England he 
was employed to make the designs for the scenes 
and decorations of Drury Lane Theatre, and in 
that province of art he displayed extraordinary 
ability. In 1780 he was elected an Associate of 
the Royal Academy, and in 1781 became an Aca- 
demician. He died at Chiswick in 1812. When 
Macklin projected his Bible, De Loutherbourg was 
engaged to exercise his powers as a historicul 
paititer ; on which occasion lie painted two pictures, 
representing the ' Angel destroying the Assyrian 
Host/ and the ^ Universal Deluge ' ; the latter was 
considered as his best performance in that depart- 
ment. Besides a great variety of easel pictures, 
De Loutherbourg occasionally employed his talents 
on a larger scale, in commemoration of the most 
remarkable military and naval events of the time. 
Among his most noted paintings are : 

The Review of Warlej Camp. ( Aoyo/ Collsetion.) 
Lord Howe*8 Yictoryof the 1st June, 1794. (Oreenwieh 

Hospital.) 
The Defeat of the Spanish Armada. {Ihg msm.) 
The Siege of Yaleuoienues. 
The Landing of the English in Egrpt. 
Victory of Admiral Duncan over the Dutch, 1797. 
The Fire of London, 1666. 
Miranda. 

View of Skiddaw. 

View of a Lead Mine in Oumberland. 
Landscape and Cattle ; thuii dentorm. {Olatgow Oallery.) 
Two Landscapes. {Bordeaux Museum.) 

He has left the following and other etchings : 

Six plates of Peasants. 

Six plates of Soldiers. 

The Foar Times of the Day. 

LOUVEMENT, FRANgois dk, a French engravei, 
was bom at Nevers in 1648. He is said by Florent 
Le Comte to have resided some time in Italy, at 
the time when Francois de Poi I ly studied at Naples. 
He died about 1690. He engraved several plates 
after the Italian masters, including Lanfranco, 
Solimena, and others, among which are : 

The Stoning of St. Stephen ; after Pietro da Cortona. 
St. Francis Xavier interceding for the Plague-stricken ; 
after Ciro Ferri. 

LOUVION, Jean Marie, a French engraver, was 
bom at Versailles in 1740. He studied under 
Fossard, and worked chiefly for the booksellers. 
He died in 1804. 

80 



LOUW, PiETER, a Dutch painter and engraver, 
was bom at Amsterdam in 1720. He spent most 
of his time in drawing from the best masters. 
In 1743 he was made a member of the Academy, 
and in 1768 one of the Directors. He died be- 
tween 1794 and 1800. 

LOUYS, Jan, (or Lots,) a Flemish engraver, was 
born at Antwerp about Uie year 1600. He was a 
pupil of Pieter Soutman, at the time when Suyder- 
hoef studied under that master, and ho engraved 
several plates after his instructor's designs. The 
following are his principal prints : 

PORTRAITS. 

Philip the Qood, Duke of Burgundy ; after Soutman, 
Louis XIIL, King of France ; after Rubens, 
Anne of Austria, his Queen ; after the same. 
Philip lY., King of Spain ; after the same. 
Elizabeth of Bourbon, his Queen ; after the same. 
Francois Thomas of Savoy, Prince of Garignan ; after 
Van Dyek. 

SUBJECTS AFTER YARIOnS MASTERS. 

The Resurrection of Lazarus ; a fine copy from the 

priut by J. Uevens. 
St. Anthonv ; after Albrecht Durer, 
Diana and her Kymphs reposing after the Ohase ; after 

Rubens. 
The Interior of a Dutch Kitchen ; after Ostade, 
Peasants amusing themselves ; after J., Bath, 
A Dutch Kitchen ; after JV, Kalf, 

LOVELL, Pbreqrinb, an engraver who flourished 
about the middle of the 16th century, worked in 
the Style of Hollar. There are some small en- 
gravings of Flemish soldiers by him, and speci- 
mens of his work will also be found in Delia Bella's 
Drawing-Book (1634). 

LOVEU, Samuel, an Irish miniature and land- 
scape painter, was born at Dublin in 1797. He early 
obtained a reputation for his miniatures, and was 
elected a member of the Hibernian Academy in 
1822. Much of his time was taken up by giving 
entertainments illustrative of Irish character. He 
also achieved a considerable literary reputation 
by his novels, and had a civil list pension of £100. 
Many of his landscapes and portraits were ex* 
hibited at the Roval Academy. ' During his last 
years he lived in «Jersey, where he died in 1868. 

LOWE, JoHANN MioHABL SiEOFRiBD, a German 
painter and engraver, was bom at Konigsberg in 
1756. He studied first at Berlin, and afterwards 
went to Dresden. He visited Venice and Vienna, 
and in 1780 went to Russia, where he stayed some 
time, returning to Berlin in 1795. He painted 
portraits and nistorical subjects, and iVas living 
in 1822. 

LOWE, Mauritius, an historical painter, was 
bom about the middle of the 18th century. He 
was a pupil of Cipriani, and studied in the schools 
of the Royal Academy, where in 1769 he was the 
first gold medallist for historical painting. Sent 
to Rome, he forfeited the travelling studentship by 
non-compliance with the conditions. He had a 
contest with the Academy in 1783 as to the recep- 
tion of his picture of the * Deluge,' and was much 
befriended oy Dr. Johnson. Improvident and ill- 
conditioned by nature, his circumstances were 
aggravated by an imprudent marriage, and he 
gradually sank out of public notice. He died in 
Westminster in 1793. 

LOWENSTERN, Christian Ludwig von, was 
born at Darmstadt in 1702. In the Museum of. 
that town is a battle-piece by this artist. He died 
in 1755. 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Lucas 



LOWRY, RoBEBT. See Laurie. 
LOWRY, Strickland, a portrait painter, 
flourished in the latter part of the 18th century. 
He was a native of Whitehaven, where he practised, 
as well as in Dublin, Shropshire, Staffordshire, and 
Worcestershire, obtaining a considerable local 
Tppatation. He furnished some illustrations for 
Phillips's * History and Antiquities of Shrewsbury,' 
1779. 

LOWRY, Wilson, was bom at Whitehaven in 
1762. He was the son of Strickland Lowry, and 
was by him taken when a child to Ireland. After- 
wards, while still a boy, he worked as a house 
painter at Worcester, and also began to practise 
engraving. At the age of seventeen he was in 
London, and was admitted into tlie schools of 
the Royal Academy. Few of his earlier plates 
bear his name, having been executed for other 
artists, to whose fame they contributed. He en- 
graved most of the plates on mechanical subjects 
in Rees's 'Cyclopaedia,' Cnibbes 'Technological 
Dictionary,' the 'Philosophical Magazine,' and 
other works of a like kind. His mathematical 
knowledge of drawing, his researches in tlie laws 
of mechanics, his extensive acquaintance with 
physics and the general properties of matter and 
form, combined with the correctness of an eye that 
never erred, and a hand that could not deviate, 
highly qualified him for such work. Some of the 
finest specimens of his abilities, as an architectural 
engraver, are to be found in the plates of Murphy's 
'Batalha,' Nicholson's * Architecture,' the print of 
tlie House of Commons at Dublin, and Gandon's 
designs. He died in London, after a prolonged 
illness, in 1824, leaving a son and daughter, who 
followed the same profession. 

LOYER, — , was a native of France, who 
flourished about the year 1760. Among other prints, 
he engraved some plates of architectural subjects 
from the designs of Dumont and others after 
Marieschi, Bernini, and others. 

LOYER, NicoLAES, a Flemish historical painter, 
was bom at Antwerp in 1625, and died in 1681. 

LUARD, John Dalbiac, a subject painter, was 
bom in 1830. He originally held a commission in 
the army, which he left to become a pupil of John 
Phillip. From 1855 he exhibited a few pictures, 
bearing on a soldier's life, at the Royal Academy. 
His health early failed him, and he'died at Winters- 
low in 1860, after having shown much promise 
of future excellence. 

LUBIENIECKI, Bogdan, or Teodor, a Polish 
Minter and engraver, was bom at Cracow in 1653. 
He was instructed in design by Juriaan Stur, 
a painter of Hamburg; from thence he went 
to Amsterdam, where he became a scholar of 
Gerard de Lairesse. On leaving that master he 
went to Italy, and resided some time at Florence, 
where he »>a8 particularly patronized by the grand- 
duke. On his return to Germany he was invited 
to the court of Berlin, and was made painter to 
the Elector of Brandenburg, and director of the 
Academy. He painted history and landscapes in 
the style of De Lairesse, and designed Schliiter's 
' Mnsks,.' which are in the arsenal at Beriin. He 
etched a set of six grand landscapes and figures, 
inscribed Th. de LubinetzkifedL, in 1698. Others 
of his works are marked T. D. L. He returned 
to Poland in 1706, and was still living in 1729. 

LUBIENIECKI, Kbzysztop, the younger brother 
of Teodor Lubieniecki, was born at Stettin in 1659. 
AUoT receiving some instniction in design, witli his 
' vor^ n. G 



brother, from Juriaan Stur, he accompanied Theodor 
to Amsterdam, where he entered the school of 
Adriaan Backer, and followed the style of that 
master, both in history and portraits. He died at 
Amsterdam in 1729. Two of his paintings, *The 
Snuff-box and the Pipe ' and * Table Friends,' aro 
at Copenhagen. 

LUBIN, Jacques, a French engraver, was born 
in Paris in 1637. From the resemblance his style 
bears to that of Gerard Edelinck, he is supposed to 
have been a pupil of that artist He was living in 
1694. Among other plates, the following are by 
him : 

portraits. 

Henri, Vicomte de Turenne, Marshal of France ; after 

Philippe de Champaigne. 
Henri Aiiguste, Comte de Brienne ; after Largilliere. 
Francois, Comte de Grignan ; after the same. 
Louis, Due d'Humieres,. Marshal of France : after F, 

Voet. 
Armand Jean da Plessis, Cardinal de Kichelieu- 
Jean Pierre Camus, Bishop of Belley. 
Jean Papire Masson, celebrated advocate. 
Jacques Callot, engraver. 
Vincent Voiture, of the French Academy. 
Pierre Comeille, dramatic poet. 
Olivier Patra, of the French Academy. 
Kobert Amauld d'Andilly. 
Jean Baptiste Colbert, Minister of State. 
Thirty-eight portraits, including some of the above, in 

Perrault's * Hommes illuatres qui ont paru en France,' 

1696—1700. 

SUBJECT. 
The Entombment of Christ ; after Le Sueur, 

LUBLINSKY, Martin Anton, a painter, was 
born at Leschnitz in Silesia in 1643. He was a 
pupil of Scieta. In the Collegiate Church of 
Olmutz are frescoes by this artist, as also an altar- 
piece, and several pictures are to be found in the 
different churches in Olmutz. He died in 1690. 

LUCA, Santo, a monk, was a native of Florence, 
who lived in the 9th century, and on account of 
his saint-like conduct was called Santo. He is - 
said to be the author of several paintings which 
were formerly attributed to Luke the Evangelist, 
as those of the * Virgin and Child ' in the Madorma 
di San Luca at Bologna, and in Santa Maria Mag- 
giore at Rome. ^ 

LUCA DI TOMB. See ToMii. 

LUCA FA Presto. See Giordano. 

LUC AN, Margaret Bingham, Countess of, born 
in 1740, was the daughter and co-heiress of James 
Smith, M.P. She married in 1760 Sir Charles 
Bingham, Bart., who in 1776 was created Baron 
Lucan, and in 1795 Earl of Lucan. She painted 
original miniatures, and made clever copies of 
those by Hoskins, the Olivers, and Samuel Cooper. 
There is at Althorp a Shakespeare illustrated by her 
with portraits, views, and various ornamenfs. She 
died in 1816, 

LUCAS, Auger, a French historical painter, was 
born in 1685. He was a grandson of Tournieres, 
and was received into the Academy in 1722 upon 
his picture of *Acis and Galatea,' which was 
formerly at St. Cloud. He died in 1765. The 
Museum of Nantes possesses 'Spring,' 'Summer,' 
' Autumn,' and * Winter,' by this artist. 

LUCAS, August, a German landscape painter, 
was born at Darmstadt in 1803. He resided for 
some time at Home, and died in 1863. In the 
Darmstadt Gallery are three landscapes by him. 

LUCAS, Gkrmain, a French engraver, flourished 

81 



Lucas 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONAUY OF 



Luciani 



from about 1700 to 1745. Ho engraved, in a very 
neat style, several architectural plates for the 
collection of * Views of Versailles, published by 
P. Menant. He had a son who engraved, but his 
prints are not specified. 

LUCAS, Jean Paul, was a French painter, who 
died at Toulouse in 1808. He establbhed the 
Museum in that city, and published a catalogue 
of its contenta. 

LUCAS, John, a portrait painter, was bom in 
London in 1807. He was a pupil of S. W. Rey- 
nolds, and begaq life as a mezzotint engraver, but 
turned early to painting. He obtained a large 
practice as a portrait painter, and was a constant 
exhibitor at the Royal Academy from 1828 until his 
death. Among his sitters were the Prince Consort 
and the Duke of Wellington. He died in London 
in 1874. In the National Portrait Gallery is a 
portrait of Miss Mitf ord. 

LUCAS, John Templeton, a portrait painter, 
and the eldest son of John Lucas, was born in 
1836. He exhibited at the Royal Academy, and 
at the Society of British Artists. He was the 
author of a farce called' * Browne the Martyr,' pro- 
duced at the Court Theatre, and of a little volume 
of fairy tales, entitled *■ Prince Ubbely Bubble's 
New Story Book,' published in 1871. He died at 
Whitby in 1880. 

LUCAS VAN LEYDEN. See Jacobsz. 

LUCASZ, PiETER Frans, a landscape painter, 
born at Mechlin in 1606, was a scholar of Gerard 
Seghers. He painted landscapes ornamented with 
smull figures, and was patronized by the Archduke 
Leopold, for whom he painted a great number of 
pictures. He died in 1664. The portrait of 
Phiderpe, a Flemish sculptor, in the Museum at 
Brussels, is by him. 

LUCATELLI. See Locatelli. 

liUCCA, Michelangelo da. See Anselmi. 

LUCCHESE. See Lucensis, and Riochi. 

LUCCHESINO, II. See Testa. 

LUCE, Louis Ren6, a French en^aver, was 
bom in Paris in 1695. He worked hrst for the 
goldsmiths, but was afterwards appointed engraver 
to the Imprimerie Royale. He died in 1774. 

LUCENA, Diego de, of an illustrious family of 
Andalusia, was a scholar of Velazquez, whom he 
iniituted in his portraits, both large and small. 
He acquired great credit by his portrait of the 
poet Atanasio Pantaleon, who repaid him with a 
sonnet. He died young in 1650. 

LUCENSIS, Michele, (or Lucchese,) was an 
Italian engraver and printseller, who resided at 
Rome about the year 1550. He engraved some 
prints after Michelangelo, Raphael, and Polidoro 
da Caravaggio, which he usually marked with the 

monogram ^vTF' 

LUCENTI, GiROLAMO, a native of Correggio in 
Lorn hardy resided at Seville in 1608. In that 
>ear he painted for the chapel of St. Thomas's 
College a pair of landscapes witli figures, repre- 
senting the * Culling of St. Andrew and St Peter.' 
lie also visited the city of Granada, where he exe- 
cuted in 1642 seven small works on the subject 
of the discovery of the manuscripts and relics at 
Sacro Monte. 

LUCHETTO DA GENOVA (or Luchino). See 
''ambiaso, Luca. 

LUCIANI, Antonio, a painter and engraver, was 
born at Venice in 1700. He was a pupil of 
Piccini in landscape and of Fcldoni in engraving. 

82 



LUCIANI, Sebastiano, commonly called Sebas- 
TIANO DEL PiOMBO, from the office of Keeper of the 
Leaden Seals, conferred upon him by Pope Clement 
VII., was bom at Venice in 1485, and was educated 
by his father for tlie profession of music. Having 
become acquainted with Giorgione, who was like- 
wise a musician, he was probably induced by him 
to learn the art of painting, and to enter the 
studio of Giovanni Bellini ; in after years he 
became the disciple of Giorgione. Amongst his 
earlier paintings were the altar-pieces of the 
'Incredulity of St. Thomas,* executed for San 
Niccol6 at Treviso, and the * Majesty of St John 
Chrysostom,* executed for San Giovanni Crisostomo, 
Venice. Soon after finishing this last painting 
Luciani went to Rome by invitation of Agostino 
Chigi, who had just finished building his palace of 
the Famesina, and who desired his aid in its 
decoration. His first work there was a series of 
mythological designs taken from Ovid's ' Metamor- 
phoses,' which attracted the attention and admiration 
of both Michelangelo and Raphael. A friendship 
then sprung up between Michelangelo and Sebas- 
tiano, which produced a marked effect on tlie style 
and future fortunes of the latter. The frescoes at 
the Famesina Palace were finished about 1512, 
and it was then that Sebastiano commenced to 
paint portraits in oil. Amongst these may be 
mentioned the * Fomarina,' now at Berlin, and that 
in the Uffizi, Florence. A league was now formed 
between Sebastiano and Buonarroti against Raphael, 
and they both endeavoured to obtain commissions 
from Julius II., that they might compete against 
the acknowledged talents of the latter. Buonarroti 
had felt some uneasiness at the growing fame of 
Raphael, and he readily availed himself of the 
powers of Sebastiano as a colourist, in the hope 
that, assisted by his designs, he might be enabled 
to enter the lists with his illustrious antagonist, if 
not to drive him from the field. With this view, he 
furnished him with the designs for the ^ Pieti ' in 
the church of the Conventual! at Viterbo ; and 
the ' Transfiguration ' and ' Flagellation ' in San 
Pietro in Montorio at Rome, which, as he was 
very tedious in his process, occupied him six years. 
The extraordinary beauty of tne colouring, and 
tlie grandeur of Michelangelo's com'position and 
design, in these celebrated productions, were the 
objects of universal surprise and applause. It was 
at this juncture that the Cardinal Giulio de' Medici 
commissioned Raphael to paint his immortal picture 
of the * Transfiguration,' and being desirous of 
presenting an altar-piece to the cathedral of Nar- 
bonne, of which he was archbishop, he engaged 
Sebastiano del Piombo to paint a picture of the 
same dimensions, selecting for tlie subject the 
' Raising of Lazarus.' On this occasion he was 
again assisted by the powers of Buonarroti, by 
vmom it was composed and designed. The picture 
.was publicly exhibited at Rome, in competition 
with the * Transfiguration ' ; and it is no mean 
proof of its extraordinary merit, that, notwith- 
standing the transcendent beauty of Raphaers 
chef-d'oeuvre. Sebastiano's performance excited 
universal admiration. This celebrated work of art 
was removed, by the Regent of France, from the 
cathedral at Narbonne into the Orleans collection, 
of which it was once one of the most important 
ornaments. It is now in the National Gallery. 
After the death of Raphael, Sebastiano was reputed 
the most distinguished artist at Rome. He was 
particularly favoured by Clement VIL, who re- 



Lucidel 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Lucy 



ft 



ti 



w 



inunerated his servioes by appointing him to a 
lacrative office, which occasioned him, m the latter 
part of hiA life, to relax in his labours as a painter. 
On the death of that Pope he continued to hold 
the post of Frate del Piombo under Paul III. His 
last undertaking WHS the chapel of the Ghigi family, 
in Santa Maria del Popolo. which he left incomplete: 
it was afterwards finished by Francesco Salviati. 
He died at Rome in 1547. The following are 
some of his principal works : 

Berlin. Gallery, Pieti. 

^ „ Portrait of a Man (formerly called 

ArettDo). 
„ ^ Portrait of a NoblemaD. 

Boideanx. Museum^ Virgin and Dead Christ. 
Burgos. Cathedral. Virgin and Infant Christ. 
Edinburgh. Nat. Gall, Bacchus and Ariadne. 
Florence. I*itti Pal, Martyrdom of St. Agatha. 
„ „ Portrait of a Toung Man. 

Lcndinara. & Bioffio. The Visitation. 
Ijoadon. Nat. Gall, Resurrection of Lazarus. 1519. 

Portraits of the Artist and Car- 
dinal Ippolito de' Medici. 
Portrait of an Italian Lady, as 
St. Agatha. 
Madrid. Gallery. Christ bearing His Cross. 

„ „ Ctnist in Hades. 

Nafiea. Museum, The Child Jesus sleeping. 

„ „ Portrait of Adrian VI. 

y, „ Holy Family. 

Paris. Louvre, The Visitation. 

Parma. Galleiy. Portrait of Clement VII. 

Petersburg. Hermitage. Clirist bearing His Cross. 
„ „ The Descent from the Cross. 

„ M Portrait of Cardinal Pole. 

Rome. Fanusina, Fresco : Subjects from the story 

of G^alatea 
„ S, M, del Paoolo. Birth of the Virgin. 

" ^' ^^^o.}'^'' Transfiguration (freteo). 

„ „ The Flagellation {oil, on the wall). 

» H St. Bernard. 

M Doria Pal. Portrait of Admiral Andria Dona. 

Tteviso. S, Niccolb. Licredulity of St. Thomas. 

Venice. S, Giovanni ) St. John Chrysostom surrounded 

CrisostoMO, J by Saints. 

Viterbo. S. Francesco, The Dead Christ. 

LUCIDEL. See NeufchAtkl. 

LUCIEN, Jean Baptiste, a French engraver in 
the crayon manner, was born in Paris in 1748, and 
died in 1806. He produced some academy figures 
and heads as studies for pupils, and some beautiful 
vignettes after Cochin for an edition of 'Tele- 
machus.* Besides these he engraved the following 
plates : 

The Rape of Oephalus ; after Pietro da Cortona. 

St. Cealia ; after Guereino, 

Italian Oirls ; after the same. 

The Vintage \ a ter the satne. 

Children dancing ; after the same. 

The Persian Beauty ; after the same. 

The Rising of Aurora ; after Pierre. 

Italian Musjcians ; after Bouckardon. 

Fauns and Cupids ; after Cipriani, 

The Young Sister ; after Greuze. 

Andromache weeping over the ashes of Hector ; after 

Angelica Kauffmann. 
Napoleon I. ; after Le Barhier. 
Bas-rehef for the Arc de Triomphe de la F^^ration ; 

after MoitU, 

LUCINI, Antonio Francesco, an engraver, was 
bom at Florence in 1605. He was instructed by 
Stefano della Bella, and engraved some plates in 
the style of that master, as well as in that of Callot. 
He usaally marked his plates with the cipher 

^LP, There is by him a copy of Stefano della 

Bella*s print of the * Festival on the Arno * ; as well 
as the following : 

02 



Sixteen plates of Scenes during the Siege of Malta by 

the Turks in 1565 ; after Mateo Peres de Alesio. 
Portrait of B. Tremblet, the sculptor. 

LUCKX, Christiaan, a Flemish flower painter, 
was born at Antweip in 1623, and in 1639 became 
a pupil of Philips de Maelier, with whom he re- 
mained three years, and afterwards of Frans 
Francken III., under whose guidance he painted 
some small historical pictures, such as ' Lot and his 
Daughters/ * The Adoration of the Kings,' * Christ 
bearing His Cross/ * Christ's Appearance to St. 
Theresa/ and ^St. Ignatius.' In 1645 he became 
a master in the painters* guild at Antwerp, and 
henceforward devoted himself to still-life and 
flowers. There is no record of him after the bap- 
tism of his son in 1653. The Madrid Gallery has 
a flower piece by him. 

LUCQUIN, Henriquetta, whose maiden name 
was GiROUARD, was born at Lisbon in 1819. She 
became a pupil of Gosse, and exhibited portraits 
and historical subjects at the Salon from 1841 to 
1865. She died in 1866. 

LUCY, Charles, a portrait painter, was bom in 
London in 1692. He studied at Rome and Bologna, 
and for eight years was a pupil of Cignani. 

LUCY, Charles, an historical painter, was bom 
at Hereford in 1814. He commenced life as an 
apprentice to his uncle, who was a druggist, but 
he soon abandoned that business, and proceeding 
to Paris, entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, where 
he attended principally the classes under Paul 
Delaroche. Subsequently he returned to Englaiid, 
and became a student in the Royal Acadenjy. 
After oscillating for some time between England 
and France, he settled down at Barbison, near 
Fontainebleau, where he resided nearly sixteen 
years. From 1838 until the time of his decease 
scarcely a year passed without one or more of his 
works appearing on the walls of the Royal Academy. 
In 1843 he sent to the Westminster Hall competi- 
tion a cartoon of ^ Caractacus and his Family before 
the Emperor Claudius,' and in 1844 another cartoon 
of ^ Agrippina interceding for the Family of Carac- 
tacus. In 1845 he sent to the same exhibition 
* An Abstract Personification of Religion ; ' and in 
1847 * The Embarkation of the Pilgrim Fathers in 
the Ship Mayflower/ for which he received a 
premium of £200. He also painted for Sir Joshua 
Walnisley several portraits of distinguished states- 
men and others, which have since been bequeathed 
to the South Kensington Museum. He devoted 
himstilf almost entirely to historical subjects, chiefly 
connected with the Puritan era of English history, 
several of which have through engravings become 
popular both here and in America, where some of 
his works have found a home. He died in London 
in 1873. The most important of his exliibited 
works are : 

The Interview of Milton with Galileo 1840. 

An Illustration of II Penseroso. 1843. 

The Parting of Bums and his Mary. 1844. 

The First Love of Napoleon Bonaparte. 1845. 

Salvator Mundi. 1847. 

The Laudiug of the Pilgrim Fathers. 1846. 

The Death of Mrs. Glaypole. 1849. 

Evangeline in the Chun h. 1849. 

The Parting of Charles I. with his Children. 1850. 

The Boyal Captives of Carisbrooke". 1851. 

The Parting of Lord and Lady Russell. 1852. 

Ncl^on in the Cabin of the Victory. 18M. 

The Burial of Charles I. 1857. 

Cromwell resolving to refuse the Crown. 1857. 

Bonaparte in Discussion with the Savants. 1858. 

Prayers for the Dead—All Saints' Day. 1859. 

83 



Ludeke 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Luini 



Lord Saye and Sele before Jack Cade. 1860. 

The Reconciliation of Sir Joshua Reynolda and Gains- 
boroagh. 1863. 

Cromwell with his Family at Hampton Court. 1863. 
(GlasaofO Corporation Galleries.) 

Garibaldi at the Tomb of Ugo Foscolo. 1865. 

The Intercepted Embarkation of John Hampden and 
his Friends. 1867. 

The Forced Abdication of Mary Stuart, Queen of Scot- 
land, at Lochleven Castle. 1868. 

Noontide Repose. 1869. 

Portrait of the Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone. 1869. 

Charlotte Corday returning to Prison after her Con- 
demnation. 1871. 

Columbus at the Monastery of La Rabida. 1872 

Shakespeare before Sir Thomas Lucy. 

LCDEKE, Peter Ludwio, a painter, was bom 
about 1760. He studied landscape painting, and 
then proceeded to Italy. In 1786 he went to Itome, 
but in tlie next year returned to Berlin. 

LODERS, David, a portrait painter, was born 
at Hamburg about 1710. He was first instructed 
by Pfeiffer at that city, but went afterwards to 
Paris, where he studied under Lernoine, and then 
to Italy, and subsequently to England and St. Peters- 
burg. Among his best portraits are : 

The Prince of Wales. 1751. 

The Family of the Russian Ambassador. 

Count Tscnemitschey. 

LUDIUS, was a Roman painter in the time of 
Augustus, who, according to Pliny, was the first to 
ndorn the walls of rooms with landscapes, which 
he embellished with figures variously occupied. 
He was tlie first Roman artist who painted in 
fresco, and he was chiefly employed in decorating 
the walls of the villas and country-houses with 
views of gardens, woods, and water-courses, with 
graceful figures. 

LUFFOLI, Giuseppe Maria, was a native of 
Pesaro, who flourished about 1680. He was a pupil 
of Simone Contarini, and painted portraits and 
historical subjects. 

LUGANO, Lo Zoppo di. See Discepoli. 

LUGAJRDON, Jean L^onabd, a French historical 
painter, was born at Geneva of French parentage 
in 1801. He studied under Gros and Ingres, and 
exhibited at the Salon from 1827 to 1857. Three 
landscapes by him were in the Exposition Univer- 
selle of 1867. He died in 1875. 

LUGRENCELIS. This name is affixed to a 
bold, spirited etching of a Bacchanalian subject, 
in the style of Benedetto Castiglione. It is inscribed 
Lugrencelu inv. et scul. 

LUHNE, Joachim, was bom at Hamburg about 
1620, and studied under A. Backer, whose style he 
imitated with success, but he afterwards studied 
the works of Carlo Lotti, and adopted from him a 
darker colouring. In 1673 he was master, and in 
1692 head of the Guild at Hamburg. He died 
there in 1717. Among his works are : 

Brunswick. Museum. His own Portrait, those of his 

family, and that of the mathe- 
matician Hertel. 1672. 

Hamburg. T^^ J ^.^^ ^^ HamUrg. 

LUIGI, Andrea di. See Alovigi. 

LUIKEN, Gaspar, (or Luyken,) a Dutch en- 
graver, supposed to have been the brother of Jan 
Luiken, was bom at Amsterdam about the year 
1670, and is known to have been living in 1710. 
He executed many works in conjunction with Jan 
Luiken. Those executed by him nlone are very 
inferior, and conBist ohioflv of book-plnteR, in 

84 



which he was almost entirely employed. Among 
them are the following: 

Twelve plates of the Months of the Tear. 

Four plates of the Seasons. 

St. Francis Xaviei preaching before the Emperor of 

Japan. 
The Miracle of the Loaves. 

LUIKEN, Jan, (or Lutkbn,) was born at Am- 
sterdam in 1649. He was a scholar of Martinus 
Zaagmolen, and for some time applied him- 
self to painting, but not succeeding to his ex- 
pectation, he turned his thoughts to • engraving, 
in which he became eminent. He usually engraved 
after his own designs, and he received, from his 
crowding his compositions with an infinite number 
of figures, the name of *The Dutch Callot.' He 
died in 1712. His principal work is the set of 
plates he engraved for the Biblical works published 
Dy Mortier. Only a few of the plates of the so- 
called * Mortier's Bible ' are by Luiken, but there 
is another series publii^hed by Mortier and Covens, 
consisting of 62 very* elaborate engravings of 
occurrences in Bible history, the whole of which 
are by him, and exhibit uncommon powers of 
invention and freedom of execution. Out of 
upwards of 900 engravings, the following may be 
selected : 

Ten plates of the Commandments. 
Seventeen plates for the * History of Finland.* 
Seventeen plates for the * Voyages orientaox de M. 

Th6venot. ' 
One hundred and five plates for the 'History of the 

Martyrs.' 
The Prophet Jonah preaching to the Ninevites. 
The Assassination of Henry IT. cf France. 
The Massacre of St. Bartholomew ; on two sheets (t» 

conjunction tctth Gasixir Ltiiken). 
A great variety of emolematical subjects, fairs, public 

ceremonies, book ornaments, &o. 

LUINI, Ambrogio, a brother and pupil of Bernar- 
dino Luini, flourished in the earlier part of the 16th 
century, and was a good artitst, as is shown by his 
frescoes of the Madonna at Saronno. 

LUINI, AuiiELio, son of Bernardino Luini, was 
born at Milan about 15.S0, and was still living in 
1584. In the Brera at Milan is a picture of the 
* Martyrdom of St. Vincent the Deacon.' 

LUINI, Bernardino, called erroneously by 
Vasari Bernardino del Lupino, was born at Luino 
on the Lago Maggiore between 1460 and 1470. 
He was a pupil of Stefano Scotto, but in tlie middle 

f)art of his career he became an imitator and fol- 
ower of Leonardo da Vinci. His early works 
bear no trace of Leonardo's style, and his late 
productions evince much originality, with Leo- 
nardo's manner for a basis. Several of his best 
works have for a long time been attributed 
to the hand of Leonardo. He worked in the 
churches of Milan and the neighbouring towns. 
Milan, Saronno, and Lugano still possess his best 
pictures, which for sweetness and depth of feeling 
are unrivalled. He was still living in 1530. It is 
impossible for one artist to approach nearer to the 
atyle of another than Luini does to that uf Leo- 
nardo. There is the same taste in his composition 
and design, the same peculiarity of colour and 
extraordinary relief ; and it requires an intimate 
acquaintance with the works of Leonardo to dis- 
criminate between them. To form a just idea of 
the powers of Luini, it would be necessary to 
study his series of pictures of the * Life of the 
V^irgin,' at Saronno, in which the Virgin is repre- 
Ncntcd with a boanty, dignity, and modesty which 



Lttinj t 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Lundg^en 



resemble the works of Raphael. He was not less 
distinguished in his fresco paintings, of which the 
principal are the * Christ crowned with Thorns ' in 
the Collegio del S. Sepolcro, and those in the choir 
of the Monastero Maggiore at Milan. The follow- 
ing are among Luini's extant works : 

Como. Caihidral, Adoration of the Magi {in tempera). 

n M Adoration of the Shepherds (tn 

tempera). 
Darmstadt. Gallery, Virgin and Child. 
Florence. Uffi'zi. The Daughter of Herod^'as with 

the Head of John the Baptist. 
„ Palazzo Capponi. Madonna kissing the Child. 
Hampton Court. PaL Flora. 

H n St. Catharine. 

Legnano. Ckurch, Altar-piece. 
London. Nat. Oall. Christ and the Doctors. 

""""".feslJS^lTb* ?"»<»'</«.«.). 1520. 

„ „ Madonna with two Children. 

Last Sapper. 



MUan. S. Jf«n« | ^he Dead Christ. 



»» 



deUa PassioTie. 



t* 



» 



»i 



n 



w 






It 



»» 



& Maurizio. ) Martyrdoms of Sf . Maurice and 
{Mawutero f St. Catharine {fresco). 
jaaggxoTt*) J 

^ Christ at the Column {fresco). 

Brera. St. Catharine borne to the tomb 
by Angels. 
Madonna and Child in a Rose 

Arbour. 
Madonna enthroned, with SS. 
Anthony and Barbara {fresco). 
1521. 
Birth of Adonis. 
Sacrifice to Pan. 
Metamorphosis of Daphne. 
„ Young Girls playing. 
M The Drnnkenness of Noah. 
Ambrosiana. Christ crowned with Thorns, 
adored by the Confratemily of 
the Holy Cross. 
Modena. Gallery. The Redeemer. 

Munich. Gallery. St. Catharine. 

Naples. Museum. Virgin and Infant. 

Paris. Louvre. Holy Family. 

Sleep of the Child Jesus. 
Salome receiving the Head of 

John the Baptist. 
The Forge of Vulcan. 
Two Pictures of Children. 
The Nativity. 
Adoration of the Magi. 
„ „ Christ. 

Paria. Oiortreuse. The Virgin and Child plucking 

a Flower. 
„ „ St. Sebastian and St. Christopher. 

Petersburg. Hermitage. Virgin and Child. 
„ „ St. Catharine. 

^ ^ Portrait of a young Lady. 

^ „ St. Sebflstian. 

Rome. Sciarra Pal. Modesty and Vanity. 

^^'^' ^c^rchT } ^® Marriage of the Virgin. 

SS. Roch and Sebastian . ( Frescoes.) 
Adoration of the Magi. 1525. 
The Presentation in the Temple. 
St. AppoUonia with an Angel. 
„ J, St. Catharine with an Angel. 

Vienna. Gallery, The Daughter of Herodias. 

ff yy St. Jerome. 

LUINI, EvANGELiSTA, a younger brother of Ber- 
nardino Luini, flourished in the 16th century. He 
chiefly devoted himself to the painting of ornament. 

LUINI, LuiGi Cesarb, was a native of Valesia, 
in Lombardy, who flourished in the 16th century. 
He was a pupil of Gaudenzio Ferrari, and painted 
several frescoes at Varallo, near Como. 

LUINI, ToMMASO, a painter, was born at Rome 
about 1697. He was a pupil of Andrea Sacclii, 
and an imitator of Caravaggio, so that he wus 



»» 






n 



n 



n 
i> 



called ** Caravagoino." At San Carlo al Corso are 
several frescoes by this artist. He died about 1632. 

LUISMON, JoHANN Anton. See Eismann. 

LUIZ, was a Portuguese painter of the 16th cen- 
tury, who painted between 1442 and 1446 several 
historical pictures in the monastery of Naxera. 

LUKE, Saint. The well-known tradidon that 
the Evangelist Luke was a painter rests on the 
authority of Nicephorus, of the Menology of the 
Emperor Basil, and of other late writers. None of 
these are of historical authority, and the New 
Testament makes no mention of a fact so likely to 
have been recorded. 

LUMLEY, George, an amateur, has left several 
portraits engraved in mezzotint. He was a 
solicitor, and resided at York, where he died 
in 1768 at the age of 60. Among his works are 
the following ; 

Thomas Comber, Dean of Durham. 
Lady Mary Fenwick ; after Dahl. 
Sir Walter Hawkswortn, Bart. 
Sir Mark Millbanke, Bart. 

LUNARDU8, a wood engraver, flourished about 
1620. He executed some cuts of frontispieces and 
book ornaments from his own designs. 

LUND, Jens Petersen, a Danish painter and 
etcher, was born in Sonderjylland, and received 
his first instruction at the Academy at Copenhagen. 
In 1766 he received the gold medal, and then 
visited France and Italy, remaining in Rome for 
some time. He returned to Copenhagen in 1776, 
where he painted landscapes and architectural 
pieces, and died in 1790. 

LUND, Johan Ludvio Gerhard, a Danish 
painter, was born at Riel in 1777. In 1796 he 
entered the Academy of Copenhagen, where ha 
remained three years, and then went to Dresden, 
In 1800 he went to Paris, and entered the atelier 
of David. In 1802 he went to Rome, where he 
painted his picture of 'Andromache,' and others. 
He returned to Copenhagen in 1810, and became a 
professor of the Academy. In 1814 he painted the 
* Return of Habor from the Battle,' and in 1819 
the * Magdalene at the Sepulchre.' The picture of 
the * Walk to Emmaus ' is in the church at Fiihnen. 
He died in 1867. 

LUNDBERG, Gustave, was a French portrait 
painter, who exhibited at the Salon between 1743 
and 1767. He was a member of the Royal Academy 
of Painting and Sculpture. 

LUNDBYE, Johan Thomas, a Danish landscape 
and animal painter, was bom at Kallundborg in 
1818, and died at Flensburg in 1848. Among his 
pictures are: 

Copenhagen. Gallery. A Milking Place at Vognserop. 

A Cow Shed. 
Open Country in the North of 

Zeeland. 
Oxen in the Caropagna. 

LUNDENS, Gerrit, was a Dutch painter, who 
flourished about 1666. He painted conversation 
pieces in the style of Metsu, Ostade, and other 
Dutch painters. His works are found in the 
Dresden and Hanover Galleries. 

LUNDGREN, Egron, a Swedish landscape and 
subject painter in water-colours, was born at Stock- 
holm in 1816. He was educated in Paris under 
Cogniet, and afterwards travelled much in Italy, 
Spain, Egypt, and India, in which last country he 
accompanied the staff of Lord Clyde. Through 
meeting John Phillip at Seville, he came to 
England in 1863, where he subsequently chiefly 

86 






*i 



ft 
ft 



Lungld 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Luti 



lived, becoming in 18G4 an associate, and in 1867 
a member of the Water-Colour Society. He 

fublished * Letters from Spain * and * Letters from 
ndia,' and died at Stockholm in 1875. Amongst his 
chief works are : 

The Feast of Corpas Christ! at Rome. 1841. {Stock- 
holm National Gallery. ) 
Kneeling Pilgrims. 1845. (Stockholm National GdHery,) 
Dominican Friars in the Liorary of Siena. 
A Barber's Shop at Seville. 
A Spanish Posada. 
Indian Nautch Girls. 
The Travelling Companions. 1878. 
Rafaela. 1875. 

LUNGHI, Antonio, was bom at Bologna about 
tlie year 1685 (or, according toZani, 1677), and was 
a scholar of Giovanni Giuseppe dal Siole. He 
painted historical subjects, of which the principal 
are in the churches at Bologna. In Santa Maria 
Maddalena is a picture of * Christ appearing to Mary 
Magdalene,' and in San Bartolonimeo an altar- 
piece representing * St. Rita.' He died in 1757. 

LUNY, Thomas, a marine painter, was born in 
1768. His works appeared at the Royal Academy 
between 1780 and 1802. There is a picture by him 
at the Foundling Hospital of * Vessels attacking 
Land Batteries.' He died at Toignmouth in 1837. 

LUPICINI, Giovanni Baitista. See Lopioino. 

L UPTON, Thomas Goff, a mezzotint engraver, 
was born in London in 1791. He was the son of a 
working goldsmith in Clerkenwell, and at an early 
age he showed so much taste for drawing that in 
1805 his father placed him under the tuition of 
George Clint, A.ll.A., the mezzotint engraver, and 
])ortrait and histoncal painter. On the expiration 
of his apprenticeship he began wqrk on his own 
account as an engraver of portraits, but finding 
that he could not obtain a sufficient number of 
impressions of works executed on copper to make 
them remunerative, he made several experiments 
on plates of nickel, the Chinese alloy called 
tutenag, and steel, in the hope of discovering 
something that would be more durable than copper. 
He finally selected steel, and on a plate of this 
metal he engraved after George Clint a portrait of 
Munden, the comedian, which proved a great 
success. In 1822 he received the gold Isis medal 
of tlie Society of Arts, as an acknowledgment of 
the value of his application of soft steel to the 
process of mezzotint engraving, and he was suc- 
cessful in establishing the use of plates of that 
metal. He worked both on steel and copper, and 
produced some good plates after Sir Thomas 
Lawrence, Sir Martin Shee, Thomas Phillips, and 
other eminent portrait painters of his day. He 
also re-engrave. I a selection of fifteen plates from 
Turner's ' Liber Studiorum,' which were pubiislied 
in 1858. Lupton died in London in 1873. Among 
his more notable works are : 

The Infant Samuel ; after Sir Joshua Reynolds, 

The Milk Girl ; after GainMborough. 

Belshazzar's Feast ; after John Martin, 

The Eddystone Lighthoase ; after Turner, 

Sunrise — Whiting Fishing off Margate ; after the sau^. 

Newcastle-on-Tyne ;'\ 

Wark worth Castle ; I after Turner, for the * Rivers of 

Dartmouth Castle ; f England and Wales,^ 

SUingate Castle ; / 

Whitby ; 



Scarborough ; 
Shoerness ; 
Dover ; 
Ramsgate ; 
Portsmouth; , 
86 



after Turner, for the * Ports of England.* 



\ 



after Turner, for the * Uher 
Studiorum.* 



Solway Moss ; 

Dunblane Abbev ; 

Watercress Gatherers 

Ben Arthur ; 

Dumbarton ; 

Ploughing, Eton ; 

Calais Pier ; after Turner. (This plate, after several 
alterations, was abandoned, and eventually sold in 
Turner's sale at Chri.stie and Hanson's in 1673.) 

Wellington at Quatre Bras ; after Haydon, 

The Poacher detected ; after KiJd. 

Fawcett and Kemble in the characters of Captain Copp 
and the King ; after George Clint. 

The Widow ; after Richter. 

The Idle Servant ; after N. Maas. 

Dutch Boers ; after D. Teniers. 

The Passage Boat ; after Aelhert Cuyp. 

A Group of Cattle ; after the same. 

PORTRAITS. 

George IV. ; after Wivell. 
Lord Byron ; after Thomas Phillips. 
Wordsworth ; after Haydon. 
Lord Cottenham ; after Briags. 
Sir Walter Scott ; after G. Jbndsay, 
Lord Brougham ; after Lonsdale. 

LUSUKIER, Catherine, was a pupil of Hubert 
Drouais, and painted portraits in his style. She 
died in Paris in 1781, at the age of 28. In the 
Louvre is a portrait by her of Jean<jrermain Drouais 
drawing, on the right-hand corner of which is 
inscribed, ''^ jEtatis sues xv Lusurier pxU'^ 

LUTERO, Giovanni di. See Dosei. 

LUTI, Bknedeitu, was bom at Florence in 
1666, and was for some time a scholar of Antonio 
Domenico Gabbiani. On leaving that master he 
was favoured with the patronage of the grand- 
duke ; and expressing a strong desire to visit 
Rome, his protector promoted his wishes by sup- 

{)lying him with the means, and accommodated 
)im with apartments in his palace in the Cainpo 
Marzio. He there studied under Ciro Ferri, and 
from the works of the great masters. It is to 
bo regretted that this able artist should have 
occupied so much of his time in crayon drawing, 
so transient in its nature, as he possessed powers 
for superior performances. One of his earliest 
works at Rome was his picture of the ' Death of 
Abel,* which was publicly exhibited on the festival 
of St. Bartholomew, when it excited universal 
admiration by the sublimity of the composition 
and the characteristic expression in the head of the 
murderer. He was commissioned by Clement XI. 
to paint his fine picture of * The Prophet Isaiah ' 
in St. John Lateran, and other works, for which 
the order of the Cross was conferred on him. He 
was also knighted by the Emperor, and ennobled 
by the Elector of Mentz. He died at Rome in 
1724. The following paintings by him are in 
public galleries : 



Cassel. 
Darmstadt. 



Gallery, 
Gallery. 



Dresden. Gallery. 



I* 



Florence. 



»» 



Vjj^ti, 



n 



Genoa. Spinola Pal. 
Munich. Gallery, 

Paris. Louvre, 

Petersburg. Hermitage, 

ft ft 

Pisa. Cathedral. 

Kome. Colonna Palace. 
Rotterdam. Museum. 



The Virgin reading. 
Moses receiving the Command- 
ments on Moimt Siuai. 
Head of Christ. 
The Virgin. 

Moses on the Bank of the Nile. 
His own Portrait. 
The Virgin. 
St. Charles Borromeo. 
The Magdalene. 
The Sleep of the Infant Jesus. 
The Magdalene. 
A Young Man. 
St. Ranieri. 

The Glory of St. Martin. 
St. Anthony. 



Lutke 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Lutzelburger 



Tliere are two etchings by this artist, which have 
become scarce : 

The Orndfixion, with St. John and the Magdalene at 

the Foot of the Grom. 
A Landscape ; after Gtwreino. 

LCTKB, Pktbr Ludwio, a German landscape 
painter, was born at Berlin in 1759. He was 
originally a merchant, but in 1785 he devoted 
himself to painting, and going to Italy, studied 
nnder Philipp Uackert in Rome from 1785 to 1787. 
He decorated a room wholly with his landscapes 
in the Marble Palace in Potsdam. In 1787 he was 
created member of the Academy, and in 1789 
professor of landscape painting, lie died at 
Berlin in 1831. A picture of *Bai8B' by him is 
in the National Gallery of that city. 

LUTMA, Abraham. There is an engraved 
portrait of Rubens, after Van Dyck, by this artist, 
out there is no account of him. 

liUTMAy Jacobus, was of the same family as 
Janus Lntma. He etched and finished with the 
graver a set of plates of ornamental shields and 
foliage ; they are executed in a neat style, from 
the designs of Janus Lutma the elder. He also 
engraved a plate of tliree portraits in a frame, 
inscribed, Jan Lutjna cfOude inv, Jac, Lvtma 
fecit aquaforti et exc, 

LUTMA, Joannes, or Janus, the younger, a 
Dutch engraver and goldsmith, was bom at Am- 
sterdam in 1629, and wtis a son and probably pupil 
of Janus Lutma the elder, who was a goldsmith. 
Janus the younger died at his birthplace in 1689. 
There are bv him a set of four portraits represented 
as antique busts, which are executed in a peculiar 
manner, with a punch or chisel, and a mnliet ; this 
he called * opus mallei ; * also two portraits of his 
father and himself, engraved in the style of Rem- 
brandt, and some views of ruins, &c. in a style 
executed with the point, and assisted with the 
mezzotint tool. In the Amsterdam Museum is a 
portrait of Paulus van Vianen, a goldsmith. 

LUTTEREL, Edward, was bom at Dublin 
about the year 1650. He came early in his life 
to Loudon, and was trained to the law in New 
Inn ; but having a disposition for the arts, he 
. abandoned the profession, and applied himself 
to taking portraits in crayons. He studied under 
Ashfield, and practised in crayons successfully. 
He posseissed an inventive mind, and observing 
the admiration excited by the new art oE en- 
graving in mezzotint, he was desirous of dis- 
covering the process, and contrived the means of 
laying the grounds with a roller, which succeeded 
to a certain degree, but not to his satisfaction. At 
this time, the mezzotints of Blooteling were in 
great repute, and Lutterel persuaded his friend 
Lloyd, a printseller^ to bribe a person of the name 
of Du Blois, who used to lay the grounds for 
Blooteling, and who was then returning to Holland, 
to discover the mystery. He afterwards connected 
himself with Isaac Becket, and they became the 
earliest English engravers in mezzotint. He died 
about 1710. The best of his portraits, which were 
his principal works, was that of Le Piper, the 
painter. The following, also, are by him : 

CRATON DRAWINGS. 

(hunnel Bntler. {National Portrait Gallery.^ 

Wilfiam Sancroft, Aichbiahop of Canterbury. {The 

George Morley, Bishop of Winchester. (The same.) 



ENGRA VINOS. 

Gharlea II. ; after Lely. 

Barbara, Dnchens of Cleveland ; after the tame, 
Arthur, Barl of Essex ; after the same, 
Robert Fasten, Earl of Varmouth. 
Oliver Plunket, Archbishop of Armagh. 
Anthony, Earl of Shaft esbiiry ; after Greenhill. 
William, Viscount Stafford ; after his own design. 
Oeorge, Lord Jeffreys, Lord High Chancellor. 
Hamet Ben Hamet. 
Robert Cony, M.D. 

LUTTGENDORF, Ferdinand von. Baron, a 
painter and etcher, was bom at Wiirzburgin 1786. 
He studied under Seidel and Hauber at the Academy 
of Munich, and from 1806 to 1809 at that of Vienna. 
He gave lectures at the University of Erlangen, 
and subsequently resided at Prague, Vienna, Prea- 
burg, and Munich, where he died in 1868. His 
best works are : 

Portrait of General Morean. 

His own Portrait. (Herr H. Majsch, Vienna.) 

Thirteen altar-pieces for different churches in Hnngary. 

He also etched 126 portraits of the Hungarian 
Reichstag. 

LUTZ, Peter, a German painter and line en- 
graver, was born at Munich in 1797. He studied 
painting at the Academy of his native city and 
under Johann Peter von Langer, but in 1821 he 
turned his attention to engraving, and became a 
pupil of Karl Hess. He died in 1867. The fol- 
lowing are his chief plates : 

La Madonna di San Francesco ; after Corretfyio. 

Ecce Homo ; after Raphael. 

The Virgin and Child ; after the same, {Heads from the 

* Madonna di San Siato.*) 

Two Angels ; after the aame. {Also from the * Madonna 

di San Sisto.') 
Christ bearing His Cross; after the same. {From the 

* SMsimo.'^ 

The virgin m Glory, with Four Saints ; after Bagna^ 

cavaXlo. 
The Virgin and Child ; after Barocci. 
St. Agnes; after Donuiuchino. {Reduced from the en* 

graving by Sir Robert Strange,) 
Ganymede ; after Titian. 
Judith ; after A. Riedel. 
Bomaa Woman of Albano ; after the same. 
The Virgin anrl Child ; after R. von Langer. 
The Magdalene in the Desert ; after J. P. von Langer. 
Lady Jane Grey in Prison ; after the same. 
Tjrrolese Woman ; after G. Bodmer. 

LtJTZELBUKGER, Hans, called also Hans 
Franck, one of the greatest of German engravers 
on wood, was bom probably at Augsburg about 
1496. Like Holbein, he appears to have gone 
from Augsburg to Bnsle in 1622, and he died there 
in 1.526. His best known woodcuts are those from 
the designs of Holbein — especially the figures of 
the Old Testament and the * Dance of Death. ' The 
whole series of the former and forty-one out of the 
fifty-eight cuts which compose the latter are by 
him. They were first printed in 1630, but were 
not published until 1638. He is believed also to 
have assisted in engraving * The Triumph of the 
Emperor Maximilian/ after Hans Burgkmair ,* and 
his name of Hans Franck is supposed to be 
identical with that of * Jan Franck,* who lived at 
Nuremberg, and worked for Albrecht Durer. He 
marked his woodcuts with his name, or H. L. 
FUR' (== Furmschneidery form-cutter). Among 
his other works after Holbein are : 

Fight between Feasants and naked Robbers in the 

Vorei^ \ after Holbein. 1522. 
The Title-page, containing Figures of St. Peter and St, 

Paul, for the German New Testament printed at Basle 

by Adam Petri in 1522. 

87 



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Lutzenkirchen 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



IjyvenM 






The Title-page, coutaining the Baptism of Christ, for the 
Germau New Testameut printed at Baale by Thomas 
Wolflf iu 1623. 
Portrait of Erasmus. 
The Sale of Indulgenoes. 
Jesus Christ and the Pope. 
An Alphabet — The Little Dance of Death. 
Dance of Peasants, &c. 
Children Playing. 
Crnamented Initials. 
Death and the Woman. {Albertina Collectiany Vienna.) 
1625. 

LOTZENKTRCHEN, Peter Joseph, born at 
Cologne in 1775, was a painter and an engraver in 
mezzotint. He studied at the Academy oi Diissel- 
dorf, but afterwards returned to his native city, and 
eventually, in 1810, established himself at Frank- 
fort, where he died in 1820. Among his paintings, 
which are signed with his name or P, L.t are the 
portraits of Merlo and of Dr. J. G. L. von Penipel- 
f urt (engraved by Bierweiler). His best plates are : 

ThomajB feeling the Wounds of the Saviour; after Luca 
• Giordano. 

Mary with the Child Jesus ; after Leonardo da Vinci. 
Bust of an old Man ; a^ter Ary De Vcis. 
Bust of Baron von Stem. 

LOTZOW, Karl IIindrick D^Unkeb Henninq. 
See D'Unker IIenninq LOtzow. 

LUX AN MARTINEZ, Josep, was bom at Sara- 
gossa in 1710, and was brought up by the family 
of Pignatelli, and sent to Naples in 1730 to study 
under Giuseppe Mastroleo. After five years he 
returned to his patrons, and practised portrait 
painting. In 1740 he married the daughter of 
Juan Zabalo, a painter, and went to Madrid on 
being made painter to the King. The Inquisition 
of Saragossa named him inspector of pictures, 
and he had the principal share in maintaining a 
school of design, afterwards promoted to the rank 
of a Hoyal Academy. He died at Saragossa in 1785. 
The Cathedral, Santa Engracia, and other churches, 
were adorned with his works, which are commended 
by Cean Bermudez for their agreeable colouring. 

LUYCX, Frans, almost forgotten in his native 
country, and better known beyond it as Leux, or 
Van Leux, was born at Antwerp in 1604, and 
became a master painter in 1620. He studied 
under Rubens, after whose death ho went to 
Vienna, where he was appointed court painter to 
the Emperor Ferdinand III., and director of the 
royal collections. He returned to Antwerp in 1662, 
but went again to Vienna in the same year. The 
date of his death is not recorded. There are by him 
in tho Vienna Gallery an * Allegory on the Vanity 
and Instability of Human Affnire ' and a portrait of 
the Cardinal Infant of Spain, Charles Ferdinand, 
brother of Philip IV., and in the Liechtenstein 
Gallery is ' Christ appearing to Mary Magdalene.' 

LUYKEN. See Luiken. 

LUY^KS, Nicolas, a German historical and por- 
trait painter, was born in 1600, and died in 1658. 

LUZZI, Lorenzo, a native of Feltre, who 
flourished about 1511, is not to be confounded with 
Pietro Luzzi. There is a picture by him in the 
Berlin Oallery of the * Virgin and Saints.* 

LUZZI, Pietro, called Morto da Feltre, who 
was born about 1474, was the son of a surgeon, 
who in order to practise his profession went in 
1476 to Zara, and thus caused his son to be called 
also Zarato. He is known to have been at Rome 
in 1495, at Florence in 1606, and at Venice in 1508, 
although none of the pictures painted by him iu 
either city are now in existence. He commenced to 
paint at Feltre in 1515, soon after that city had 

i<8 






II 



t» 



been nearly destroyed in the wars between the 
Emperor Maximilian and Venice. Records remain 
to prove that he executed the frescoes and the altar- 
piece of the Town-Hall and Loggia, all of which 
are now missing. The Casa Bartoldini and the 
Crico Palace, Feltre, are both decorated with fres- 
coes that Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle assign to 
Luzzi. In the church of the Ognissanti at Feltre is 
a fresco with the * Transfiguration of Christ, between 
SS. Anthony and Lucy,' which is said to have been 
painted by Luzzi in 1522. The story of his having 
been killed in battle at Zara in 1519 must of course 
be abandoned. His extant works comprise : 
Berlin. Gallery. Madouna. 

Feltro. Palazzo ) The front decorations, represent- 

Crico. ) m$ Nymphs and Cupids. 
„ Caaa Bartoldini. Decorations of the fa9ade; 

Judith, Quintus Ourtius, and 
Komnlus and Remus, in the 
style of Giorgione. 
S. Stefano. The altar-piece. 
Town-Hall. Several paintings. 
S. Gioryio. Several different treatments of 

the Madonna. 
Ognissanti. The Transfiguration of Christ. 
Villabruna. Church. The Virgin and Child, with Saints. 

LYEN, Jacques FRANgois, was a French portrait 
painter, who exhibited at t lie Salon from 1737 to 1747. 

LYMANN, JoHANNEfl Samuel, a Danish line en- 
graver, was born at Copenhagen in 1742. He 
studied in the Art Academy of his native city, and 
in 1758 gained the large gold medal for an engrav- 
ing of * David cutting off the Head of Goliath,' 
after his own design. Most of the plates which he 
executed are portraits. He died in 1769. 

LYNCH, James Henry, a liiho«;:raphic artist, exe- 
cuted principally portraits, which he exhibited at the 
Royal Academy from 1856 to 1865. He died in 1868. 

LYNE, Richard, was a painter and engraver, 
who lived in the second half of the 16th century, 
and was retained by Archbishop Parker on his 
establishment. There is a portrait of this prelate 
by him at Lambeth Palace, dated 1572. 

LY'ONET, PiETEB, a draughtsman, carver, and 
engraver, was born at Maestricht in 1708. He re- 
ceived a superior education, and was first a lawyer. 
One of his first and best carvings was ' Apollo and 
the Muses.' Subsequently he became acquainted 
with Karel De Moor and Limborch, under whom 
he produced excellent crayon portraits. At a later 
period he drew and engraved insects with extraor- 
dinary accuracy, and by these works he obtained 
much repute. He died at the Hague in 1789. 

LYS, Jan van deb. See Van deb Lis. 

LYSARDE, Nicholas, was an historical painter, 
who was in the service of Henry VIIL and Edward 
VL, and subsequently became sergeant-painter to 
Queens Mary and Elizabeth. There is a portrait 
at Hatfield House of one of^the French kings, 
which is ascribed to him. He died in 1570. 

LYSONS, Rev. Daniel, an antiquarian draughts- 
man, was bom in 1760. Many of the illustrations 
in his well-known * Environs of London ' (1792-6) 
and * Magna Britannia ' are by him. He was rector 
of Rodinarton from 1804 to 1833, and died at his 
seat, Hempsted Court, Gloucestershire, in 1834. 

LYSONS, Samuel, an antiquarian draughtsman, 
was born at Rodmarton in 1763. He studied for the 
bar, but devoted himself to antiquarian pursuits, 
and became keeper of the records at the Tower. He 
illustrated his * Roman Ruins at Woodchester ' 
(1797) and 'Reliciuiae BritannicsB RomansB ' (1813), 
He died at Cirencester in 1819. 

LYVENS, Jan. See Livensz. 



Maag 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Hacerata 



M 



MA AG, JoHANN Nepomdk, engraver, was a 
native of Munich, where he flourished in the last 
century. He engraved several portraits, amorg 
which was one of William of Ockham. He died 
at Munich in 1800. 

MAAN. See Db Man. 

MAAS. See Maes. 

MAAT, Jan. See Blankerhoff. 

M ABUSE. See Gossaert. 

MABUSEE, Nicolas Ranieri, an Italian painter, 
who flourished in the 17th century. He was a 
pupil of ^lanfredi at Rome, and painted historical 
pictures. His four daughters were also artists, 
and met with considerable success at Venice. 

MacARDELL, Jambs, an admirable mezzotint 
engraver, who was born about the year 1710 at 
Dublin, and is justly regarded as one of the ablest 
of workers in his branch of art. He was appren- 
ticed to James Brooks, with whom he came to 
London when he was seventeen. He died in 
London in 1765. The number of his plates is 
very considerable, and the greater part are from 
portraits of persons of distinction by the principal 
painters of his time. He also scraped a few plates 
from historical subjects by Vandyck, Murillo, 
Rembrandt, &c., some of whicli are extremely 
fine. The following may be considered as his best 
plates : • 

PORTRAITS. 

lUry, Duchess of Ancaster ; afttr Hudson, 

George, Lord Anson ; after Reyttolds. 

Dr. Ashton \ after the same. 

William Benn, Lord Mayor ; after Hudson ; scarce. 

Timothy Bennet ; after JBudd; scarce. 

The Ooantess of Berkley ; after Rejfiolds, 

Yioe- Admiral Boscawen ; after the same. 

Archibald Bower ; after Knapton ; scarce. 

George, Dake of Buckingham, and his Brother ; after 

Vandyck; from the pictare at Kensington ; very fine. 
Mary, Countess of Goventnr ; scarce. 
The Countess of Essex ; after Reyjudds. 
Francis da Quesnoy, called Flamingo, sculptor; after 

Vandyck. 
Lady Fortescue ; after Reynolds. 
Dr. Franklin ; after Wilson ; scarce. 
Mr. Qarrick and Mrs. Gibber, in Jaffier and Belvidera in 

Venice Preserved ; after Zoffany. 
Elizabeth, Duchess of Hamilton ; after Odes. 
Daniel Locke ; after Hogarth ; fine. 
Caroline, Duchess of Marlborough ; afttr Reynolds. 
John Pine, painter ; after Hogarth ; with and without 

hands; scarce. 
Rubens's Wife ; after Vandyck ; fine. 
Bachel, Countess of Southampton; after the same; 

very fine. 
Lord John and Lord Bernard Stuart; after the same; 

▼ery fine. 
James, Earl of Waldegrave ; after Reynolds ; scarce. 
Mary, Countess of Waldegrave ; after the same ; fine. 
General Washington ; after Pond ; scarca 

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS. 

The Virgin and Infant Jesus ; after Vandyck. 

The Infant Moses found in the Nile by Pharaoh's 
Daughter ; after the same ; very fine. 

Time clipping the Wings of Love; after the same; 
very fine. 

The Interior of a Chamber, in which is a Woman read- 
ing, and a Child in a Cradle ; after Rembrandt ; fine. 

The Angel and Tobifc ; after the same. 

The Tribute Money ; after the same. 



Rembrandt's Mother reading ; after the same. 

The Student in Matkematics ; after the same. 

Rubens, his Wife, and Child ; after Ruhens. 

The Virgin, with a Glory of Angels; after Murillo; 

fine. 
St. Jerome kneeling before a Crucifix; after the same; 

fine. 
St. Francis da Paolo ; after the same. 

MACARE, Pierre Joseph, a French still-life 
painter, who was born at Valenciennes .in 1758. 
He was a pupil of Watteau, whose style he 
imitated. He died in 1806. 

MACCHI, Florio, is mentioned by Malvasia as 
a native of Bologna, and a worthy disciple of 
Lodovico Carracci. He flourished about the year 
1620, and painted several pictures for the churches 
at Bologna. In Sant' Andrea del Mercato is a 
picture by him of the * Crucifixion,' with two 
win^; and in La Morte, a * Raising of Lazarus.' 
But nis most admired work is a fine fresco of the 
• Annunciation,' in the church of II Spirito Santo, 
which has been frequently mistaken for a work of 
Lodovico. Florio Macchi is mentioned by Orlandi, 
in the * Abecedario,' as an engraver, but his prints 
are nowhere specified. His brothers, Giovanni 
Battista (died 1628) and QiULio Cksare, were 
also pupils of Lodovico Carracci. 

M ACCHIETTI, GiROLAMO, (or MAGLiETTi,)called 
Del Crocifissajo, was born at Florence about 
1535. He was called ' del Crocifissajo,' from his 
having been an extensive painter of crucifixes. 
After studying some time under Michele Bidolfo 
del Ghirlanduio, he became a scholar of Giorgio 
Vasari, whom he assisted for six years in the Ducal 
palace at Florence. He afterwards visited Rome, 
where he studied two years, and then went to 
Spain, and after that to Naples. On his return to 
Florence, he acquired considerable reputation by 
his pictures of the 'Adoration of the Magi,' in 
San Lorenzo, of the * Martyrdom of St. Lawrence,* 
in Santa Maria Novello, and of 'Medea and the 
Daughters of Pelias,' in the Grand Ducal Palace. 
His best works are at Naples, Pisa, and Benevento, 
but those in the last-named place perished in an 
earthquake in 1668. The year of his death is 
unknown, but he was still living in 1564. 

MACCO, Alexander, historical painter and 
etcher, was bom at Ansbach, in Bavaria, in 1770. 
He studied at Munich, and afterwards at Rome. 
He then travelled to Paris and through Germany, 
spending some time at Berlin, Prague, Hamburg, 
and Vienna. His works were in the style o£ 
David. 

MACE DO. See Clovis. 

MAC6E, Charles, a French engraver, bom in 
Paris about 1631. He was employed by Jabach 
in engraving from his collection of pictures ; he 
also ene^raved twelve landscapes after Castiglione. 
He died after 1665. 

MACERATA, Giuseppino da, was born at 
Macerata about the year 1600, and is said to have 
been a pupil of Agostino Carracci. His style 
betrays the principles of the Bolognese school, 
as is evident in his works in the two colleges at 
Fabriano — in the * Annunciation,' painted in cil, at 
San Niccolo ; and in his frescoes in San Venanzio 
representing some of the miracles of the Aposi le^. 

89 



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HcConnell 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP 



Xadp 



In the church of the Carmelites at Macerata is a 
picture by him of tlie * Virgin and Infant, with a 
glory of Angels, and SS. Nicola and Qirolamo'; 
and at the Cappuccini, * Christ giving the Keys to 
St Peter/ both of which are stamped with the 
cliaracter of the school of the Carracci. The latter 
is so like Guide's picture of the same subject, in 
the church of the Filippini at Fano, that it may 
almost be considered as a copy. It is signed Jo9. 
Ma, faciebai. 1 630. 

McCONNELL, W., known as an illustrator of 
books, died in 1867. Amongst his work may be 
mentioned the illustrations to Sala's ' Twice round 
the Clock/ 

McCULLOCH, Horatio, a Scotch landscape 
painter, born at Glasgow, of humble parentage, m 
1806. He received his art instruction from a 
landscape painter named Knox, and* worked dili- 

gently for some years on the scenery of Western 
ootland. Removing to Edinburgli, he was in 
1834 elected an Associate, and in 1838 a member 
of the Scotch Academy. Here he was a frequent 
exhibitor, but only once appeared at the London 
Academy, namely, in 1844. His art, though merit- 
orious, and fairly true to the scenery of his native 
country, is somewhat conventional, and but little 
known south of the Tweed. His pictures are 
very plentiful, however, in Scotland. He died at 
Edinburgh in 1867. Three of his works — * Inver- 
lochy Castle,' 'A Lowland River,' and an ^Evening 
Landscape * — are in tlie Scottish National Gallery. 
MACDUFF, Archibald, an English etcher and 
sketcher, bom about 1750, who probably did not 
follow art as a profession. Amongst his etched 
plates are : 

The Temptation of Adam ; ttfter Barry, 
Job and his Friends ; after the same. 
The Birth of Venus ; after the tame. 
King lioar ; after the tame. 
Holy Family ; after Raphael. 

MACHADO, CiRiLLO, painted at Lisbon, and 
was a professor at the Academy there early in 
the present century. He distinguished himself 

Principally in portraiture, and is further known for 
is knowledge of architecture and science. An 
attack of apoplexy made him unfit for work in 
1827. His best works are in the Palace at Mafra, 
and in that of the Marquis de Goul^, but an altar- 
piece for the church of the Heart of Jesus, and 
paintings of the Apostles for tlie church of Goletto, 
may also be mentioned. 

MACHEK, Anton, was bom at Podlaczicz, in 
Bohemia, in 1771. He was apprenticed by his 
father, who was a musician in the private chapel 
of the Bisliop of Eoniggriitz, to a cabinet-maker, 
but showing a talent for art, he was sent to Prague. 
There he studied under Wenzel Bluma, and a year 
after under Ludwig Kohl. He afterwards re- 
turned to Eoniggratz, where he painted two altar- 
pieces for the chapel in Grast, and several works 
for the Bishop^s residence. In 1798 he went to 
Vienna and studied at the Academy for a year. 
He then travelled tlirough the country, supporting 
himself by portrait painting. In 1806 he settled 
in Prague, where he died in 1844. 

MACHEREN, Philifp van, a marine painter, 
lived at Middelburg towards the end of the 17th 
century. In 1672 he entered one of the vessels of 
war of the republic, for the express purpose, of 
seeing a naval combat, a subject which he delighted 
to represent He also made several voyages in 
Danish and Swedish vessels for the same purpose. 
90 



His works are rarely seen with his name, nor are 
there any further particulars recorded of him. 
Balkema says he died at Amsterdam, and Immerzeel, 
at Rotterdam. 

MACHIAV£LLI,Zbnobio DB',an excellent early 
Florentine artist, wlio is mentioned by Vasari as 
the best of Benozzo Gozzoli*s pupils. He assisted 
Benozzo in his frescoes in the Campo Santo at 
Pisa. The Gallery of the Louvre possesses a 
'Coronation of the Virgin,' by Machiavelli, bear- 
ing the date 1473. The Pisa Academy has also a 
* Virgin and Child, with Saints,* by him, and the 
National Gnllery of Ireland an * Enthroned 
Madonna, with Saints.* 

M ACH UCA, Pbdbo, a Spanish painter, sculptor, 
and architect of the 16th century, who is spoken 
of in high terms by several writers, but whose 
works are little known. It is said that he lived at 
Granada, and that he there executed several gmnd 
works both as an architect and as a painter, the 
latter being in the manner of Raphael, whose works 
he had studied in Italy. It is certain that he had 
been to Italy ; for he is named among the Eagles^ 
tliat is to say, the most illustrious artists of the 
time, by Francisco d*011anda, whose book was 
finished in 1548. Zani says he flourished between 
1527 and 1548, and probably to a much later 
period. Pachecho, Lazaro Diaz del Valle, and 
Palomino, all speak of Machuca having been in 
Italy. His fame now rests on his works of sculpture 
and architecture in the Alhambra. 

MACHY, Pikrre-Antoine db, bom in Paris 
about 1722, was an excellent painter of architec- 
tural perspectives. He studied undef Servandoni. 
There are by him in the Palais Royal, on the large 
staircase, three perspective views ; and a picture of 
the ruins of a Temple is at Valenciennes. Basan, 
Janinet,and Descourtis reproduced his best works. 
He engraved a Triumphal Arch and two archi- 
tectural pieces in bister after his own designs. He 
died in 1807. 

MACINL See Mancini. 

MACIP, ViCENTB Juan, called also Juan Bau- 
TISTA DB JuANES, or JoANNES, was born at Fuente 
de Higuera, in Valencia, in 1523. Palomino asserts 
that he was a pupil of Raphael, who died two 
vears before he was bom. But he certainly studied 
m Italy, and caught some of the Urbinate*s manner. 
After his return to Spain he settled at Valencia, 
where he established a school of painting. His 
brush was wholly dedicated to religious subjects. 
He designed a series of tapestries for the Arch- 
bishop of Valencia, and was much emploved in the 
different churches and monasteries of the neigh- 
bourhood. His most famous picture was a Madonna, 
called * La Purissima,* painted for the Convent of 
the Jesuits. Macip died in 1579. The following 
works of his are now extant : 

Madrid. Museum. Preaching and Martyrdom of 

St. Stephen. 
The Bearing of the Crom. 
Portrait of Don liUis de CaJi- 
telvig. 
„ The Lut Supper. 
Cathedral. Baptism of Christ. 

„ Conversion of St. Paul. 

„ Holy Family. 

Museum. A Christ. 

Portrait of St. Thomas de 
VillanueTa and Abp. Juan 
deBibera. 
Assumption of theVii^^. 
,f „ Francis de Paala. 

„ Ch. of Jesuitt. The Immaculate Virgin. 



»» 



Valencia. 

>» 

n 
»♦ 






» 



w 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVEIIS. 



Macliae 



Valencia. 

«t 
Villanueva. 



S. J^cola, The Last Supper. 

S. Pedro, The Dead Christ. 

ikTotHM. The Nativity. 

J, Martyrdom of St. Ines. 

., Burial of a devout Monk. 



The paintings of Macip^s daughteiB, Dorotea and 
Margarita, are often attiibuted to their father. 
Dorotea painted an excellent * Cruciflzion ' in the 
church of the Santa Cruz, Valencia. 

McIAN, Robert Roland, a Scottieh subject- 
painter, born in 1803. He was originally an actor, 
and indulged in art as a pastime. From 1836 
onwards liis pictures appeared on the walls of the 
Academy, and at length, in 1840, lie adopted 
painting as a profession. His subjects were chiefly 
illustrative of Highland life and warfare. He was 
a member of the Royal Scottish Academy. He 
died at Hampstead in 1856. His wife was also 
an artist, and taught for many years in one of the 
government schools of design. 

MACKENZIE, Frederick, a water-colour painter, 
was bom in 1787. He was a pupil of Repton, and 
was noted for his conscientious drawings of ancient 
buildings, mostly ecclesiastical. He exliibited at 
the lioyal Academy for the first time in 1804, and 
with the Water-Colour Society in 1820, being 
elected treasurer of that institution in 1835. He 
also published several works, amongst others: 
'Etchings of Landscapes,' 'Specimens of Gothic 
Architecture,' and 'Architectural Antiquities of 
St. Stephen's Chapel, Westminster.' He also made 
the drawings for Britten's 'Salisbury Cathedral.' 
He died in 1854 at the age of 67. 

MACKENZIE, Samuel, a Scotch portrait painter, 
was bom at Cromarty in 1785. He was originally 
a stone-carver, but coming to Edinburgh, he was 
inspired by Baebum's works, and became a portrai1>- 
painter. He obtained a good practice, ana was in 
1830 elected a member of the Scottish Academy. 
He died in 1847. 

MACKEWAN, David Hall, water-colour painter, 
was bom in 1817. He exhibited drawings at the 
Royal Academy from 1837 to 1849, and at Suffolk 
8t from 1840 to 1844. In 1848 he was elected a 
member of the Institute of Painters in Water-Colours, 
to which from 1840 he was a large contributor. 
He published ' Lessons on Trees in Water-Colours.' 
He died in 1873. 

MACELIN, Thomas, an English engraver in the 
latter part of the 18th century. He engraved 
6uercino*8 'Peace and War/ and the plates for 
Bunbury's Shakespeare. 

MACLEAN, Alexander, an English subject 
painter, who exhibited at tlie Royal Academy from 
1872 to 1877 ; he died at St Leonard's in the latter 
year, after showing much promise. 

MACLEAT, Kenneth, a Scotch landscape and 
miniature painter, bom in 1802 at Oban. He was 
a Highlander by birth, but was educated and lived 
at Edinburgh, where he became a member of the 
Scottish Acoderoy. He died in 1878. 

MACLEOD, John, a Scotch .animal painter, 
practising at Edinburgh, whose forte was dogs 
and horses. He died in 1872. 

MACLISE, Daniel, bom at Cork on the 25th 
January, 1811, was the son of a Scottish father 
and an Irish mother. Some doubts have been 
thrown upon the status of \i\a family by incon- 
sistencies between his own assertions and recorded 
factfly but it is known tliat, in spite of the strong 
inclination he had already shown foi art, he 
was placed by his father at an early age in the 



office of a banking firm at Cork. But his natural 
bent was not to be frustrated, for he soon after 
left the desk and devoted himself to painting. He 
first pursued his studies at the Cork School of Art, 
and received instruction in anatomy from Dr. 
WoodroflEe. To this branch of study he devoted 
great attention, and thus laid the foundation for 
his future excellence in figure drawing. He gained 
much popularity and many friendships in his 
native city; and a sketch of Sir Walter Scott 
created such a sensation that he soon secured many 
commissions for portraits. In 1826 he made an 
excursion into the charming county of Wicklow, 
where he found ample employment for his pencil. 
On his return to Cork he continued his portrait 
practice until he had saved enough to enable him 
to gratify his desire of proceeding to London. 
Arriving in th6 metropolis m July, 1827, he entered 
the schools of the Royal Academy, and soon 
became one of their most distinguished students. 
He obtained the silver medals in both the life and 
the painting schools, and crowned his career by 
obtaming the gold medal, in 1829, for his ' Choice 
of Hercules.' This distinction entitled him to the 
travelling studentship of the Academy, of which 
privilege, however, he did not avail himself. In 
the year 1829 Maclise's works first appeared on 
the walls of the Royal Academy; he exhibited 
'Malvolio affecting the Count,' a subject which 
found employment for his brush a second time 
in 1840. Several portraits were exhibited by 
him in the next year (1830), and amongst them 
one of the unfortunate Miss Landon ^L. E. K), 
whose acquaintance he had made in tne literary 
circles to which he had obtained introduction 
soon after his arrival in London, He also pro- 
duced a portrait of^Sir John Soane, the architect, 
to which, for various causes, considerable atten- 
tion was drawn. Maclise was thus induced to con- 
tribute to 'Eraser's Magazine,' from 1830 to 1838, 
a series of eighty-one sketches of eminent persons 
of the day, each portrait being accompanied 
by humorous letter-press from the pen of Dr. 
Maginn. In the year 1833 Maclise exhibited 

* Snap-Apple Night ' at the Royal Academy, and 
at the British Institution * Mokanna Unveiling 
ing his Features to Zelica,' from Moore's * Lalla 
Rookh.' Owing to the fame he obtained through 
these pictures, he abandoned the practice of por- 
trait painting, and had not long to wait before he 
attained the full membership of the Academy, for, 
elected A.R.A. in 1866, he became R.A. in 1840. 
In this year he again visited Paris, and soon after 
began to be connected with the decoration of the 
new Houses of Parliament. In July, 1844, six 
artists were commissioned to paint subjects for the 
House of Lords. Amongst these Maclise was 
assigned 'I'he Spirit of Chivalry,' and afterwards 

* The Spirit of Justice,' which had previously been 
allotteci to W. C. Thomas. He afterwards painted 
the celebrated pictures of *The Meeting of Wel- 
lington and Blucher after Waterloo,' and the 
companion subject, ' The Death of Nelson ' ; the 
latter was finished in the year 1804. At the 
Paris Exhibition of 1855 Maclise was a juror ; for 
that held in London in 1862 he designed the medal. 
In 1863 Maclise gave some valuable evidence 
before the Commission on the Royal Academy. 
The death of Sir Charles Eastlake, in 1866, occa- 
sioned a vacancy in the presidency of the Academy, 
and the office was, on its refusal by Sir EHwin 
Landseer, offered to Maclise, who also declined it. 

91 



L 



Macnee 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Uadot 



Similar motives appear to have influenced him in 
refusing to accept the honour of knighthood. His 
health had been much impaired by his constant 
attendance at the Palace of Westminster, and he 
never wholly recovered the loss, in the latter part 
of 1865, of his sister Isabella, who had always 
lived with him, for he was unmarried. His death 
occurred on the 25th of April, 1870, at his house 
in Cheyne Walk, Chelsea. The shortest account of 
Maclise would be incomplete which did not make 
some mention of the books illustrated by him. 
Chief among these were Moore's ^ Irish Melodies,* 
published by Longmans ; Biirger's ballad poem 
*Leonore'; and Lord Lytton's 'Pilgrims of the 
Rhine.' Under this category should also be 
classed the series of designs for ^ The Story of the 
Norman Conquest/ which was exhibited at the 
Royal Academy in 1857. The drawings in this 
work are forty-two in number, and were executed 
in the leisure moments of the twelve years previous 
to their exhibition. The following are some of 
Maclise's principal works: 

Snap-Apple Night. 

Mokanna unveiling his features to Zelica. 

Macbeth and the Witches. 

Merry Christmas in the Baron's Hall. (National 

Gallery of Irelmid,) 
Olivia and Sophia fitting out Moses for the fair. 
The Banquet-Scene in Macbeth. 
The Play-Scene in Hamlet. (In the National Gallery,) 
Malvolio and the Countess. {The same.) 
The Origin of the Haip. 
Scene from ' Comus.' 
Scene from ' Undine.' 
Ordeal by Touch. 
Noil's Sacrifice. 

The Betum of Moses from the Fair. 
Caxton's Printing-OfiSce at Westminster. 
Blacready as Werner. 
The Mairiase of Strongbow and Eva. 
Orlando and Charles the Wrestler. 
Peter the Great in Deptf ord Dockyard* 
The Trysting-Place. 
A First Sitting. 
Isabella's Favourite. 
Portraits of Mrs. S. O. Hall, Miss Landon (L. E. L.), 

llioHias Campbell, Lord Castlereagh, Miss Hard- 

wicke, Charles Diokens, and others. 
Interview of Charles with CromwelL 
Salvator Rosa painting Masaniello. 
Scene from * Gil Bias.' 
Alfred in the tent of Guthrum. 
The Story of the Norman Conquesth 
Othello, Desdemona, and Emilia. 
The Sleep of Duncan. 
King Cophetua. 

MACNEE, Daniel, Sir, was bom at Fintry, 
Stirlingshire, in 1806. His father dying when he 
was only six months old, his mother went to 
Glasgow, and there, as he showed a taste for 
drawing, he was apprenticed in 1820 to John Knox, 
a landscape painter. After four years spent in 
Knox's studio, he was employed at lithographic 
work, but at nineteen he removed to Cumnock, 
where he was engaged to paint snuff-boxes. He 
then went to Edinburgh, and entered the studio 
of the engraver Lizars. At the same time he 
enrolled himself a pupil in the Trustees Academy, 
and in 1825 he first exhibited at the Royal Scottish 
Academy. He was elected a member of that body 
in 1829. He gained his reputation exclusively by 
his portraits. In 1832 he returned to Glasgow, 
and there remained till 1876, when, on his election 
as President of the Scottish Academy, he removed 
to Edinburgh, where he died in 1882. He was 
an occasional exhibitor at the Royal Academy. 

92 



MACOUKT, C, is stated by Horace Walpole to 
have been a native of Germany. He resided in 
London several years, where he practised portrait 
painting, both in oil colours and miniature, and 
was a member of the Chartered Society of Artists, 
with whom he exhibited from the year 1761 till 
1767. In the ' Addenda * to the ' Anecdotes ' he is 
said to have died in January, 1768. He is also 
stated to have scraped some mezzotints. 

MACRET, Charles Franc^ois Adrien, a French 
engraver, was bom at Abbeville in 1750, and died 
in Paris in 1783. He was a pupil of N. G. Dupuis, 
and engraved a few plates, of which the following 
are perhaps the most important : 

Christ and the Woman of Samaria; after Van der 

Werf 
The Arrival of Boasseau in the Elysian Fields ; after 

3foreau, 
The Reception of Voltaire in the Elysian Fields ; after 

Fauvel. 
The Sacrifice to Cupid ; after Greuze, 
The First Fruits of Self-Love ; after Gtmzdfez, 

MACRINO. See Fava, Giangiacomo. 

MADDEN, Wyndham, an English portrait 
painter, who lived in the latter part of the l8th 
century. There is a mezzotint after him by 
Dickinson. 

MADDERSTAG, Michtel, or Michael, (or 
Maddersteg,) was bom at Amsterdam about 1659, 
and is called by Houbraken the ablest scholar of 
L. Bakhuiscn. He was invited to the court of 
Berlin, where he passed the greater part of his 
life. In later years he returned to Amsterdam 
and took to trade. He died in 1709. Two sea- 
pieces by him are in the Berlin Museum. He was 
a shipbuilder as well as a painter, and constructed 
a frigate for King Frederick I. of Prussia, which 
was afterwards brought to St. Petersburg. His 
sea-pieces and storms approach so near to the 
pictures of Bakhuisen in the drawing of vessels, 
the movement of the waves, and the lightness of 
the skies, that they are sometimes mistaken for 
those of that master. 

MADDOX, Willis, portrait and historical 
painter, was bom at Bath in 1813. He executed 
several works for Beckford of Fonthill, and first 
exhibited at the Academy in 1844. He was invited 
to Constantinople, and painted the Sultan. He 
died at Pera in 1853. 

MADER, Georg, a painter, was bom near 
Steinach, in North Tyrol, in 1824. His father 
was a miller, and he was apprenticed to the same 
trade, but at a very early age displayed a taste 
for drawing, and at sixteen he went to Innsbmck 
to leam painting. From 1844 till the year of his 
death he was actively engaged in adding to the 
religious art of his country, the years between 
1867 and 1873 being employed in decorating th^ 
church of Steinach with frescoes of scenes in the 
life of Christ. Mader died in 1881. 

MADIJN (or Madin). See Mandijn. 

MADIONA, Antoine, an historical painter, bora 
at Syracuse in 1650. He was a pupil of A. Scilla. 
He afterwards went to Rome, and joined Preti, 
whom he accompanied to Malta, He died in 
1719. 

MADOT, Adolphus M., figure painter, was a 
student at the schools of the Royal Academy. He 
executed a large number of drawings on wood for 
a series of papers on * British Artists/ published in 
the * Art Journal.* The few small pictures — figure 
subjects — exhibited by him showed signs of future 



ICadou 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Haffei 



ability, but he died of consumption, at an early 
age, in 1861. 

MADOU, Jean Baftiste, a Belgian lithographer 
and genre painter, bom at Brussels in 1796. In 
early life he was engaged in commerce. Then, 
turning his attention to art, he became a pupil of 
Celestin Francois, and studied in the Brussels 
Academy. For several years he devoted himself 
chiefly to lithography, and illustrated many works 
in that fashion. Among these are : * Un voyage 
pittoresque dans les Pays-Bas' (1821-8); 'Cos- 
tumes Belgiques' (1830); 'Costumes de Tarm^e 
Beige*; 'Physionomie de la soci^t^ en Europe' 
(1837) ; * Scenes de la vie des Peintres de I'Ecole 
Flamande ] ( 1 840). After 1840, however, he chiefly 
devoted himself to genre painting, in which he 
achieved a high reputation. For several years he 
taught in the Belgian military school. He died 
in 1877. Several of his chief works are in the 
museums of Brussels and Antwerp. 

MADRAZO, Josi6, a Spanish portrait and his- 
torical painter, born at Santander in 1781. He 
was a pupil of Gregorio Ferro, but following 
Charles IV. into France, he received lessons from 
David, and afterwards went to Rome. He returned 
to Spain in 1819, and established a National School 
of Painting. He was Director of the Academy 
and Museum at Madrid. He died in 1859. His 
chief works are : 

Christ before Annas. 
Death of YiriathuB. 
Portrait of Ferdinand YII. 
Sacred and Profane Love. 

MA ELLA, Mariano Salvador, a Spanish his- 
torical, landscape, and marine painter, bom at 
Valencia in 1739. He studied painting under 
Gonzalez and sculpture under Castro. He became 
Director of the Academy of S. Fernando and 
first painter to the king. He died at Madrid in 
1819. Among his pictures are : 



Madrid 


Mutsum. The Four Seasons. 


n 


„ The Asoension. 


n 


n The Last Sapper. 



MAENNL. See Mannl. 

MAES, A ART VAN, Arnoult, painter and en- 
graver, was bom at Gouda about 1620. He was 
a pupil of Teniers. He travelled through Italy 
and France, and died in his own country when 
still young. He painted chiefly village festivals 
and peasant scenes. 

MAES, Dirk, painter and engraver, was bom at 
Haarlem in 1656. He was a pupil successively of 
Mommers, Berghem, and Hugtenburg, but worked 
in the style of the last He painted hunting and 
battle scenes, excelling chiefly in his horses. He 
came to England, where he painted the ^ Battle of 
the Boyne,* and met with some success. His death 
took place in 1717. 

MAES, GoDEFROY, a Flemish painter, born at 
Antwerp in 1649. He was a pupil of his father, 
Godefroy Maes, who died in 1679, and of Pieter 
van Lint. In 1682 he was appointed Director of 
the Antwerp Academy. The 'Four Quarters of 
the World,' four designs for tapestry, * The Mar- 
tyrdom of St. Luke and St. George,' an * ARSuiiip- 
tion,' and a * Fishmarket,' at Venice, are his best 
known works. He died about 1710. 

MAES, Jan, the elder, bora at Alkmaar in 1631. 
He was a genre painter, but seems to have been 
iin amateur. He entered the Guild of St. Luke 
in 1658. He painted in the style of Nicolas 



Maes, but with far inferior talent. He died in 
1693. 

MAES, Jan, the younger, was born at Haarlem 
in 1655. He was a son of Pieter Maes, and pro- 
bably a pupil of Dirk Maes. He excelled in the 
painting of horses, battles, and encampments. 
He died in 1690. 

MAES, Jan Baptist, a Flemish historical, por- 
trait, and genre painter, born at Ghent in 1794. 
He was the son and pupil of Maes-Canini, with 
whom he is sometimes confounded. He completed 
his studies in Italy, where he stayed from 1821 
to 1826. Amongst his pictures are: 

Amsterdam. Museum. The Good Samaritan. 

Ghent. Academy. Holy Family. 

Hamburg. Museum. Roman Frmt-seller. 

Munich. NewPinakothek. Roman Peasant praying. 

Rotterdam. Museum, Apollo and the Muses. 

MAES, (or MAAS,) Nicolaas, one of the best of 
the Dutch genre painters, was born at Dordrecht 
in 1632. He studied under Rembrandt in Amster- 
dam, and in his earlier pictures he followed his 
master somewhat closely. About 1665 he left 
Rembrandt's studio and removed to Antwerp, where 
he lived until 1678. In that year he returned to 
Amsterdam, where he died in 1693. This is all 
we know of his life. The change in the style of 
his later pictures is so remarkable that it has been 
suggested that they are by another painter of the 
same name, a notion that receives some support 
from the fact that the signatures upon them are 
ornamented with flourishes which never appear on 
his earlier and far better works. It is possible 
that the Maes who returned to Amsterdam to die 
in 1693 was the son of Rembrandt's pupil. Cer- 
tainly no other example of so radical a change in 
a master's style, both of conception and of execu- 
tion, can be pointed to. Maes' early pictures are 
extremely rare. Probably more than two-thirds 
of them are in England. The National Gallery 
possesses at least three of the very highest quali^. 
The following are his chief works : 

Amsterdam. Ryks Mus. Old Woman spinning. 

„ Another Version of the same 

subject. 
„ Girl at a Window. 

„ Six Coileetion. The Inquisitive Servant. 
Berlin. MuMum. A Philosopher. 

Brussels. Boyal Museum. An old Woman reading. 
Dresden. Gallery. Two Women in a Kitchen. 

London. Apsley House. Selling Milk. 

„ The Listening Girl. 

Bridyetoater Ho. A Girl threading her Needle. 
Buckingham Pal. The Listening Girl. 
National Gallery. The Cradle. 

The Dutch House-wife. 
The Idle Servant. 
Portrait of a Girl (237 ; ascribed 
to Rembrandt), 
Petersburg. Hennitage. An Interior. 

MAES-CANNINI, Jan Baptist Lodewyk, a 
Flemish historical painter, born at Ghent in 1794. 
He was a Professor in the Academy of Ghent He 
died at Rome in 1856. The Ghent Museum 
possesses his chief works ; they are of no great 
merit. 

MAESTRO GIORGIO, II (or El Maestro 
Jorge). See Ingles. 

MAFFEI, Francesco, a painter and engraver, 
was a native of Vicenza, and at first a scholar of 
Peranda, though he afterwards became a follower 
of the style of Paolo Veronese. He died at Padua 
in 1600. IliH picture of St. Anna, in the church 

i»3 



M 



f» 



n 






L 



Magadan 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Magnasco 



of San Michele at Vicenza, and other works by him 
in the public palace, exhibit a poetical fancy, and 
in colour are quite worthy of the Venetian school. 
It is to be regretted that he adopted a hasty and 
slight mode of execution, as many of his pictures 
have already become nearly obliterated. Of his 
large * Paradise,' in the church of San Francesco 
at Padua, scarcely a trace remains. He engraved 
his own picture of ' The Death of St. Francis ' ; his 

* Trials of Job * was engraved by P. Monaco. 

MAGADAN Y GAMAHRA, Joan Cirilo, was a 
miniaturist of some merit, and first secretary to 
the Royal Academy of St. Ferdinand. He pub- 
lished in 1743 a little book on his art, called the 

* Amateur's Precious Torch,* and wrote some notes 
on the various styles of painting, which were 
published two years after his death. Neither of 
these works, according to Cean Bermudez, possesses 
much practical utility or literary merit Their 
author died in 1762. 

MAGANZA, Alessandko, the son of G. B. 
Maganza the older, was born at Vicenza in 1556. 
After receiving some instruction from his father, 
he became a scholar of Giuvanni Antonio Fasolo, 
and studied the works of Paolo Veronese and 
Zelotti. His principal works are the ' Adoration of 
the Magi,' in the church of Sun Domenico at 
Vicenza ; and the ' Martyrdom of St. Giustina,' in 
Sun Pietro. He died in 1630 at Vicenza, of grief 
for the loss of his two sons, Girolamo and 
Marcan'1x>nio, and of his grand-children, the sous 
of Giovanni Maganza the younger, all of whom 
died of the plague in the same year (1630). 

MAGANZA, Giovanni BArnsrA, the elder, was 
bom at Vicenza in 1509, and was the head of a 
family of artists, who did credit to their native 
town. He was brought up in the school of Titian, 
whose style he followed with some success ; but he 
was more distinguished as a painter of portraits 
than of historical subjects. He was one of the 
refutable poets of the day, and published several 
works under the name of ' Magagno.' He died in 
1689. 

MAGANZA, Giovanni BArriSTA, tlie younger, 
the son and scholar of Alessandro Maganza, was 
bom at Vicenza in 1577. He painted history in 
the style of his father, to whom he showed himself 
little inferior in his picture of St. Benedetto, in the 
church of Santa Giustina at Padua. He assisted 
Alessandro in many of his principal works at 
Vicenza, where he died of the plague in 1617. 

MAGATTA, II. See Simonetti, Dom. 

MAGATTI, PiETRO Antonio, a painter of 
Vaccalo, born in 1687, studied at Bologna under 
Dal Sole, and painted several pictures for the 
churches in Padua. He died at Varese in 1768, 

MAGDALENEN-SMITZ. See Smitz. 

MAGES, Joseph, was born at Imst, in Tyrol, in 
1728 ; he studied the art of painting at his native 
place, and at Innsbruck, Vienna, Stuttgart, and 
lastl}' at Augsburg, UTider G. Rotpletz. He was an 
excellent painter of history, both in oil and fresco, 
and was principally employed at Stuttgart, Colmar, 
and Strasburg. He died in 1769. His two chief 
productions are at Augsburg, and consist of a 

* St. Mary of Egypt,' in the Salvatorkirche, and a 

* History of St. August in,' on the ceiling of the 
church of the Holy Cross. 

MAGGI, Giovanni, was bom at Rome about 
1666, and died about 1620. He painted landscapes 
and architectural views, but is more known as an 
engraver than as a painter. In 1618 he published 



a set of plates of the principal fountains in Rome, 
engraved in conjunction with Domenico Parasachi. 
He had undertaken to engrave the plan of Rome, 
on a very large scale, with all the principal 
buildings ; but from the want of encouragement 
he was not able to carry his object into execution. 
We have by him the following prints : 

A Landflcape with Ruins and a Waterfall, with figures ; 

J. Matus in. etfee, 1595. 
Figura della Vita homa&a ; Joh. Mtnuafee. lOOO. 
The Portrait of a Cardinal ; life-rize. 

MAGIMEL, Albert, a French painter, was bom 
in Paris in 1799. He was a pupil of Regnault 
and Hersent, and afterwards of Ingres. He 
executed some paintings in a chapel in St. 
Eustache, Paris. He died in 1877. 

MAGIOLLI. See Maqlioli. 

MA GIOTTO, Domenico, (or Majotto,) a painter, 
was born at Venice in 1713. He was a pupil 
of Piazetta, in whose style he executed several 
pictures for churches and private houses. He died 
m 1794. 

MAGIOTTO, Francesco, to Majotto,) son of 
Domenico. was bom in 1750. He was instructed 
by his father, and painted historical and still-life 
pictures. He died at Venice in 1805. 

MAGISTRIS, SiMONB dr, was a native of 
Caldarola, in the Papal States, and flourished 
towards the close of the 16th century. He dis- 
tinguished himself as a painter and sculptor. He 
has left a picture in the principal church of Orsino, 
representing ' St Philip and St James,' painted in 
1686 ; and at a more advanced period of his life 
produced some works at Ascoli, particularly a 
* Madonna del Rosario,' in San Domenico. 

MAGLIAR, Andrba, an Italian engraver, was 
bom at Naples about the year 1692. He engraved 
some plates after Francesco Solimena. 

MAGLIAR, GlUBEPPE, was the son of Andrea 
Magliar, by whom he was instructed in engraving. 
He gave unusual promise of ability, but died very 
young. He engraved a plate representing * Christ 
appearing to St, William,' after Solimena. 

MAGLIOLI, Giovanni Andrea, (Magiolu, 
Majolus, or Maliolus,) worked at Rome from 1.580 
to 1610, and engraved a series of excellent plates 
in which marine gods and monsters were introduced. 

MAGNANI, Cristoforo, was bom at Pizzighet- 
tone, a castle in the vicinity of Cremona, and was a 
scholar of Bernardino Campi. He flourished about 
the year 1580, and painted history and portraits. 
He is said to have possessed so retentive a memory, 
that he could draw a most correct likeness of any 
person he had once seen. He painted some con- 
siderable works in fresco, in conjunction with 
Cavaliere Malosso and Mainardi, and at Placentia 
there is a * St. James and St. John ' by him. 

MAGNASCO, Alessandro, called II Lissan- 
DRiNO, was bom at Genoa in 1681, and was the son 
of Stefuno Magnasco. He studied at Milan under 
Filippo Abbiati, whose style he imitated, though 
he painted on a smaller scale and diflerent subjects. 
These were public processions, military exercises, 
and barabocciate. He is styled by Lanzi the 
* Michelagnolo delle Battnglie ' of the Genoe e 
school. There are several of his pictures in the 
Pitti Palace at Florence, where he resided some 
time, being patronized by tlie Grand Duke Giovanni 
Gastone. He died in 1747. 

MAGNASCO, STKFANO,was bora at Genoa about 
1635. lie was a pupil of Valerie Castello. He 
spent five years at Rome, after which ho returned 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Mair 



to his own country, and was employed in the 

E aiming of altar-pieces. His deatn is stated by 
iographers to havq occurred in 1665, but it must 
have taken place much later in the century. 

MAGNUS, Eduard, portrait and genre painter, 
was bom at Berlin in 1799. After spending some 
time in the study of medicine, architecture, and 
philosophy, he at last devoted hii^self to painting, 
and entered the studio of Schlesinj^er. He ex- 
hibited for the first time in 1826, after which he 
travelled in France, Italy, Spain, and England. In 
1837 he became a member, and in 1844 a professor, 
of the Berlin Academy. He obtained much re- 
cognition from the State, and died at Berlin in 
1872. Among his best pictures we may mention : 

A portrait of Jennj Lind. 

A portrait gronp of the Royal Family of Prussia. 

A portrait of Mendelssohn. 

And two genre pictures in the Berlin National Gallery. 

MAGNUS, OiTO. See Stackelberg. 

MAGRI (or Del Magro). See Gibaldi. 

MAGUIRE, Adelaide A., an English subject 
painter, bom in 1852. Her works, which were 
chiefly scenes of childhood, were exliibited at the 
Society of Lady Artists (of which she was a 
member) and at Uie Royal Academy. She died, 
unmarried, in 1875. 

MAHMUD. See Yahia bem Mahmud. 

MAHSELKIRCHEK, Gabriel, of Mum'ch, who 
flourished about the year 1470, is the author of 
two early pictures in the Schleissheim Gallery. 
They represent * Christ bearing the Cross,* and the 
* Crucifixion.* 

MAHUE, GuiLLAUME, was bom at Brassels in 
1517, and died at the same city in 1569. He was 
a portrait painter of great repute in his time ; but 
his pictures are rare, and we have no particulars 
of his life. 

MAI LLE-SAINT-PRIX, Louis Antoine, was 
born in Paris in 1796, and instructed by Bidault, 
Hersent, and Picot. He was an excellent painter 
of landscapes, and several wall-paintings by him 
are in the church of Etiolles. Among his best 
works may be mentioned : 

A View of the Pont de Breoil. 
The Ruina of St. Jean de Pile. 
The Vallev of Corbeil. 
The Interior of a Honte at Damascus. 
A Cataract on the Nile. 

MAILLET, Bertrand, a French historical 
painter, a native of Lorraine. In 1457 he was at 
work in the Ducal Palace at Nancy. He died in 
1481. 

MAILLET, Joseph, engraver, was a native of 
France, and worked in Paris in the last quarter of 
the 18th century. He engraved several plates 
which showed great promise, but died young, in 
1788. 

MAINARDI, Andrea, called II Chiaveghino, 
was a native of Cremona, and flourished from 1590 
till 1613. He was brought up in the school of 
Bernardino Campi, and was one of his ablest 
disciples. In conjunction with his nephew, Marc 
Aktonio Mainardi, he executed several consider- 
able works at Cremona. One of his best pictures 
is the ' Marriage of 8L Anna,* in the church of the 
Eremitani. 

MAINARDI, Lati'Anzio, called ' LAriANZio of 
Bologna,' an Italian painter, bom at Bologna, who 
flourished in the latter part of the 16th century. He 
was a pupil of the Carracci, but afterwards went 
to Rome, where he was employed by Pope Sixtus V. 



in the decoration of several churches. He lived 
too fast, and died at Viterbo at the age of twenty- 
seven. 

MAINARDI, Sebastiano di Bartolo, was bom 
at San Giiuignano in the 15th century, and, accord- 
ing to Pecori, died about 1515. He was the pupil, 
favourite assistant, and brother-in-law of Donienico 
Ghirlandnio. He painted the fresco of * St. Thomas 
receiving the Girdle of the Virgin,* in the Baroncelli 
Chapel at Santa Croce, Florence * and a life-sized 
fresco, 'Virgin and Child in glory,' in a taber- 
nacle in the Via San Giovanni, at Gipiignano. 
Other works by Mainardi are : 

Berlin. A Madonna. 

„ Portrait of a Young Man. 

Paris. Louvre, Virgin and Child. (Pictures 

nearly or quite identical at 
Florence, Naples, and Saa 
Gimignano.) 
B^me. dfusdeCristiano. A Nativity. 
San Gimignano. Col- \ Glorified Virgin adored by six 
legiale. j Saints. 
„ 8. Aaostijio. The Four Doctors of the Church. 

1500. 
„ „ Sta. Lucia between SS. Gimig- 

nano and Nicholas of Pari. 
„ Fal, Comun* Two Madonnas. 

MAINE RO, Giovanni Battista, was born at 
Genoa about the year 1610, and was a disciple of 
Luciano Borzone. At an early age he distinguished 
himself by the production of some good historical 
pictures of a small size ; but in after years he 
was chiefly employed in portraiture. He died of 
the phigiie in 1657. 

MAIR, Albzandkr, (or Mayr,) a German en- 
graver on wood and on copper, was born at 
Augsburg, probably about 1559. He was living 
up to 1620. We have by this artist some book- 
plates and frontispieces, executed with the graver 
in a masterly style. He engraved the frontispiece 
to Velser's 'Dissertation on the Antiquities of 
Augnburg,' published in 1596« and that of the 
* Uranometria,' by John Bayer, dated 1603. He 
usually marked his plates with his name or 
initials, or with a monogram. Among tlicni there 
are: 

COPPER-PLATES. 

Johann Welser of Augsburg. 
St. Sebastian. 

A frontispiece, with arms leaning against two columns ; 
excellent and very rare. 

WOODCUTS ASCRIBED TO HIM. 

A plan of Augsburg. 

A print with the portraits of the Emperor Rudolph II., 

King Philip II. of Spain, Archduke Ferdinand, and 

Archduke uharles of Austria. 

MAIR, JoH. Ulr. See Mayr. 

MAIR, La. See La Mair. 

MAIR, NicoLAUs Alexander, an old Gennnn 
painter and engraver, who was working from 
1492 to 1614, was a native of Landshut, probably 
the town so named in Lower Bavaria. From the 
likeness in his style of engraving to that of Martin 
Schongauer it has been conjectured that he was 
taught by the latter, but others believe Wohlgemuth 
to have been his master. He is said to have been 
the inventor of the process of engraving known 
as chiaroscuro. Among others we have tlie fol- 
lowing prints by him, signed with his name or a 
monogram : 

David and Goliath. 

The Nativity. 

Christ Bearing the Cross^ 

95 



I 



Haison-Neuve 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



ICaleuvre 



The Virgin and Child. 

St. Anne. 

The Wise Men's Offering. 

Samson carrying off the Gates of Gaza. 

Samson and Delilah. 

The Martyrdom of St. Sebastian. 

A Man tidking to a Woman, with a Dog snarling at a 

Monkey. 
Death and the three loving couples. 
The Story of Three Brothers. 
The Balcony. 
Holy Family : in chiaroscnro. 

MAISON-NEUVE, a modem French engraver, 
mentioned by Basan. He engraved the French 
Parnassus, from a bronze, and several portraits, 
among which is that of Jacques Theodore Klein. 

MAITRE ROUX. See De' Rossi, Rosso. 

MAJA, Giovanni Stbfano, an Italian historical 
and portrait painter. He was bom at Genoa in 
1672, and was a pupil of Solimena. He died in 
1747. 

MAJO, Juan db. See Vermeuek. 

MAJOLI, Clemente, (or Majola,) was bom at 
Ferrara about the year 1625, and studied at Rome 
imder Pietro da Cortona. He was a reputable 
painter of history, and some of his pictures in the 
churches of Rome and Ferrara, especially the 
latter, are meritorious productions. In the church 
of San Paolo, at Ferrara, is a picture of ^ St Maria 
Maddalena de' Pazzi ' ; and in San Giuseppe, * St 
Niccolb da Tolentino, supported by an Angel.' 

MAJOLUS. See Maglioli. 

MAJOR, Isaac, a German painter and engraver, 
was bom at Frankfort about the year 1576. Early 
in his life he went to Prague, where be became a 
scholar of Rolandt Savery, at that time painter to 
Rodolph II. He was also instructed by Giles 
Sadeler, in whose style he engraved several plates. 
Major died in poverty at Vienna in 1630. We 
have by this artist the following : 

A set of six Landscapes, Views in Bohemia; after 

P. Stephard. 
A set ofnine romantic Views, signed : Isaac Major fee, 
A very large Landscape, with the figure of St. Jerome ; 

after RUandt Savery. Isaac Major scul. Vienna. 

1622. 
The Emperor Badolph 11. in a Triumphal Car, with 

Swans and Eagles ; inscribed Ite Triumphale* felieet, 

&c. 
St. Jerome in a Cave ; fffter Savery. 
Portrait of Admiral van Tromp ; after Paas. 

MAJOR, Thomas, an eminent English engraver, 
was bom in 1720. He resided some years of the 
early part of his life in Paris, where he was 
thrown into prison by the Government in reprisals 
for the impnsonment of French soldiers taken at 
Culloden. He there engraved several plates after 
Berchem, Wouwerman, &c. On his return to 
England he distinguished himself by a variety of 
plates from portraits, laiidscapes, and other sub- 
jects, executed in a neat, firm style. He was for 
forty years seal engraver to tlie king, and in* 
1770 received from the Royal Academy the honour 
of being elected first associate engraver. In 1768 
he published a set of tw^enty-four prints, entitled 
'The Ruins of Poestum, otherwise Posidonia, in 
Magna Graecia,' after the designs of J. B. Borra. 
He died in Covent Garden in 1799. On some of 
his prints after Berchem and Arnold Mnas he lias 
put an anagram of his name, Jorma^ or Jor sculp. 
The following are his principal plates : 



PORTRAITS. 



John Carteret, Earl Granrille. 
CHnliiial Pole. 
96 



1757. 



VARIOUS SUBJECTS. 

The I>eparture of Jacob; aft r F. Lauri. 

The Good Shepherd ; after MvriUo. 

Two Landscapes ; after Gaspar Potissin. 

A Landscape, with a Man driving Sheep; after Rubens, 

Two Flemish Festivals ; after Tenien. 

The Manege ; after Wouwerman. 

The Travellers ; after N, Berchem. 

Two Landscaped: Morning and Evening ; after the tame. 

The Four Seasons ; after Ferg. 

A View near Haarlem ; after Van der Neer. 

A Sea-port ; after Claude. 

A. View of Poute Mole, near Borne ; after the tarns. 

MALAGON. See Villafranca. 

MALAINE, Renier, a Flemish painter of some 
merit, who flourished about the middle of the last 
century. The town of Tournai possesses some of 
his pictures. 

MALAINE, Joseph Laurent, son of Renier, 
bom at Toumai in 1746. In 1787 he was ap- 
pointed flower painter to the Gobelins. In 1793 
he retired to Alsace, but returned to Paris in 1796, 
where he resumed his favourite study. He died 
in Paris in 1809. 

MALBODIUS. See Gossaert. 

MALBONE, Edward G., a portrait painter, was 
bora at Newport, in America, in 1777. He early 
displayed a talent for art, and while still a boy 
painted a scene for a theatre. At seventeen he 
established himself in Providence as a portrait 
painter. In 1796 he went to Boston, and afterwards 
to New York, Philadelphia, and Charleston. In 
1801 he came to England, hud was urged by West 
to remain, but retumed to Charleston in the same 
year. There he painted miniatures, but his health 
giving way, he abandoned his profession and went 
to Savannah, where he died in 1807. 

MALCOLM, James Peller, an English topo- 
graphical draughtsman and engraver, born at Phila- 
delphia in 1767. He came to England about 1788, 
and studied in the schools of the Academy. He 
also received instmction from Benjamin West and 
Wright of Derby. Not succeeding with the brush, 
he turned to engraving. He worked for the 

* Gentleman's Magazine,' and had much employ- 
ment on topographical subjects. He died in 
London in 1815. Specimens of his work are to be 
found in Nichols* * History of Leicestershire ' ; 

* Excursions tlirough Kent * ; ' History of Carica- 
turing' (1808); 'Anecdotes of the Manners and 
Customs of London in the 18th century * (1808-11) ; 
Granger's * Biographical History of England.' 

MALDEGHKM, Jean Baptiste, a Flemish 
landscape and animal painter, bom in 1803. He 
studied in- the Bruges Academy, and died at 
Brussels in 1841. 

MALDEGHEM, Romain Eugene van, was born 
at Denterghem, in Flanders, in 1813. He attended 
the Academy at Bruges in 1825, and afterwards 
that of Antwerp. From 1838 to 1842 he travelled 
in Italy and the East. On his return he settled at 
Brussels, but in 1852 became Director of the 
Academy at Bruges. After a life of much success, 
he died at BrusKcls in 1867. Perhaps his most 
important picture is 'Charles V. in his cell.' 

MALE UV HE, Pierre, a French engraver, was 
horn in Paris in 1740. He was a pupil of Bean- 
varlet, and visited London, where he was for some 
time under Sir Robert Strange. On his return to 
Paris he engraved some portraits and other 
suhjeots. The following are his most important 
pliitos : 



ICaU 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Kaiton 



PORTRAITS. 

OnstATOB Adolphus, King of Sweden. 
Count d*Aranda. 
M. d*Alembert. 
M. de Lalande. 

SURJECTS. 

The Satyr and the Peasant ; afttr Dietrich, 
The Spoiled Child ; after Greuze. 
A Sea-storm ; after Makhuisen. 
Boors regaling ; after JBrouver. 
The Bath of Diana ; after Marillier. 

MALI, HuBKRTUS, bom at Mauren, Wiirtem- 
berg, in 1818. He was an elder brother of Christian 
Friedrich Mali (a living artist), and studied paint- 
infi^ under P. F. Peters the elder, at Nymwegen ; 
Bubeequently be worked at Hoheneck, near Lud- 
wigsborg. His landscapes are poetic in conception 
and crisply painted. He was drowned while 
bathing near Altenaer, in 1839. His works are 
mostly at Mannheim and Stuttgart. 

MALI, JoHANN, a landscape painter, and second 
brother of Christian Friedrich Mali, was bom at 
Broekhuizen in 1828, and instructed by P. F. 
Peters the younger, at Stuttgart He afterwards 
studied at Munich. His works are mountain 
landscanes, of a generally sombre character. He 
died at Munich in 1865. 

MALINCONICO, Andrea, was bom at Naples 
about the year 1600, and was one of the ablest 
scholars of Cavaliere Massimo Stanzioni. Of his 
works in fresco little is known, but the churches 
at Naples possess several of his oil paintings ; of 
these the most esteemed are the * Four Evangelists * 
and the ' Doctors of the Church.* Andrea*s son, 
Nicola, was a good painter of flowers and fruit. 

MALLEIN, O., (or Mallkyn,) was bom at 
Dordrecht in 1753. He settled at Rotterdam, and 
was chiefly employed as a decorator. He died 
in 1816. 

MALLERY, Earel van, a Flemish designer and 
engraver, was bom at Antwerp in 1576. Judging 
from his style, it is probable that he formed his 
manner from the prints of the Wierizes, or that 
be was instmcted by them. His work with the 
{graver is very highly finished, though his drawing 
18 not always correct He must have been ex- 
tremely laborious, as his prints are very numerous. 
The Abb^de MaroUes possessed three hundred and 
forty-two prints by bun. The following are his 
principal prints : 

The Infant Jeans, with twa Angels, in a landscape ; 

C.deMaileryfttc. 
The Adoration of the Magi. 
The Holy Family, with Mary Magdalene, 
fit. Francis. 
Several heads of Christ, the Virgin, Saints, the Apostles, 

and other devotional sabjects ; /rof» his ovn detiyns, 

and a^ier Anthony Salaeri^ and other masters. 
The History of the Silkworm ; in six plates ; after 

Stradan. 
A set of plates of Horses, for a book entitled * La 

Oavalerie Franqoise.' 1002. 
Foar plates of the Miller, his Son, and the Ass ; after 

Ambrose Frawk ; scarce. 

MALLERY, Philip van, was bom at Antwerp 
about 1600. He was an engraver, and worked in 
the style of the Wierixes. If not a son of Karel 
van Mallery, he was at least his pupil. He worked 
chiefly at Prague, and there engraved the portrait 
of Archbishop Johann Gohelius. Several small 
historical subjectSt published about 1650, are also 
by him. The en^vings of his work, 'Typus 
Mundi* (Antwerpie, 1627), are signed with his 
name or monogram. 

Vol. u. n 



MALLET, Jean Baptiste, a French historical 
and still-life painter, was bom at Grasse in llb^. 
He was a pupil of Simon Julien at Toulon, and 
afterwards of Prud*hon and M^rim^e. Among his 
pictures are the 'Education of Henri IV.,' and 
* Nature and Honour,* 

MALLEYN. See Mallein. 

MALLIU8, Lucius, one of the best painters of 
the Roman Empire, who flourished in the time of 
Macrobius, a.d. 396. 

MALO, Vincent, (or Vincenzio,) was born at 
Cambray about the year 1625. He was at first a 

Eupil of Rubens. After the deatli of that master 
e became a scholar of David Teniers the elder, 
who had been brought up in the same academy. 
He afterwards went to Italy, where he passed the 
remainder of his life, and diRtingiiished himself 
as a painter of battles and landscapes ; he also 
executed some altar-pieces for the churches at 
Genoa. He died at Rome before the year 1656. 

MALOGAVAZZO, Coriolano, bom at Cremona 
about the year 1555, was a disciple of Bernardino 
Campi, whom he assisted in some of his great 
works in the church of San Gismondo. He is 
better known as the coadjutor of that artist than 
by any original productions of his own. His 
principal work is his picture in the church of San 
Silvestro, at Cremona, representing the * Virgin 
and Child, with St. Francis and St. Ignatius,' 
which, according to Lanzi, is supposed to have 
been designed by Bernardino. 

MALOMBRA, Pieteo, was bom at Venice in 
1556, and studied the works of Salviati and Palma. 
He has left four excellent pictures of the miracles 
wrought by St. Francis de Paula, in the church 
dedicated to that saint at Venice. He is still 
better in his historical subjects of on easel size, 
and painted with great success architectural views 
of the principal places in Venice, enriched with 
groups of immerous figures. He was also a dis- 
tinguished portrait painter. He died at Venice in 
1618. 

MALOSSO, II. See Trotti. 

MALPE Jean, painter, was bom at Ghent in 
1764. He studied in the Academy of his native 
town, and then spent some time in Paris. He 
afterwards returned to Ghent, and devoted himself 
to portrait painting in miniature. He died in 
1818. 

MALPIEDI, DoMENico. an Italian painter, and 
pupil of Barocci, was bom at S. Gmesio. He 
flourished from 1590 to 1605, and executed several 
pictures for the churches in the neighbourhood of 
his birthplace. One of these, the * Martyrdom of 
St. Ginesio and St. Eleuthera,' shows that he kept 
pretty close to tlie style of his master. 

MALPIEDI, Francesoo, a brother of Donienico 
M., and also a pupil of Barocci. 

MALTESE, Francesco, called after his birth- 
place, Malta, was a painter of still-life, who especi 
ally excelled in his rendering of carpets and musical 
instruinents. Two of his pictures are in the 
Gallery at Munich, and some are to be met with 
in England. He lived about 1670, or later, but no 
particulars of his life have been recorded. 

MALTON, James, an English topographical 
drau>>;litsman in the second half of the 18th century. 
He died in Marylebone in 1803. The South Ken- 
sington Museum has a drawing by him of * Capel 
Street, Dublin.' lie published * Picturesque Views 
of the City of Dublin' (1791-6); 'Essay on 
British Coltngo Architecture' (1798); ^Tlie 

97 



V 



Malton 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Mander 



Young Painter's Maulstick ' (1«00) ; * Designs fcr 
Rural Retreats '(1801). 

MALTON, Thomas, topographical draughtsman, 
was bom in 1726. At one time he kept an uphol- 
sterer's shop in tlie Strand. In 1749 he was in 
Dublin, driven there, it is said, by money diffi- 
culties into which he had drifted in London. He 
fesided there many years, making a scanty living 
as a teacher of perspective. He wajB an early 
exhibitor at the Royal Academy, and in 1775 we 
find him back in London, where he advertises a 
course of lectures on perspective. He died at 
Dublin, 18th February, 1801. His drawings are 
what were known as * tinted drawings,' begun in 
Indian ink. So far as they can be tested they are 
very accurate. The South Kensington Museum 
possesses four of them. 

MALTON, Thomas, architectural draughtsman, 
was a son of the above. He was bom in 1748. 
In 1774 he received a premium from the Society 
of Arts, and in 1782 the gold medal of the Royal 
Academy for a design for a theatre. He entered 
the otlice of Gandon, where he remained for three 
years, being then dismissed for irregularity. He 
exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1774 to 1802. 
He also produced some engravings in aqua-tint 
from the chief buildings of London. He died in 
Long Acre, 7th March, 1804. 

MALTON, William, another son of Thomas 
Malton, senior, did some work as an architectural 
draughtsman. 

MALWEL, Jean, (MaloOel, or Maluel,) who 
was born in the latter half of the 14tli century, is 
recorded as ' painter and valet-de-chambre ' to 
Philip the Hardy and to Jean Sans Peur, Dukes 
of Burgundy, from 1397 to 1416. He worked 
for the now destroyed Chartreuse of Dijon, and in 
1415 he painted a portrait of Jean Sans Peur, 
wliich was carried by special messenger to John 
II. of Portugual. It is believed that none of his 
works have survived. 
MAN, CoHN. DE (or Maan). See De Man. 
MANAIGO, SiLVESTRO, was bom at Venice about 
the year 1670, and was a scholar of Gregorio 
Lazzarini. His compositions evince both taste and 
ability ; but he worked for money only, and became 
negligent and a mannerist His most creditable 
picture is * Christ driving the Money-changers from 
the Temple,' in the church of San Felice, at 
Venice. 

MANASAR, Daniel, a German engraver, who 
resided at Augsburg early in the 17th centur}'. 
He chiefly engraved architectural plates, which are 
carried out entirely with the burin, in a neat but 
stiff style. Conjointly with Wolfgang Kilian, he 
engraved the plates for a work entitled * 3a8ilic8B 
SS. Udalrici et afrae Augustae Vindelicorum His- 
toriaB,' published at Augsburg in 1626. His prints 
are usually marked D. M. F. 

MANBY, Thomas, an English landscape painter, 
who practised in the second half of the 17th 
century. He spent much time in Italy, whence he 
brought back a collection of pictures. He died in 
London about 1691. 

MANCHE, Edouard, a Flemish genre and his- 
torical painter, born at Brassels in 1819. He died 
in Paris in 1861. One of his chief works is a 
* Descent from the Cross.* 

MANCHELLI, Michele, was bom at Genoa in 

1650, according to Domenici. He studied at 

Naples, under Marco di Pino, and acquired some 

reputation as an historical painter. One of his 

98 



best works is a picture in the church of Sant' 
Agnello at Napless, representing the * Virgin and 
Infant, with St John, Mary Magdalene, and SL 
Lucia ' ; it was painted in 1686. 

MANCHINO DAI PAESI, II. See Dal Sole, 
Ant'. 

MANCINI, Bartolommeo, a follower of Carlo 
Dolce, of whom little is known. 

MANCINI, DoMENico, a Venetian artist living 
in the early part of the 16th century, of whose life 
or death no detuils are known. He is the autlior 
of the centre panel in an altar-piece now in the 
sacristy of the cathedral of Lendinara, representing 
a * Virgin and Child enthroned, with an Angel play- 
ing a viol.' It is signed and dated 1611. 

MANCINI, Francesco, (or Macini,) was born at 
St Angiolo in Vado in 1706, and was a pupil 
of Carlo Cignani. He went to Rome, and there 
painted the 'Miracle of St Peter,' his chief per- 
fomiance ; it is now in the Palazzo di Monte 
Cavallo, and a mosaic fills its place in St Peter's. 
Mancini became a member of the Academy of St. 
Luke, and died in 1768. 

MANCIOL. See Leckkbbetjen. 

MANDEL, JoHANN AuGUSi' Eduard, engraver, 
was bom in 1810, at Berlin. He was a pupil of 
Buckhorn, and worked in pure line. In 1837 he 
became fellow of the Berlin Academy, and in 1842, 
after a visit to Paris, was appointed Professor of 
Engraving. He was a frequent exhibitor at the 
Salon, where he obtained all the regulation honours. 
His last important work was a plate from the 
* Madonna di San Sisto,' published after his death, 
which took place in 1882. Among his best works 
we may name : 

Charles I. ; after Vandyck. 

Titian^s portrait of himself. 

Christ weeping over Jerusalem ; after Scheffer. 

Ecce Homo ; after Guido. 

Biodo Altoviti ; after Raphael. 

Madonna della Seggiola ; after the same. 

Frederick the Oreat ; after Stock. 

Frederick William IV. ; after Otto. 

MANDER, Karel van, the elder, a well-known 
painter and writer on art, was bom at Meulebeke, 
in Flanders, in 1548. He was of a noble family, and 
received an education suited to his rank. At an early 
age he discovered a lively genius for poetry and the 
belles-lettres, and a decided disposition f or painting^: 
To cultivate the latter, on finishing his literary 
pursuits, he was placed under the tuition of Lucas 
de Heere, a painter and poet of Qhent, with whom 
he studied some time, and about 1569 became a 
disciple of Pieter Vlerick, an historical painter of 
some eminence at Gourtrai. He had acquired 
considerable reputation by some pictures he had 
painted for the churches in Flanders, when he 
determined in 1573 to visit Italy, and passed three 
years in Rome, where he was assidtlouslv em- 
ployed in drawing from the remains of antiquity, 
lie formed an intimate acquaintance with Bar- 
tholomew Spranger, and in conjunction with that 
artist, was employed for some of the public 
places and private collections at Rome. He ac- 
companied his friend Spranger to Vienna, where 
he met with flattering encouragement, and 
received an invitation to enter the service of 
the Emperor; but his attachment to his native 
country prevented him from accepting this mark 
of distinction. About 1578 he returned to Flan- 
ders, whence after many vicissitudes he made 
his way northwards to Haarlem, and finally to 



Mander 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



DCanfredi 



Amsterdam, where he ended his days. At Haarlem 
Van Mander formed an intimacy with Corneh's 
Comelisz and Hendrik Goltzius, and in con- 
junction with the latter he established an academy, 
which had numerous scholars. But our cbief debt 
to Van Mander is for his account of tlie Italian 
and Flemish schools from 1366 to 1604. In his 
hours of leisure he also wrote verses. He trans- 
lated tlie * Iliad ' of Homer ; the ' Georgics ' and 
the ' Bucolics * of Virgil ; and the * Metamorphoses ' 
of Ovid. He finished his * Lives of the Painters ' 
at Zevenbergen, between Haarlem and Alkmaar, 
where he remained for a year. Van Mander's 
final migration to Amsterdam took place in 1604. 
There he fell sick ; and although he endeavoured 
to vanquish his pain by his courage, he was 
obliged to send for a doctor. From iSat moment 
his situation became perilous; for he found "it 
was two against one," says Michiels. The man 
of skill expedited the business by a debilitating 
regimen, and the patient died of weakness (1606). 
He was crowned with laurel in his coffin ; three 
hundred friends and amateurs followed his body 
to the grave ; a multitude of paneg^Tists feelingly 
deplored his loss ; and his celebrity still lives in 
his book. His pictures, which are rare, are poor 
enough. 

MANDER, Karel van, the younger, a painter, 
was a son of Karel van Mander the elder, and 
was bom at Courtrai about 1679. He was a 
scholar in his father's studio at Haarlem, w^here 
he painted portraits and hiBtorical subjects. He 
was afterwards attached to the tapestry works of 
Spiering at Delft, from whence ho was sent for 
in 1606 to execute some hangings for Christian 
IV., King of Denmark. He died in Holland in 
1623. 

MANDER, Karel van, was the son of Karel 
van Mander the younger. On his father's death 
he went with his mother to Copenhagen, where he 
was well received by the king. He studied, it is 
believed, in Italy, and was afterwards appointed 
painter to the Danish court In 1635 he visited 
Amsterdam, and there painted the portrait of the 
poet Vondel. Of his paintings there are at Copen- 
hagen, *The Tartar Ambassador at Copenhagen 
in 1665,' *The Remorse of St. Peter,* portraits of 
Admiral Qiedde, and others. Van Mander died 
at Delft in 1672. 

MANDIJN, Jan, (Mandin, Madijn, or Madin,) 
was bom at Haarlem in 1500. He painted con- 
flagrations, wild and rocky landscapes, and dia- 
hleries, in the style of Jerom Bos. His chief 
residence was at Antwerp, and there he died in 
1560, 

MANENTI, Vincenzio, was bom at Canimorto, 
in the province of Sabina, in 1600. He was the 
son of AscANio Manenti, an obscure artist, b}' 
whom he was instructed in the first principles of 
design. He afterwards studied at Rome, under 
Giuseppe Cesari and Domenichino. There are 
several of his pictures in the churches of liis 
province ; and Lanzi speaks favourably of bis * St. 
Stefano,' in the cathedral at Tivoli, and of his ^ St. 
Saverioy' in the Jesuit's church. He died in 
1674. 

MANES, Anton, was born at Prague in 1784. 
He was a pupil of Karl Postels, and painted land- 
scapes in the style of Ruysdael. In 1836 he was 
appointed teacher at the Academy. He died in 
1843. 
MANES, GiriDO, bom at Prague in 1829, was a 

H 2 



son of Anton Manes, and painted battle scenes. 
He died in 1880. 

MANES, Joseph, was bora at Prague in 1821. 
He was a son of Anton Manes, and received his 
first instruction from his father. He painted por- 
traits and historical scenes, and died in 1871. 

MANES, Wenzel, brother of Anton Manes, was 
born at Prague in 1796. He studied at the 
Academy, and devoted liimself to landscape and 
portrait painting, though we find some altar-pieces 
from his hand. He died in 1868. 

MANET, Edouard, painter, was bom in Paris in 
1832. His first master was Thomas Couture, in 
whose studio he spent some six years. After 
leaving Couture he travelled in America, England, 
the Netherlands, Germany, Italy, and Spain, and 
after his return to Paris retained for a time a 
manner he had caught from Velazquez. In 1860 
he exhibited his 'Buveur d'Absinthe,' in which 
the influence of Couture is strong, and shortly 
afterwards his * Enfant k TEp^e,' which is very like 
a Velazquez. Towards, 1863 Manet became the 
chief of the famous *Ecole des Batignolles,* to 
whom Degas, Claude Monet, Guillemet, Fantin- 
Latour, Cisley, Pisarro, and others belonged. 
Thenceforward his art became and was known 
as * impressionism.' In 1863 lie exhibited, at the 
first JSalon des Be/usees^ his * Dejeuner surl'Herbe,* 
and in 1864, at the, official show, his 'Olympia,' 
which raised a storm and failed to win acceptance 
even from many who were prepared to go a long 
way with him. From that time onward the Salon 
was more often barred against him than not until 
the last few years of his Jife, when his pictures 
were well hung. Manet was decorated with the 
Legion of Honour during the administration of 
M. Antonin Proust, who had been his friend for a 
quarter of a century. He exhibited at the Salon 
for the last time in 1883, and died the same year. 
Among his best pictures we may name : 

U Enfant &r£:p6e. 

Christ mocked by the Soldiers. 

Le Dt^jeuner sur I'herbe. 

Olympia. 

Le Bon Bock. 

Dans la Serre. 

La Toilette. 

Portrait of M. Antonin Proust. 

Portrait of Rochefort. 

Portrait of Zola. W. A. 

MANETTI, DoMENico, was horn at Siena in 
1609, and was probably a relation of Rutilio 
Manetti. He painted chiefly for the churches of 
Siena, but also produced historical subjects of an 
easel size. Lanzi particularly mentions one in 
the Casa Magnoni, representing the * Baptism of 
Constantino.' He died in 1663. 

MANETTI, liuTiLio, was bom at Siena in 1671, 
and was a scholar of Francesco Vanni. He was 
not faithful, however, to the style of that master, 
but sought to imitate the vigour of Caravaggio. 
His pictures at Siena are remarkable for the loaded 
shadows characteristic of the tenebrosL He was 
well versed in architecture. There are several of 
his pictures at the Certosa in Florence, and in the 
churches at Pisa ; a * Repose of the Holy Family,' 
in S. Pietro di Castelvecchio, at Siena, is particu- 
larly admirable. He died in 1639. He signed his 
works /;?. 3/. J, ; and jRiU. Man. Pin. His portrait 
in the Gallery at Florence is engraved by Payzi. 

MANFREDIjBartolommeo, was born at Ustiano, 
near Mantua, about 1572. Although Manfredi 

99 



L 



Uanginl 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Kannl 



was a scholar of NiccoI6 Circignano, he might 
be styled another Michel- Agnolo da Caravaggio, 
if his works were not distinguished by a better 
choice of forms and a more dignified taste in 
design. He painted few pictures for the churches ; 
his favourite subjects were banditti, assemblies of 
gamesters, and armed soldiers, which he represented 
with an appropriate ferocity of character, and an 
extraordinary effect of light and shadow. The 
works of Manfredi are rarely to be met with, as he 
died young in 1605, and of the few pictures he 
painted some are attributed to Caravaggio, others 
to Valentin. One representing * Christ driving the 
Traders from the Temple ' was engraved by J. B. 
Haussard. Among those known are also the 
following : 



Augsburg. 



Oallery. 
Gallery, 



Brunswick. 

Brussels. 

Copenhagen. Gallery. 

Darmstadt. Gallery. 
Florence. Pitti Palace. 



Madrid. 



Munich. 
Nantes. 
Paris. 

Vienna. 



n 

Mtueum, 

Gallery. 

Museum. 

Louvre. 

n 

Gallery. 



A Company drinking and 

playing. 
The Denial of Peter. 
The Woman taken in Adultery. 
The Gipsy in the Watch-room. 
A Girl playing the Tambourine. 
Musicians. 
The Fortune-Teller. 
The Good Fortune. 
A Soldier bearing the Head of 

John the Baptist 
Christ mocked by the Soldiers. 
Judith and Holofemes. 
Company drinking. 
The Fprtune-Telier. 
Card-Players. 
The Denial of St. Peter. 

MANGINI, Prosper, a little-known painter of 
the 17th century. He was a pupil of Agostino 
Metelli, and painted similar subjects. 

MANGLARD, Adrien, a French painter and 
engraver, was boni at Lyons in 1695. At an 
early period of his life he went to Rome, where 
bo met with considerable encouragement, and 
painted several landscapes and sea-pieces for the 
Villa Albani, and for the Colonna and Rospigliosi 
Palaces. He became a member of the Academy 
in Paris in 1736, and subsequently of that of St. 
Luke, at Rome, where he died in 1760. Joseph 
Vernet was his scholar. Among his pictures are : 

Paris. Louvre. A Shipwreck, 

Rome. Pal. Rwtpoli. Several Paiu tings. 

Vienna. Belvedere. Agitated Sea at Sunrise. 

He engraved forty-four plates, representing similar 
subjects to those of his paintings. The best is 
* The Widow of Sarepta,' 

MANGOKI, Adam de, (Manyockt,) was a Ger- 
man portrait painter, born at Szokolya, in Hungary, 
in 1674. He was a pupil of Scheitz, and lived at 
Dresden where many of his works still exist. 
Among his best pictures we may name : 

Portrait of Ck>unt Promnits. 
Portrait of Francis KakDCJ«y. 
Portrait of Augustus the Strong. 
Portrait of Count Bielinsky. 

MANIKI, Gaetano, was boni at Milan about 
the year 1730. He painted history in the gaudy 
and frivolous style of the modern Italian school, 
and came to England a little before 1775, in which 
year he was an exhibitor with the Chartered Society 
of Artists. He died between the years 1780 and 
1790. 

MANINI, GiAcoMo Antonio, (or Mannini,) a 
painter and engraver of perspective and architec- 
tural ornaments, was bom at Bologna in 1646, and 
died in the same city in 1732. He was a disciple 
of Andr6 Monticclli and Domenico Santi. There 
100 



Berlin. 

Qubbio. 

Paris. 


Gallery. 

& Fittro. 

Louvre. 


H 


n 


M 


•» 


Perugia. 


Cambio. 


»* 


Pinacoieea. 


n 


S, Jfartino. 


n 


& Tomnuuo. 



is a series of sixteen perspective views by him, 
entitled ' Vedute deliziose * ; they are etched with 
great taste. 

MANISFELS, FRANgois Joseph, an historical 
painter, was bom at Toumai in 1742. He was a 
pupil of N. Brebar. He died in 1807. 

MANN I, GiANNicoLA Di Paolo, was bora at 
Citik della Pieve in the latter half of the 15th 
century, and died in 1544. He was a fellow- 
pupil under Perugino of Raphael and Lo Spagna. 
He died in 1544. There is an * Annunciation by 
him in the National Gallery, and the Fitzwilliam 
Museum at Cambridge has a 'Madonna' ascribed 
to him. Elsewhere the following are preserved : 

The Crucifixion. 

l^e Visitation. 

BiHptism of our Lord. 

Assumption of the Virgin. 

Adoration of the Magi. 

Holy Family. 

Altur-piece and several fres- 
coes. 1515-19. 

Paintings of Christ, the Virgin, 
and £unts. 

Virgin, with SS. John and 
lAurenoe. 

The Incredulity of St. Thomas. 

MANN IN, James, or ^Manning,) a flower 
painter, bom in France, who settled in Dublin, 
where in 1746 he became a master in the Dublin 
Society's School, and taught several good artists. 
He died in 1779. 

MANNIN, Mrs., was a. miniature painter. She 
exhibited at the Royal Academy ^om 1829 to 
1832 as Miss Millingtom, and from 1833 to 1859 
under her married name. Among her best works 
are the portraits of Sir Henry Havelock, Sir 
Felix and Lady Agar, and the children of Sir 
George Brooke-Pechell. She died at Brighton in 
1864. 

MANNINI, Jacopo Antonio, painter and en- 
graver, was bora at Bologna in 1646. He and 
Giumbattista Draghi were intrusted by the Duke 
of Parma with the decoration of a chapel at Colomo. 
From 1706 to 1708 Mannini was at Modena, where 
he painted the dome of the church of St Barnabas. 
He engraved several plates. He died in 1732. 

MANNL, Jacob, (or MXnnl,) a German engraver 
in mezzotint, was bora at Vienna about the year 
1695. In 1720 Christopher Lauch, the inspector 
of the Imperial Gallery, which had been augmented 
by the collection of the Archduke Leopold, under- 
took to have the whole of the pictures engraved, 
and Jacob Mannl was employed for that purpose. 
The death of the archduke and of the artist pre- 
vented the completion of the project, and only 
thirty-one plates were finished. These prints are 
now become extremely rare. They are as follows : 

St. Francis praying ; ajter Bauano. 

Ohrist bearing His Oroas ; after the eatne. 

St. Clara kneeling ; after the $ame. 

Christ praying in the Garden ; after Michel' Ay nolo 

Caravaggio. 
Tobit restoring Sight to his Father ; after the same. 
Susannah and the Elders; after Ann. Carracci. 
Mary Magdalene penitent, aooompanied by an Angel ; 

after Correggio. 
The Virgin, with the Infant Christ, who is caressing 

St. John ; after Van Dyck. 
Samson delivered to the Philistines ; after the same. 
The Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew; after Luces 

Giordano. 
A Philosopher meditating on a Skoll ; after the same. 
A Geometrician ; after the same. 
A Warrior giving his hand to a Man ; after Giorgione. 



[annlich 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



ICanson 



Jupiter and Mercmy, with Bands and Philemon ; afttr 

Carlo LUk. 
Ghnst taken in the Garden ; after B. Manfredi. 
The Dead Christ, supported by an Angel ; after Palma. 
A Dying Magdalene ; after the younger Paltna. 
St. Margaret treading on the Dragon ; after Raphael. 
The Repentance of St. Peter ; after Spagnoletto. 
Christ oispnting with the Doctors ; after the eamt, 
Susannah at the Bath ; after Tintoretto, 
Venus, with Cupid holding a mirror ; after Titian. 
Eooe Homo ; half-length ; after the same. 
The Virgin, or Mater Dolorosa ; after the same. 
The Virgin and Infant ; after the same. 
Judith with the Head of Holof ernes ; after A. Varotari. 
Judith ; after Carlo VeneziatuK 
A Child holding a Dog ; after Paolo Veronese. 
Judith leaving the Tent of Holofemes ; aftei' the same. 
IHaauL and her Nymphs; after Willehorts and Jan 

Portrait of the Emperor Charles VI. 

MANNLICH, JoHANN Christian von, (or Man- 
LiCH,) was bom at Strasburg in 1740 or 1742. He 
was instructed by his father, Konrad Mannlich, 
and afterwards went to Mannheim and became a 
scholar of Zinzenich and Verscliaffelt Duke 
Christian IV., by whom he was patronized, intro- 
duced him to Carle van Loo and Frangois Boucher 
in Paris in 1763, and enabled him to visit the 
Academy at Rome in 1767* He went subsequently 
to Naples, and stayed there until 1771. After his 
return he became court-painter in 1772, as well as 
Director of the School of Art at Zweibriicben. He 
was a member of the Academies of DUsseldorf, 
Mannheim, Paris, and. Parma. He died early in 
1823. 

MANNLICH, Konrad, was bom at Augsburg in 
1701. He studied under Johann Kupeczki, at 
Vienna, and subsequently visited Hungary. In 
after years he was employed at Stuttgart and at 
Zweibriicken. He painted history, portraits, and 
animals with considerable success. Several of his 
works are in the Gallery at Sclileissheim. He died 
at Zweibriicken in 1759. 

MANNO, Francesco, an Italian painter and 
architect, was bom at Palermo in 1754. He began 
life as a goldsmith, but afterwards devoted himself 
to painting. In 1786 he settled at Rome, and 
became the Secretary of the Academy of St. Luke. 
He was employed by Pope Pius VI. Among 
his works may be named a portrait of Kinfi[ 
Ferdinand L, in the Galleiy at Palermo, and severtu 
frescoes in the Quirinal. He died at Rome in 1831. 

MANNOZZI (or Makozzi). See San Giovanni. 

MANNSFELD. See Mansfeld. 

MANRIGUE, Miguel. See Ambi^res. 

MANS, Frederic H., was a Dutch painter of 
the 17th century, who has left numerous pictures 
of towns, villages, and coast scenes. He is sup- 
posed to have lived at Utrecht. His winter-pieces 
are in the manner of Klaas Molenaer. Examples 
are to be found at Vienna, Florence, Rotterdam, 
Dresden, and Gotha. They are generally of small 
dimensions, and signed with his name, and some 
are dated as late as 1677. 

MANSFELD, Johann Ernst, (or Mannsfeld,) 
a German engraver, was bora at Prague in 1738. 
When he was sixteen years of age he visited 
Vienna, where he learned design in the Imperial 
Academy, and was instructed in the art ox en- 
graving by Jakob Schmutzer, the court painter. 
He became a member of the Academy of Vienna, 
where he died in 1796. His best plates are small 
portraits of eminent Austrians, &c. The following 
are the most important : 



PORTRAITS 

The Empress Maria Theresa. 

The Emperor Joseph II. 

Pope Pius V. ; after Hayenauer. 1782. 

Wenceslaus, Prince Kaunitz ; after Vimaeer. 

Francis Anthony, Goant Kollowrat ; after the same 

Maurice, Count Lacy : o/Yer A'o//on7Y2. 1776. 

Frederick, Baron Trenck. 

Joseph Haydn. 

Anthony Stoerk. 1773. 

Sir Robert Murray Keith ; after Graff. 

Metastasio ; after Steiner. 

SUBJECTS. 

The Prodigal Son ; after F&ger. 

A Waterfall on the Danube ; after Wenzefy. 

The Coronation of the Emperor Leopold ; after Schutt, 

MANSFELD, Johann Georg, (or Mannsfrld,) 
bom at Vienna in 1772, was instructed by his 
father, Johann Ernst Mansfeld, and in the Vien- 
nese Academy. He won some distinction both 
as a painter and engraver. His works are sigiied 
J. G. M, sc.; Md.fe.i or with a monogram. He 
died at Vienna in 1617. There are by him : 

A series of heads of animals ; after Quadal, Gondonio, 

ke. 
The portrait of Prince Kaunits. 
Christ and the Woman of Samaria. 

MANSEIRCH, Bernard Gottfried, was bom 
at Bonn in 1736 He distinguished himself as 
a painter of landscapes ; but in the latter part of 
his life he became loose and negligent in execution. 
He settled at Cologne in the yeai 1790, and died 
there in 1817. 

MANSKIRCH, Franz Joseph, was bora in 1770, 
and was instructed by his father, Bemard Gottfried 
Manskirch. He distinguished himself as a painter 
of landscapes and as an engraver. About 1796 he 
resided for a time in England, but was back in 
Germany by about 1805. He was at Bonn in 1823, 
and afterwards at Frankfort, Berlin, and Dantzic, 
where he died in 1827. He was commissioned by 
the Empress Josephine to paint a series of scenes 
on the Khine. He etched one landscape. 

MAN SON, George, was bom at Edinburgh in 
1850. After he left school he worked for a fe\^ 
months with a punch-cutter, making the dies for 
type, and after tnat for five years at wood- engrav- 
ing, producing water-colour pictures in his leisure 
hours. His style of engraving was direct and 
artistic, resembling much that of the Bewicks. 
When he was twenty- one he set up as a professional 
painter, though greatly hampered by failing health. 
In 1871 he visited London, and in 1873 the con- 
tinent for the first time. On his return to Edin- 
burgh symptoms of lung disease manifested them- 
selves, and early in 1874 he was ordered to the 
South, to the Channel Islands. He went to Sark, 
and a year later paid a second visit to Paris, where 
he began to etcn. On his return to England he 
settled for a time at Shirley, near Croydon ; but 
his health was finally broken, and removing to 
Lympstone in Devonshire, he died there early in 
1876. His pictures are distinguished by fine colour, 
great delicacy of handling, and a tenderness of 
sentiment scarcely surpassed by any other painter 
of his school. Among the best are : 

Milking Time. 

The Cottage Door. 

What is it? 

Waiting for the Boats. 

Companions. 

Girl with a Donkey. 

The Gipsy Camp. 

The Haunted Well. 

101 



Kansueti 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Kantegna 



MANSUETI, Giovanni, was a Venetian painter 
living in the latter part of the 15th and beginning 
of the 16th century, and a contemporary and 
friend of Lazzaro Bastiani. The registers of San 
Giovanni, Venice, tell us that lie was lame ; and 
by his own autliority we learn that he was a pupil 
of Giovanni Bellini, and a believer in a miracle of 
the Cross, which took place in 1474, and forms 
the subject of one of his paintings now in the 
Academy of Venice. An early effort of Mansueti's 
is the ' Adoration of the Magi,' in the Communal 
Gallery of Padua. The Academy o£ Venice possesses 
also *St. Mark curing Anianus the Cobbler'; *St. 
Mark preaching to the Populace of Alexandria * ; 
and a picture said to represent ' Antonio Riccio 
congratulated by liis friends on his escape from 
Shipwreck.* In the Brera, Milan, is a ' St Mark 
Baptizing Anianus,' formerly in the school of San 
Marco, Venice. In later years were painted a 
' Pieti ' and a ' St Jerome,' now in the Locchis 
Carrara Gallery, Bergamo. The galleries of Berlin, 
Venice, and Verona also possess paintings by this 
master, and a picture signed Joaniies de MansitetU 
piiisit is in the possession of Mr. J. G. Crace. 
Of the dates of his birth and death no exact 
informatioii can be had. 

MANTEGNA, Andrea, was bom in the neigh- 
bourhood of Padua in 1431. He was the son of 
bumble parents, since, according to Vasari, he 
herded cattle in his youth, and was adopted by 
Francesco Squarcione as his foster-child in 1441, 
in which year he was entered on the register of 
Paduan artists. From Squarcione he learned the 
first rudiments of his art, although it is evident 
from his paintings that he had studied the roaster- 
pieces of Bellini, Donatello, and Lippi. Mantegna 
commenced to show his talents at a very early age. 
He painted a * Virgin and Child ' for the high altar 
of Santa Sofia, Padua, when only seventeen years 
old. His earliest known fresco is that of * SS. 
Bernardino and Anthony supporting the Sacred 
Monogram,' above the higli portal of Sant' Antonio 
of Padua. It was painted in 1452. The Brera, 
Milan, possesses an altar-piece with St. Luke and 
other Saints, which was painted in 1454 for Santa 
Giustina, and shows his earlier style as a worker 
in tempera. There is, too, in the Museum of Naples, 
a St. Enfemia, painted apparently from a marble 
statue, which bears the same date. According to 
Vasari, Andrea first commenced to work in the 
Eremitani Chapel, Padua, after 1448. It is believed 
thfit Mantegna finished the frescoes representing 
*The Call of SS. James and John by Christ,' and 
*St. James exorcising the Devils,' which Pizzolo's 
sudden and violent death prevented his completing. 
Those entirely executed by Andrea are *St. James 
baptizing Herniogenes '; ' St. James before Herod '; 
* St. James, on his way to Martyrdom, blessing a 
Convert ' ; * The Martyrdom of St. James ' ; ' The 
Martyrdom of St. Christopher ' ; and * The Removal 
of the Body of St. Christopher.' These were exe- 
cuted in the years 1458-59. About this period 
Mantegna married Niccolosia, the daughter of 
Jacopo Bellini, which was probably one cause of 
the estrangement which had been gradually grow- 
ing up between Squarcione and himself ; for there 
had always existed a certain antagonistic rivalry 
between the schools of the Bellinis and of Squar- 
cione. To these years may be referred the fine 
altar-piece (No. 274) in the National Gallery, which 
may be looked upon as an example of the purest 
art of Mantegna. By some connoibseurs it is placed 

102 



as early as 1466. Attracted by the renown that 
Andrea was now gaining by his works, the Marquis 
Lodovico Gonzaga made liberal overtures to him 
at the close of 1466, and Andrea consented to go 
to Mantua as soon as he should have finished the 
commissions entrusted to him by the ProtonoUiry 
of Verona and others. That dignitary had ordered 
an altar-piece for the church of San Zeno, to consist 
of a life-size * Virgin and Child, attended by Angels, 
with eight Saints ' ; and a pre<iella with three sub- 
jects, viz., * The Agony in the Garden ' ; '' The Cruci- 
fixion ' ; and * The Ascension.' This altar-piece was 
long in the church, but is now partly dispersed. 
The main picture is still in place in San Zeno, but 
the * Crucifixion ' is in the Louvre, and the remain- 
ing two panels in the Museum of Tours. In the 
year (1469) which saw the completion of this altar- 
piece, Andrea executed a subject for the Podesti of 
Padua, which Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcasselle be- 
lieve to be the * Agony in the Garden ' now in the 
possession of Mr. Baring. In its background there 
IS a view of Padua, with the city gate and the 
church of the Eremitani. It is probable that 
Mantegna entered the service of the Gonzagas 
about 1463, for in that year he was residing at 
Goito, where that family had a castle, and where 
he painted many pictures and frescoes, now either 
lost or dispersed. In the Uflizi there is a triptych 
that once belonged to a chapel of the Gonzagas ; 
it represents the Adoration of the Magi, the 
Circumcision, and the Resurrection. To this 
same period belong the * Virgin and Child ' ; * The 
Presentation ' ; and a portrait of Matteo Bczzo, 
Abbot of Fiesole, all now in the Berlin Gallery ; 
also the * St. George in Armour,' in the Academy 
of Venice ' ; and the ' St Sebastian ' at the Belve- 
dere, Vienna. About 1468 Andrea settled down 
at Mantua with his family. The frescoes executed 
by him in the Castle of Mantua, in the rooms 
known as *the Camera degli Sposi,' and *the 
Schalcheria,' are still preserved. In the first-named 
are a series of episodes taken from the life of 
Lodovico, containing portraits of himself, his wifej 
and the different members of his family and house- 
hold ; the ceiling is decorated in monochrome with 
various mythological subjects, and eight medallions 
of the Roman Emperors ; these frescoes are dated 
1474. Tliose in the Schalcheria are of about ten 
years later, and chiefly consist of hunting scenes 
and portraits of the Emperors. Besides these 
works for his patron, these years saw the production 
of ' The Dead Christ wept over by the three Maries,' 
now in the Brera, Milan ; and * The Death of the 
Virgin ' (painted about 1470), now in the Museum 
of Madrid. In 1476 Lodovico gave Mantegna a 
site for a villa, whereupon the artist begun one of 
great beauty, both in design and decoration. It 
still remains, but its ornament has long since been 
destroyed. In the year 1478 the Marquis died, 
leaving his possessions to his son Federigo, who 
honourably fulfilled his father's engagements to the 
painter, and continued to protect him on his own be- 
half. In 1480 the artist declined to paint a portrait 
of the Duchess of Milan, the Marquis Federigo him- 
self writing the letter of refusal. In 1483 Lorenzo 
de' Medici visited Mantegna's workshop, and ex- 
pressed his admiration for all he saw there; and a 
year afterwards Giovanni della Rovere, Governor 
of Rome, wrote to the Bishop of Mantua, a brother 
of the Marquis, asking him to use his interest with 
Andrea to induce the painter to send him a picture. 
This was refused on the plea that Andrea had no 



Mantegfnik 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



M&Zittiazio 



time to spare, being hard pressed to finish a room 
the Marquis wished to occupy that summer. Before 
the eunimer was over, however, Federigo died, 
leaving his estates to his son, Francesco II., then a 
mere youth. Dreading lest he should not obtain 
from the new Marquis such favour and patron- 
age as he had won from Lodovico and Federigo, 
Mantegna wrote letters to his former patrons and 
friends, among others to Lorenzo de^ Medici, begging 
aid and assistance, and ezplnining his heavy losses 
and present necessities. Happily, however, for 
Mantegna, his position at the Mantuan Court was 
not permanently shaken, while orders from his 
ancient patrons helped to lift him out of difficulty. 
Among other commissions then received he exe- 
cuted one for a 'Madonna andSnints' for the Duchess 
of Ferrara. This picture Messrs. Crowe and Caval- 
casselle believe to be the ' Madonna and Child, with 
SS. Joseph, Anna, and John the Baptist,' formerly 
in the possession of Sir Charles Eastlake, and 
now in the Dresden Gallery. Signer Morelii places 
it, how^ever, between 1497 and 1606. Between 1486 
and 1492 Andrea painted the famous ^Triumphs 
of Caesar/ now at Hampton Court. They were 
originally designed for the decoration of the 
theatre erected in the Castle of Mantua in 1601, 
when the Adelphi of Terence and the Comedies 
of Plautus were performed. These frescoes, nine 
in number, are now much injured. They belonged 
to Charles the First, and at the sale of bis collection 
were bought in by Cromwell for £1000. In 1488 
Mantegna was knighted and sent to Rome by the 
Marquis Francesco Gonzaga. Innocent VIII. de- 
sired him to decorate the Belvedere chapel, which 
he had just erected for his own private use in the 
Vatican. These decorations took the artist two 
years to complete. He afterwaids painted a ' Ma- 
donna and Child ' for Francesco de' Medici, which 
is now in the Uffizi ; and the * Man of Sorrows,' 
now at Copenhagen. In the summer of 1490 the 
painter returned to Mantua, and again worked on 
the * Triumph of Caesar,' which he finished between 
1490-92. From this date his pictures begin to 
strongly betray the hands of assistants. Among 
these were his two sons, Francesco and Lodovico, 
and also, if we may trust Vasari, Francesco Bon- 
signori and Gian- Francesco Curotto. In 1495 
Mantegna painted, by order of the Marquis Fran- 
cesco, an altar-piece for the church of S. Maria 
della Vittoria, Mantua, which had been erected by 
the Marquis to commemorate the battle of Fomovo. 
This picture is now in the Louvre. It represents 
the Marquis, in full armour, kneeling at the feet of 
the Virgin and Child, who is attended by the arch- 
angels, and the saints Longinus, Andrew, John 
the Baptist, and Elizabeth. Andrea was also an 
engraver, and among .other works, engraved his 
own ' Triumphs of Csesar.' Impressions are now 
very scarce. In 14^9 he furnished a design for a 
statue of Virgil, which was to have been placed in 
some public square in Mantua ; the sketch is now 
in Paris. In his old age Mantegna again fell into 
difficulties, partly through his own indiscretion 
and extravagance, partly through the ungenerous 
treatment he met with from tlie Gonzaga family. 
His last, strength was given to the elaboration of a 
* Masque of Comus ' for the Marchioness Isabella of 
Mantua, to ^hom he sold a portion of his collection 
of antiques. He died in the autumn of 1 506, aged 76. 
Among his best works we may quote the following : 

Berlin. Museum, Portrait (of Matteo Bosco, Abbot 

of Fieflole). 



Berlin. 

Dresden. 

Florence. 



» 



Museum. Presentation in the Temple. 
Gallery. Holy Family. 

Uj^isi. Madonna and Child. 
„ A Triptych— Adoration of the 
^ , , ^ Magi, Presentation, Ascension. 

Frankfort. Gallery. St. Mark. 
Hampton Oonrt. The Triumph of Julius Caesar. 

{^Mne cartoons on lineti.) 
London. Nat. Gallery. Virgin and Child enthroned. 

The Triumph of Scipio. 
Two allegorical female figures 

(? Temperance and Chastity). 
Samson and Delilah. 
Death of the Virgin. 
Frescoes. 

St. Luke and Saints. 
The Dead Christ and Maries. 

Frescoes. 



n 



Madrid. 

Mantua. 

Milan. 

>» 
Padua. 



n 

»» 

Museum. 

Castello. 

Brera. 

>» 



Paris. 



Ch. of the ) 
Ereniitani. J 
Louvre. 



n 



Tours. 

»» 
Turin. 

Venice. 
Verona. 
Vienna. 






Museum. 



»» 



Madonna della Vittoria. 

Parnassus. 

Wisdom victorious over the 

Vices. 
Christ on the Mount of Olives. 
The Ascension. 
Gallery. Madonna and Sainta 
Acadtmy. St. George. 
San Zeno. Madonna and Saints. 
Gallery. St. Sebastian. 

Of his engravings we may mention : 
Battle of the Sea-goda 
Dancing Muses of the Parnassus. 
Descent from the Cross. 
Entombment. 
Hercules and Antceus. 
Portraits of Lodovico and Barbara Gk>nzaga. 
St. Andrew, St. Longinus, and the Bisen Christ. 
St. Sebastian. 
Scourgiug of Christ. 
Triumphs of Julius Ctesar. 
Virgin of the Grotto. 

MANTEGNA, Bernardino, son and pupil of 
Andrea Mantegna, bom in 1490, assisted his father, 
and at sixteen gained a certain reputation. Fran- 
cesco, another son, was working in 1494 for 
Francesco de Gonzago, and after his father's death 
he finished some of his pictures. It has sometimes 
been asserted, but on very slight grounds, that he 
was the first master of Correggio. Two small 
pictures in the National Gallery are ascribed with 
some probability to Francesco. He was still living 
in 1617. Lodovico, the youngest son of Andrea 
Mantegna, died in 1609. 

MANTEGNA, Carlo del, a pupil and relation 
of Mantegna, assisted his sons in finishing their 
father's pictures. In 1614 he had a school at Genoa. 

MANTOVANO, Adamo, Diani, Giovanni Bat- 
TiSTA. See Sculptore. 

MANTOVANO, (or Mantuano,) Giorgio and 
Teodoro; see Ghisi. Andrea; see Andreani. 

MANTOVANO, RiNALDO, was born at Mantua, and 
was one of the more distingnished scholars of Giulio 
Romano. In the church oi Sant' Agnese at Mantua 
is a fine picture by him of the * Virgin and Infant, 
with SS. Agostino and Girolamo,* composed and 
designed with a grandeur so much beyond his age, 
that it gave rise to a suspicion that it was painted 
from a drawing by his instructor. Two pictures by 
him have long been in the National Gallery, where 
for many years they were ascribed to his master 
Giulio. Binaldo died young. 

MANTUANO, DiONisio, bom at Bologna about 
1624, was a painter and architect. After having 
spent some time at Genoa, he was in 1656 employed 
at the theatre of the Buen Retire, in Spain ; after this 
he received the Order of Christ, and was appointed 
painter to the king. In conjunction with Vicente 

103 



L 



Manuel 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Xarcenay 



de Benavides lie painted the front of the house of 
the Marquis de los Valbases, and with Ricci and 
Carrefio worked in the cathedral at Toledo. Among 
his own compositions we may name especially the 
ceiling in the ladies* gallery in the Alcazar at 
Madrid. Dionisio died at Madrid in 1684. 

MANUEL, Hans Rudolph, the son of Nicolaus 
Manuel, was bom at Erlach in 1525, and studied 
painting at Basle, under Maximin, about 1544. 
Several good pictures by him, especially portraits, 
are to be met with at Berne. He also designed a con- 
siderable number of bird's-eye views of towns, and 
executed several woodcuts. Manuel died in 1572. 

MANUEL, Nicolaus. called Deutsch, a Swiss 
artist, bom at Berae about 1484, was a painter, 
wood-engraver, poet, statesman, soldier, and re- 
former. It is most probable that he went to 
Venice in 1511 and studied under Titian. His 
chief work is the * Dance of Death,' a series of 
frescoes for the Dominican convent at Berne, which 
was painted between 1514 and 1522. It exists now 
only in copies, which show it to have been entirely 
in the style of Holbein. Another excellent work, 
representing ^ Solomon's Idolatry' (1518^ has also 
come down to us in a copy. Manuel died at Berne 
in 1530 or 1531. He signed sometimes with his 
name, sometimes with £e annexed monograms: 





There are some woodcuts by him from his own 
designs, in a free, slight style. 

MANUEL, PoLEQUiN, or JossBQUiN, was a minia- 
ture painter, who flourished in the 15th century. 
In 14M he was engaged by the Duke of Burgundy 
to make designs for a Bible. Nothing is known of 
his life, but he had a brother Nicolas, who helped 
him with his work. 

MANWAIRING. Stmtt mentions an artist of 
this name as the engraver of a portrait of the Rev. 
Mr. Madan about the year 1760. 

MANZINI, GiusTO di Andrea, was bom in 
1440. He was a Florentine, and painted by tums 
under Neri di Bicci, Fra Fiiipno, and Benozzo 
Oozzoli. In his own diary he tells us that, under 
Benozzo, he painted the saints at the sides of the 
window in the choir of S. Agostino, and the four 
apostles on the vaulting of the entrance. The 
former are obliterated but the apostles remain, and 
show that Giusto was far inferior to his master. 
Crowe and Cavalcaselle enumerate five pictures 
which they ascribe to him. He died in 1498. 

MANZINI, Raimondo, a painter of Bologna, was 
born in 1668, and was probably first instructed by 
his father, Cesarb Manzini. At Bologna there is 
a collection of pictures of fishes, birds, and floweis 
by him. At one time of his life he was appointed 
ibSniste to the Margrave of Baden. The date of 
his death is unknown. 

MANZONI, Rudolph, a fmit, flower, and minia- 
ture painter, was bora at Castelfranco in 1675, and 
died in 1743. 

MANZUOLI, ToMMASO d' Antonio, (called Maso 
DA San Friano,) was bom at San Friano in 1536. 
He was first a disciple of Pierfrancesco di Jacopo 
di Sandro, and afterwards of Carlo da Loro. An 
admired work by him is a * Visitation,' formerly in 
the church of San Pietro Maggiore at Florence ; 
afterwards taken to Rome, and placed in the Gal- 
lery of the Vatican ; it was painted when he was 

104 



thirty years of age. There are other works by 
him in the church of the Santa TrinitA, and in 
the Florentine Gallery. He died in 1575. 

MARACCI. See Marraoci. 

MARATTI, Carlo, (or Maratta,) an eminent 
painter, also an etcher, was bom at CamuraTio, in 
the March of Ancona, in 1625. At eleven years 
of age he showed so strong a propensity for 
design that his parents sent him to Rome, where he 
entered the school of Andrea Sacchi, under whom he 
studied for several years, and was his most favoured 
disciple. On the recommendation of his instmctor, 
he made the works of Guido R«ni, the Carracci, and 
Raphael the chief objects of his study. He returned 
to his own country, and did not revisit Rome till 1 650, 
when he went there in the train of Cardinal Albrizio, 
Govemor of Ancona. He was much employed in 
painting Holy Families, pictures of the Virgin, and 
female saints, on which account the contemporary 
artists, particularly Salvator Rosa, supposing him 
Tncapable of higher or more arduous exertions, 
satirically styled him *Carluccio delle Madonne.' 
To counteract the efforts of his enemies, Andrea 
Sacchi procured him the commission to paint a 
picture for the Baptistery of the Lateran, where 
he represented ^ Constantine destroying the Idols,* a 
performance which silenced his calumniators, and 
was esteemed one of the ablest productions of the 
time. It procured him the patronage of Alex- 
ander VII., under whose protection, and that of 
his successors, he became the most popular artist 
at Rome. In 1704 he received the Order of Christ 
from Pope Clement XI. for cleaning Raphael's 
frescoes m the Vatican, and Lonis XIV. appointed 
him court painter through admiration for his picture 
' Daphne.' Maratti died at Rome in 1713. Among 
the best of his more accessible works are : 

BmMela Maseum : Apollo and Daphne. 
Chiswick : Pope Clement XI. 
Florence, Pitti Collection : St. Philip Neri. 
Hampton Coart : Virgin and St. Francis. 
Loavre : Sleep of the Child Jesus. 

„ ; Mamage of St. Catherine. 

„ Portrait of Maria Maddalena Bospigliosi. 

„ His own portrait. 
National Gallery : Portrait of a CardinaL 
National Gallery of Ireland : Europa. 

By Maratti we have several etchings executed 
with much freedom and spirit Some of these are 
original, others after various Italian masters. 

MARATTI, Maria, daughter and pupil of Carlo 
Maratti. She married Giambattista Tappi, a poet, 
and abandoned painting for literature. Her portrait, 
painted by herself, is in the Corsini Palace at Rome. 

MARAZZONE, II. See Mazzuchelli. 

MARC. See March. 

MARCA. See Della Marca. 

MARC-ANTONIO. See Raimondi. 

MARCEL, N., was bom at Frankfort in 1628, 
and was a scholar of Georg Vlugels, an indifferent 
painter of still life. Marcel greatly surpassed his 
master, and his pictures of flowers, fruit, shells, &c., 
are highly finished and good in colour. He died 
at Frankfort in 1683. 

MARCEL, Provenzals, an Italian painter, was 
bom at Cento in 1575. He was a pupil of Paolo 
Rosetti, and executed a * Mater Dolorosa.' He 
died in 1639. 

MARCELLIS, Otto (or Marcellus). See 

SCRRIECK. 

MARCENAY, Antoine de Guy, a French en- 
grayer, was bom at Amay le Due in 1724, and 
died in 1811. He was one of the most successful 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



MarclieBi 



imitators of the style of Rembrandt, and has 
engraved several plates of portraits and other 
subjects in which the dry point is used with great 
dexterity. Among others, we have the following 
prints by him : 

PORTBAITS. 

Henry lY. of France ; aftvr Janet, 

Hie Duke of Sully ; after Fourbut, 

Ibe Chevalier Bayard. 

The Maid of Orleans. 

Yucotuit Tarenne ; after Champoffne 

Prince Engene ; after Kupetzki. 

Maralial Villais ; after Rtgaud. 

General Paoli. 

StanialanB Augustas, King of Poland ; after Baeierelli. 

Marshal Suce ; after lAotard. 

3%e Portrait of Tintoretto ; after a picture by himaelf, 

A half-length of Bembrandt, with a palette. 

SUBJECTS. 

Sunset; after Vemet. 

A Yiew of the Sea^oast, with Fishermen; after the same. 

A Land-4tonn ; after Van Udtn. 

A Skirmish of Cavalry ; after Parrocd. 

The Testament of Budamidas ; after N. Poussin. 

Tobit recovering his Sight ; after Rembrandt. 

The Ladv with the Pearl, an oval, with the date 1768 ; 

after the same. 
The (lady) Gardener ; after G. I>ou, with the date 1766. 

MARCH, EsT^BAN, (or Marc,) was, according to 
Palomino, a native of Valencia, and a scholar of 
Pedro Orrente, under whom he became an eminent 
painter of battles. He adopted the Venetian 
style of painting, and became a kind of Quixote 
in his art. In order to rouse his imagination he 
would arm himself cap-k-pi^, place lance in rest, 
and to the sound of drums and trumpets make a 
furious attack on the walls of his atelier. In the 
church of San Juan de Mercado, in Valencia, 
is an altar-piece of the 'Last Supper,' highly com- 
mended by his biographer, and for tne Bueno 
Retiro he painted a large picture of the * Marriage 
at Cana.' He died at Valencia in 1660, at an 
advanced age. His works are chiefly to be found 
at Valencia and Madrid. 

MARCH, Miguel, (orMABC,) the son and scholar 
of Est^ban March, was bom at Valencia in 1633. 
He painted history and battles in the style of his 
father, but with much less ability. One of his 
best performances is the ' Death of St. Francis,* in 
the cnurch of the Franciscans at Valencia. March 
died at Valencia in 1670. 

MABCHAL, Charles FBANgois, a French subject 
painter, bom in Paris in 1825. He entered the Ecole 
des Beaux Arts in 1843, and studied under Drolling 
and Dubois. His reputation was acquired by his 
pictures of Alsatian life and customs. He first 
exhibited at the Salon in 1852. He died by his 
own hand in Paris in 1877., Amongst his chief 
works are : 

Fdte de la Mire. 1857. 

Wasted Labour. 1860. {BezUrs Mueeum.) 

Interior of an Inn at Bonzwiller. 1861. 

The Servants' Fair, Bouxwiller. 1864. {Luxembourg 

Gallery f Paris.) 
Spring-tune. 1866. 
Penelope. 1868. 
Alsace. 1873. 

The Return from the Masquerade. 
Phxyne. 

MABCHAND, Gabriel, an engraver, was bom 
in Paris about 1755. He was a pupil of E. Voy- 
zard, and executed seyeral works after Barbier, 
Schmutzer, and others. 

MABCHAND, Johann Christian, an engraver, 
son of Johann Jakob Marchand, a portrait painter, 



was born in 1679. He was a pupil of Preissler 
and BernigeroLh, and engraved some portraits and 
historical pictures. He died in 1711. 

MABCHAND, Pierre (or Marchant). Florent 
le Comte and Professor Christ mention an artist 
of this name, who lived about the year 1577, and 
engraved both on wood and. on copper. 

MABCHANT, J., engraved a portrait of Mrs. 
Cibber, after Hudson, in 1749. 

MABCHANT, Jan, an historical and still-life 
painter, was bom at Antwerp in 1808. In 1832 
he migrated to France, and became Professor of 
Drawing at the Cavalry School at Saumur. He 
died in 1864. 

MABCHANT, Petrus. A book of goldsmith's 
ornaments, executed with the graver, is signed, 
Fetrus Marchant fecit. 162S. Perhaps identical 
with Pierre Marchand {q. v.). 

MABCHELLI, Bolando, an Italian painter, was 
bom at Gehoa in 1664. He was a pupil of 
Maratti, but abandoned painting for commerce, 
and died in 1751. 

MABCHESI, Francesco and Bernardino. See 
Dei Zaganelli. 

MABCHESI DA COTIGNOLA, Girolabio, flour- 
ished in the early part of the 16th century, and wiis 
probably a pupil of Zaganelli. The church of Sun 
Francesco, at San Marino, contains his two first 
pictures, both Madonnas with Saints and Angels. 
In Lord Ashburton*s collection there is a ' Holy 
Conversation,* signed and dated 1513; and the 
Bologna and Berlin Galleries possess works by 
him dated from 1516 to 1526. Vasari asserts that 
he painted the portrait of Gaston de Foix when 
he lay wounded at Bavenna in 1512 ; he abo says 
that during his latter years Marchesi went to 
Naples and then to Bome, where he painted the 
portrait of Paul III., and that he died there in his 
64th year of a broken heart, through having been 
entrapped into marriage with a woman of ill 
fame. His will was made at Bologna in 1531, 
and can still be seen. The following are among 
his works : 

Berlin. Museum. Marriage of the Virgin. 1519. 

„ „ St. Bernard and his Diadplea. 

1526. 
Bologna. Pinaeoteca. Marriage of the Virgin. 

Virgin, Child, the Baptist, and 

&int8. 
Predella — The Annandatioo ; 
Natirity ; Flight into Bgypt. 
Ferrara. 8. Maria in | j^,^.^ ^^ j^j^j,^ 

Paris. Louvre. Bast of Christ bearing His Cross. 

{Signed apparently HisnoNiMva 
Mahchkst^s nB(V) Cotionola 

FACIBBAT 1520 (?).) 

MABCHESI, Giuseppe, called II Sansone, was 
born at Bologna in 1699, and was first a scholar of 
Marc Antonio Francescliini,but afterwards studied 
under Aureliano Milani. To the vigorous colour 
and fore-shortening of his first instructor, he 
united the correct design of Milani. He has left 
many works in the churches of Bologna. In San 
Pietro there is a * St Ambrose repulsing Theodosius.* 
His picture of the 'Birth of the Virgin,' in La 
Madonna di Galeria, and that of the * Besurrection,* 
in Santa Croce, are painted in the style of Frances- 
chini. One of his most esteemed works is the * Mar- 
tyrdom of St. Prisca/ in the cathedral of Bimini, 
on the conception of which the *St. Agnes' of 
Doroenchino seems to have had some influence. 

Marchesi died in 1771. 

105 



>f 



*> 



It 



»i 



Marchesixii 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Marconi 



MARCHESINI, Alessandeo, according to 
Orlandi) was born at Verona in 1664, and received 
his first instruction in art from Biagio Falcieri. 
At the age of sixteen he was sent to Bologna, and 
placed under the tuition of Carlo Cignani. Under 
that master he became a reputable painter of 
history, and on his return to Verona was employed 
in San Biagio, La Madonna della Scala, and other 
public edifices. He resided some time at Venice, 
where he was chiefly occupied in painting easel 
pictures of historical and labulous subjects. He 
died in 1733. 

MARCHESINI, Pietro, bom at Pistoja in 1697, 
was a pupil of Gabbiani at Florence. He painted 
several pictures for the churches and palaces in 
Florence and Pistoja. He died in 1767. 

MARCHETTI, Domknico, (or Mebchetti,) an 
engraver, was bom at Rome in 1730, and was still 
living in 1831. He worked in the manner of G. 
Volpato. Among his best productions are : 

Dante and Beatrice ; after Ayricola. 

Beligion with the Cross ; after Canova. 

The Tomb of the three Stuarts ; after the aaiM, 

MARCHETTI, Marco, called Marco da Faenza, 
flourished at Rome in the pontificate of Gregory 
XIII., who employed him in ornamenting the 
Loggie of the Vatican with arabesques, in which 
he sought to follow the style of Giovanni da 
Udine. He decorated twenty rooms in the ducal 
palace at Florence in the same fashion. His 
talents were not, however, confined to that branch 
of the art. He painted historical subjects, which 
were correctly and elegantly designed, with a 
more than usual mastery of the nude. Of this 
his ^ Murder of the lanocents ' in the Vatican is an 
example. In the church of the Triniti de' Monti 
he painted a series of pictures of the life of St. 
Francis di Paolo. He died in 1588. 

MARCHI, DoMENico, known as Tempestino, 
also DoM. Tbmpesta, was, according to Lanzi, bom 
at Florence in 1652, and was a scholar of Baldassare 
Franceschini. He painted portraits and landscapes, 
but distinguished himself more as an engraver 
than as a painter, and is said to have received in- 
struction in that art from R. Nanteuil and Gerard 
Edelinck. Among other plates he engraved a set 
of portraits of the Electors Palatine. He was 
called ^ Tempestino ' from having been a pupil of 
Peter Molyn, who was named Tempesta. He was 
a great traveller, and there is much uncertainty 
in his history. The date of his death is variously 
given ; some placing it in 1718, others in 1737. 
It may be, however, that there were two artists 
called Douienico Tempesta, and that the accounts 
of them have been blended. 

MARCHI, Giuseppe Filippo Liberati,wos bom 
at Rome about 1735, and brought to England in 
1752 by Sir Joshua Reynolds. By him he was 
much employed in preparing his palette, in paint- 
ing draperies, and in * forwarding ' pictures. He 
attempted about 1770 to establish himself as an 
independent portrait painter, but after some brief 
experience both in London and in Wales, he was 
glad to return to his former employer. He died in 
London in 1808. He engraved several plates in 
mezzotint from portraits by Sir Joshua ; among 
them we may name : 

Lady Mulgrave, when Miss Cholmondeley. 
Mrs. Crewe and Mrs. Bouverie. 
Mi -8 Oliver. 
Dr. Goldsmith. 
Mrs. Hartley, with her child. 
106 



M ARCHIORETTO, Pietro, painter and draughts- 
man, was born in the neighbourhood of Feltre in 
1772. He owed his education in art to a Venetian 
noble, who placed him first with Lazzarini, and 
afterwards with Frans Cauzitsch. He afterwards 
settled down as a teacher at Verona, and was also 
employed in the chalcographic institute of Bis- 
domini. He painted a ' Holy Sepulchre ' for the 
church at Brixen, and a number of north Italian 
landscapes for the Countess Kielmannsegge. 

MARCHIS, Alesio de, was a Neapolitan, and 
was born at the beginning of the 18th century. 
He painted landscapes, sea-ports, and towns on 
fire, in which he followed tJie style of Salvator 
Rosa. His principal works are at Pemgia and 
Urbino. Lanzi reports that, in order to imitate 
nature more exactly in his conflagrations, he set 
fire to a barn, for the purpose of study ; the fact 
being discovered, he was sent to the galleys for 
some years, but was released from his punishment 
in the pontificate of Clement XL, who employed 
him in his palace at Urbino, which he decorated 
with several of his best works. One of his most 
celebrated pictures is the * Burning of Troy/ in 
the Palazzo Semproni. He died about 1742. 

MARCILLAT,GuiLLAUME Pierre de, (called by 
others Guolielmo da Marciqia, or Gitillaume db 
Marseille,) who was chiefly a painter on glass, 
was bom at St. Michel, near Verdun, or, according 
to others, at Marseilles, in 1475. He was instructed 
in the art by 'Claude f'Claudio Francese'), at 
Nevers, and there enterea the order of the Domini- 
cans. Subsequently the two went to Rome together, 
and painted in the Vatican and in Santa Maria del 
Popolo, but their works in the Vatican have dis- 
appeared. While in Rome Marcillat entered the 
order of the Benedictines, in 1509, and*subsequently 
executed, from the designs of Claude, several works 
for Cardinal Passerini at Cortona, and others at 
Arezzo, Florence, Perugia, and CastigUone. He 
died at Arezzo in 1537. 

MARCEE, JoLiE Robert van, was bom in 1801. 
She was the daughter of M. Robert, director of the 
Sevres factory, and married J. van Marcke, a land- 
scape painter and pupil of WateleL She painted 
fruits and flowers. Her death took place in 1875. 
Her two sons have both reached fame as painters. 

MARCO, Calabresi. See Cardisco. 

MARCO di ANTONIO. See Palmezzano. 

MARCOLA, Marco, an Italian historical painter, 
was bom at Verona in 1728, and died in 1790. 
Nothing is known of him. 

MARCOLINI, Francesco, an Italian engraver 
on wood, was bora at Forli about the year 1500. 
He was from 1530 to 1535 a printer at Venice, but 
after that he settled at Verona. In 1540 he pub- 
lished a book entitled * II Giardino de' Pensieri,' 
with woodcuts, executed by himself, after the 
denigns of Giuseppe Porta. 

MARCONI, Rocco, painter and engraver, was a 
native of Treviso, and flourished about the year 
1505. He was probably a pupil of Giovanni 
Bellini. His chief performances are in the 
Academy at Venice. His picture in the church of 
San Niccolo, which is considered one of his earliest 
works, is dated in 1505. One of his best pictures 
is the * Adulteress before Christ,' formerly in San 
Giorgio Maggiore, now in the Procuratie Nuove, 
at Venice. Anotlier example of the same subject 
is in the Gallery at Berlin. Dresden, St. Petersburg, 
and Treviso also possess pictures by him. Marconi 
engraved some plates. 



Marcovaldo 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Maricuii 



MARCOVALDO, Coppo di, was a contemporary 
of Andrea Tafi, and the author of a picture repre- 
senting the * Virgin enthroned,' in the convent 
church of the Servi at Siena, and dated 1261. 
He is also known to have executed between the 
years of 1265 and 1275 a number of wall paintings 
and a 'Madonna' in the cathedral at Pistoja. 
These have now all perished. 

MARCUARD, Robert Samuel, an English 
designer and engraver, was bom in 1751, and died 
alK>ut 1792. He was a pupil of Bartolozzi, whose 
manner he followed, and was considered one of 
the best scholars of that master. His engravings 
are chiefly after the works of contemporary 
painters, particularly Cipriani, Angelica Eauff- 
mann, W. Hamilton, Hoppner, Flaxman (sculptor), 
Stothard, Peters, and Sir J. Reynolds. 

MARCUCCI, Agostino, was a native of Siena. 
He was educated at Bologna, and had the advantage 
of studying in the school of the Carracci, until 
Pietro Facini attempted the establishment of a 
rival academy, to which Marcucci attached himself. 
He painted some pictures for the churches at 
Bologna : among them ' The Death of the Virgin ' 
in the Church of the Conception. Marcucci died 
early in the 17th century. 

MARCUS, Jacob Ernst, was bom on the island 
of St. Eustatius in 1774, and instructed in the 
rudiments of design by S. 6obl4, and in engraving 
by Vinkeles, at Amsterdam. In 1798 he obtained 
the first prize at the school of design, and in 
conjunction with Fock founded a society of 
artists, ' Kunst zy ons Doel.' Though his land- 
scape drawings were esteemed, he distinguished 
himself more as an engraver, and we have by him 
a series of one hundred plates, representing land- 
scapes and portraits after the designs of Caspari. 
Marcus died at Amsterdam in 1826. 

MAR^. Jean Charles, bom at Berlin in 1772, 
was an engraver, and pupil of the Berlin Academy, 
of which he became a professor in 1813. He died 
in 1855. Besides several maps, he engraved some 
pictures, among others the ^ Crowning of the Monu- 
ment of Lysicrates at Athens,* after Matthaus Mauch. 

MARE, P. DB. See Db Mabb. 

MARE, RicHABT DE LA. See De la Mark-Rich art. 

MARlfeCHAL, — , a painter, who died in 1803, 
is chiefly known by his paintings, on parchment, 
of Mammalia in the Paris Zoological Museum. 
Lallier and others have engraved after him. 

MAR^CHAL, Laurent Charles, was bom at 
Metz in 1801. He studied under Regnault, and 
distinguished himself chiefly as a painter on glass. 
He died in 1877. He has left a few genre pieces 
in oil and pastel. 

MARIES. See Desmar^bs. 

MAREL, or MARRELLUS, Jacob, painter of 
still life, was bom at Frankfort about 1614. He 
is said to have been a pupil of Georg Flegel at 
Frankfort, and of J. D. de Heem at Utrecht. He 
was the iirst master of Abraham Mignon. His 
pictures are very rare, but one has recently been 
added to the Rijks Museum, Amsterdam, with the 
inscription Jacobus Marrellus fedt Utrek, 1634. 
Marel died in Brussels about 1685. 

MARESCALCO, II. See Buonconsiglto. 

MARESCALCO, Pietro, called Lo Spada, a 
native of Feltre, was a portrait and historical 
painter, and flourished about 1576. At Feltre 
there is a * Madonna * by him; at. Dresden a 
* Salome bearing the head of John th^ Baptist,' and 
a * Solomon and the Queen of Shebob' 



MARESCOTTI, Babtolommeo, was a native of 
Bologna, and was brought up in the school of 
Guido Reni, of whose style he was an unsuccessful 
imitator. There are some of his works in the 
churches and public edifices at Bologna; in San 
Martino Maggiore, the ' Martyrdom of St. Barbara * ; 
in San Stef ano, the ' Crowning of the Virgin * ; and 
* St. Sigismondo condemned to death,* in the church 
dedicated to that saint. He died in 1630. 

MARGARITONE di MAGNANO, was bom at 
Arezzo in 1216. He was painter, sculptor, and 
architect, and a man of note in his day. In- 
fluenced, however, by the fact that he was a 
fellow-townsman, Vasari has spoken of him at 
greater length than the excellence of his works 
will justify. Of these the best is a * Madonna with 
scenes from the lives of the Saints,' now in the 
National Gallery. Margaritone's chief work in 
sculpture is the monument to Gregory X. in Arezzo 
Cathedral. He died at Arezzo in 1293. The 
date of his death has sometimes been given as 
1313, which would make him 97 years of age. 
This was a mistake arising apparently through 
the transposition of a c in the roman numeral. 
Margaritone's chief surviving works are : 

Arezzo. & Franeesco. A Madonna. 

„ „ Christ On the Cross (colossal). 

Liverpool. Institute. Coronation of the Virgin. 
London. Nat. Gal. Madonna, with scenes from the 

lives of the Saints. 
Sargiano, near Arezzo. A St. Francis. 

The picture ascribed to him in the Guise collec- 
tion at Christchurch, Oxford, is a Byzantine work 
of the 17th century. 

MARGHINOTTI, Giovanni, was an Italian 
historical painter of some talent. He was painter 
to Giarles Albert of Savoy, and died in 1865. 

MARGHUCCI, GiACOMO, an engraver and print- 
seller of the 18th century. He has left some plates 
of antique busts and statues. 

MARGUERITE, Archduchess of Austria, who 
was born at Bmssels in 1480, painted a few 
portraits with some skill. She died in 1630. 

MART, Alesbandbo, was bom at Turin in 1650, 
and was first a scholar of Domenico Piola of Genoa, 
but afterwards went to Venice, where he studied 
some time under Cavaliere Liberi. He next visited 
Bologna, and passed some years in the school of 
Lorenzo Pasinelli, and on leaving that master, 
painted some pictures for Bolognese churches. 
His principal residence was at Milan for a time, 
where he gained considerable reputation by paint- 
ing symbolical subjects, in imitation of the old 
masters. According to Lanzi he went to Spain, 
and died at Madrid in 1707. 

MARIA, Erg. dl See San Giovanni. 

MARIA, Francesco di, was bora at Naples in 
1623, and became a disciple of Domenichino, when 
he resided in that city. Like his instructor, he 
studied the subjects he painted with the most 
profound attention ; and, like him, patiently en- 
dured the taunts of his contemporaries for tardiness 
and irresolution. His historical works are not 
numerous. He excelled in portrait painting; and 
Lanzi reports, that a portrait by him being ex- 
hibited at Rome with one by Rubens, and another 
by Van Dyck, the preference was given by the 
judges, Niccol6 Poussin, Pietro da Cortona, and 
Andrea Sacchi, to that of Maria. He died in 1690. 

MARIAN I, Giovanni Maria, was a native of 
Ascoli, and flourished about the 3''ear 1665. He 
was a scholar of Domenico FiascIIa cit the time 

107 



Marienhof 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP 



Marini 



when Valerio Castelli was also under that master, 
and in conjunction with him distinguished himself 
by several works at Genoa, both in oil and in 
fresco. His picture in the oratory of San Jacopo, 
of the baptism of that saint, may be ranked with 
the best productions of his time. He passed some 
part of his life at Rome, and was received into the 
Academy there in 1650. He sometimes painted 
historical subjects of an easel size, and his works 
of this class are found in the collections at Genoa 
and Florence. One of the best is a ^ Rape of the 
Sabines,' in the Florentine Gallery. 

MARIENHOF, A., a Dutch painter, was born at 
Gorcum in 1650. It is not known by whom he 
was taught, but according to Descamps he passed 
the early part of his life in studying and copying 
the works of Rubens. He afterwards settled at 
Brussels, where lie was much employed in painting 
small historical pictures in the manner of that 
master. He died young; Balkema says in 1712. 

MARIESCHI, Jacopo, Tor Giacomo,) the son of 
Michele Marieschi, was bom at Venice in 1711. 
After being instructed in design and perspective 
by his father, he became a scholar of Gaspare 
DizianL He painted architectural subjects, and 
news of Venice, in which he imitated the style of 
Canaletto. The National Gallery of Ireland has 
two of his works, both views of Venice, which are 
there on deposit from the National Gallery of 
London. He died in 1794. 

MARIESCHI, MiCHBLB, was a native of Venice. 
He excelled in painting architectural views and 
perspectives, and passed the first part of his life in 
Germany, where his works were much esteemed. 
On his return to Venice he painted the most 
remarkable views in that city, several of which, 
moreover, he has etched. He died in 1743. 

MARIETTE, Jean, an eminent French engraver 
anil print-seller, was bom in Paris in 1654. He was 
instructed in drawing by his brother-in-law, J. B. 
Comeille, with tlie intention of becoming a painter, 
but by the advice of Charles le Brun, he changed 
his pumnit, and devoted himself to engraving. He 
died in Paris in 1742. Several of his plates are 
from his own designs. He worked both with the 
point and the graver. We have a great number 
of plates by him, the greater part of which are 
frontispieces, vignettes, and other book ornaments. 
The following are esteemed his best prints : 

The Descent from the Gross ; afier Le Brun, 

The Angels ministenng to Christ in the Desert ; after 

the same. 
Bl. Peter delivered from Prison ; after Damentckino. 
Moses saved from the Nile ; afier Poumn. 
Joseph making himself known to his Brethren , after 

M, Comeille. 
Christ curing the Paralytic ; after the same. 
St. Louis receiving the Communion; afier J. B. 

Comeille. 
St. Louis received into Heaven ; after the tame, 

MARIETTE, Pierre Jean, was the son of Jean 
Mariette, from whom he inherited a very con- 
siderable property, and an extensive collection of 
prints, which, by continual additions, he rendered 
the most numerous and select of any private 
gathering in Europe. His immense collection 
was sold in Paris in 1775. For his amusement he 
etched a few landscapes, after Guercino; and 
some heads and studies, after the Carracci and 
Pierino del Vaga. He also brought out a * Trait§ 
des Pierres gravies/ with 250 engravings of antique 
gems from his own hand, in 2 vols., folio. He 
died in Paris in 1774. 
108 



MARIGNY, Michel, a French historical painter, 
was bom in Paris in 1797, and died there in 
1829 ; he was a scholar of M. Lafont and the 
Baron Gros. He painted several pictures of large 
dimensions for churches at Paris and Rouen, and 
one of 'Moses, as the. Law-giver,' for a council- 
chamber in the Louvre. His last production, a 
* Wounded Soldier,' was exhibited at the Luxem- 
bourg in 1880. 

MARILHAT, Prosper, was bom at Vertaison, 
in the south of France,, in 1811, and entered the 
Atelier of Roqueplan at Paris in 1829. There he 
executed several landscapes in the classic manner, 
During 1831-33 he travelled in Greece, Syria, 
Palestine, and Egypt. There his natural bent was 
developed, and he studied nature long and con- 
scientiously. His power was chiefly shown in his 
rendering of southern I'ght. He attracted atten- 
tion at once with his oriental subjects, but he im- 
proved steadily up to his last years. Marilhat died 
in Paris in 1847. His best pictures are : 

Ruhis of the Mosque of Sultan Hakim. 
The Esbekieh Sauare, Cairo. 
Caravans at Baalbec. 1840. 
Syrian Arabs on the March. 
A Souvenir of the Nile. 

MARILLIER, Clement Pibrbe, a French de* 
signer and engraver, was bom at Dijon in 1740, 
and died on his own estate near Melun in 1808. He 
first studied painting under Hall6 at Paris, but the 
cares of maintaining his family compelled him to 
illustrate books, and he made numerous drawings 
of subjects from the Bible, and for the works of 
Dorat, the Abb^ Prevost, De Roucher, Amand 
Bacculard, Voltaire, and Sauvigy. He also engraved 
from his own designs the landscapes for 'Les 
Voyages en France, k Naples et en Grece,* and 
for various other works. 

MARIN-LAVIGNE, Loms Stanislas, a French 
painter and lithographer, bora *in Paris in 1797. 
tie died in 1860. His lithographs form his best 
claim to be remembered. The best are: 

Battle of Jemappes ; rfter Horace Vemef. 
Camille Desmoulins ; afier the same. 
Netscher and his Daughter ; ofter Netseher, 
Retreat from Moscow ; afier Cogmet, 
La belle Jardiniere ; after Baphatl. 
Mater DoloroMi ; after MuriUo. 

MARINARI, Onorio, a painter and engraver, 
was born at Florence in 1627. He was first in- 
structed by his father, Pietro Marinari, and 
afterwards by his cousin, Carlo Dolci, and for some 
time followed the finished and laboured manner of 
the latter, but afterwards adopted a larger style. 
His principal works are in the church of Santa 
Maria Maggiore, and in that of San Simone at 
Florence. He died in 1715. Among his paintings 
are: 

A series of portraits of painters (Florence). 

St. Jerome. 

St. Mark healing the sick. 

The Hours preceding the chariot of the Sun. 

He engraved 19 plates for a mathematical treatise, 
written by himself. 

MARINAS, De las (or Dellb Marine). See 
De las Marinas. 

MARINI, Antonio, was born at Prato in 1788. 
He was a pupil of the Academy at Florence. In 
1821 he introduced the art of lithography into 
Italy, and twenty years later was admitted a member 
of the Florence Academy. He restored several of 
the frescoes of Giotto, Gaddi, and Gozzoli, and 



JCarini 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Marmion 



painted various Madonnas in the style of the old 
masters. He died at Florence in 1861. 

MARINI, BKNBDETro, was a native of Urbino, 
and flourished about the year 1625. According.to 
Lanzi, he was one of the most distinguished scholars 
of Claudio Ridolfi, and on leaving that master 
resided some years at Piacenza, where he painted 
several altar-pieces and other works, in which he 
united the Lombard with the Venetian style. The 
most celebrated of his performances is his picture 
of the ' Multiplication of the Loaves/ in the 
refectory of the Conventuali, painted in 1625 ; an 
immense composition, painted in oil, and arranged 
with surprising ingenuity and variety. 

MARINKELLE, Joseph, (called Marinkeltje,) 
a Dutch painter, was bom at Rotterdam in 1732. 
His nickname was an allusion to his small stature. 
He was a miniature and portrait painter, and in 
practice for a long time at Amsterdam. He died 
in 1775, and his death has been ascribed partly 
to chagrin caused by a lampoon from the pen of an 
authoress whom he had failed to flatter in painting 
her portrait. 

MARIN US, Ignatius Cornelis, a Flemish en- 
graver, was probably bom about 1587. The date 
of his death is uncertain. His principal residence 
was at Antwerp, where he executed several plates, 
in a neat but singular style. They are worked 
entirely with the graver, with very delicate strokes 
crossing each other, and filled up with long dots. 
The best are named in the following list : 

The Flight into Egypt ; a night-piece ; afttt Rubetu. 

8t. Ignatius curing the Diseased ; after the same, 

St. Francis Xavier resuscitating a Dead Person; afitr 

the same. 
The Adoration of the Shepherds ; after Jordaene. 
Christ before the High-priest Gaiaphas ; after the same. 
The Blartyrdom of St. Apollonia ; after the same. 
A Concert of Tillage Children ; after C. Saftleven. 1638. 

He also engraved some plates, after M. A. Cara- 
▼aggio. Van Dyck, and others. 

MARmUS DE ZEEUW, or VAN ROMER- 
8WALE, a Dutch painter of the sixteenth century. 
The dates on his pictures range from 1521 to 1560, 
and he seems to have been alive as late as 1567. 
There can be little doubt that he is the Marino di 
Siressa of Vasari, and the Marino di Sirissea of Guic- 
ciardini, for Ziricksee is a town in the district of 
Schonwen, part of the province of Zeeland. The 
name de Zeeuw, which means simply the sea-lander, 
is not to be found on a signed picture by Marinus, 
but only this latter appellation, combined some- 
times with Romerswalen or Roymerswalen. Hence 
we may fairly conclude that Marinus is nothing 
more than a Latinized form of de Zeeuw, while 
Romerswalen, or van Ronierswale, may be a family 
name. Nothing as yet has been recovered as to 
the facts of this painter's life. His pictures, how- 
ever, show that ne must have been a disciple, if 
not a direct pupil, of Jan or Quentin Matsys. One 
of the best of tliem is a * Money-changers,' in the 
National Gallery, where it used to be ascribed to 
Quentin Matsys. 

MARIO DI FioRl. See Nuzzi. 
• MARIOTTI, — , who was a native of Italy, and 
probably a painter, is known only by a slight, 
spirited etching of a frontispiece to a collection of 
altar-pieces, published at Rome by Giacomo Rossi. 
It is after a design by Giro Ferri. 

MARIOTTI, Cablo Spiridons, an historical 
painter, and native of Perugia, is supposed to have 
been a pupil of Subleyras. He died in 1775. 



MARISSAL, Philip, a portrait and still-life 
painter, was born at Ghent in 1698. He was a 
pupil of Leplat There are several large decorative 
pictures by him at Ghent. He died in 1770. 

MARKO, Earl, was born at Leutzschau, in 
Hungary, in 1790. He studied in Vienna, Rome, 
Pisa, and Florence. His pictures are mostly land- 
scapes with figures, in the style of Gaspar 
Poussin. He died in 1860. 

MARKOS, GiOBQios, a native of Argos, who, 
early in the lust century, painted a number of 
frescoes in the church of the * Panagia-Phanerou- 
mena/ in the island of Salamis. In this work he 
was helped by his pupils. It was finished in 1735. 

MARLET, Jean Henri, a French poetical, his- 
torical, and portrait painter, was born at Autun in 
1771, and was a pupil at the Academy at Dijon, 
and afterwards of the Baron Regnault His com- 
positions are numerous, embracing a great variety 
of subjects from poetry, history, anecdote, and 
fancy. He has published some works in litho- 
graphy, among them * Les Tableaux de Paris.' He 
died in 1846. 

MARLIE, Reni&b Elizabeth. See Lepici^ 

MARLOW, M., an obscure English engraver, 
lived towards the end of the 17th century. He 
appears to have been employed only by the book- 
sellers ; in that capacity he engraved a portrait of 
John Mayne, Arithmetician, prefixed to his * Clavis 
Commercialis ' ; dated 1674. 

MARLOW, William, an English landscape 
painter and engraver, was born at South wark in 
1740. He was a scholar of Scott the marine painter, 
and also studied in the St Martin's Lane Academy. 
He joined the Incorporated Society of Artists, and 
from 1762 repeatedly exhibited at Spring Gardens. 
From 1788, however, he was a regular exhibitor at 
the Academy until 1796, and again for the last 
time in 1807, when his picture was ' Twickenham 
Ferry by Moonlight.' In his earlier career he had 
painted views of several English noblemen's seatA* 
and from 1765 to 1768 he travelled in France and 
Italy. On returning home he settled first in 
Leicester Square, and afterwards at Twickenham, 
where he died in good circumstances in 1813. He 
painted scenes on the lower banks of the Thames, 
and also in the neighbourhood of Richmond and 
Twickenham. He also painted and etched some 
Italian views : to these he has put his name, with 
the addition of F. S. A. Some of his pictures are 
in the Foundling Hospital ; several have been 
engraved, including views of Westminster and 
Blackfriars Bridges. The South Kensington 
Museum possesses one landscape by him. 

MARMIETTI, LoDOVico, an Italian engraver, 
was born at Parma in the 15th century. He was 
a pupil of his father, Francesco Marmietti. He 
went to Rome in the train of Cardinal Salviati, 
and there made a certain reputation. 

MARMION, Sir Edmund, was an English designer 
and engraver, of the time of the two Charleses, 
who has left a few etchings of domestic subjects of 
ladies and gentlemen, from his own designs. His 
prints bear some resemblance to those of Gay wood, 
though inferior. There is a portrait of George 
Tooke, of Popes, by him, which is scarce; also 
some portraits in the style of Van Dyck. 

MARMION, Simon, a painter of Valenciennes, 
flourished from about 1425 to about 1489. Accord- 
ing to contemporary chroniclers, •* was worthy of 
great admiration " in his time. He was at once 
^ painter and illuminator, and we know that he 

109 






Marmocchini 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Karracci 



paitiied a number of miniatures for a niiRsal of 
Philip the Good. The first mention of him occurs 
in 1453, in which year he painted a picture for the 
town-hall of Amiens. In 1460 he appears among 
the founders o£ the Guild of Valenciennes, and in 
1468 he was raised, at Tournai, to tlie rank of 
nuk^er. No picture can with certainty be assigned 
to hiih, but in all likelikood he painted the altar 
screen formerly in the Abbey of St. Omer, which 
is now in the king's palace at tlie Hague. 

MARMOCCHINI, Giovanna Cortksi, was born 
at Florence in 1670. She was first a pupil of 
Lieven Mehus, and afterwards of Pietro Dandioi and 
Ippolito Galantini . Although she chiefly excelled 
in portraits in miniature, she practised both in oil 
and in crayons. The grand duchess of Tuscany 
was her patroness. She died in 1736. 

MARMOLEJO. See Villeoas Marholejo. 

MARNE. See Demarne. 

MARNEFFE, Fran^oib de, an obscure Flemish 
landscape painter, bom in 1798, and died in 1877. 

MAROLI, DoiTENico, was bom at Mesnina in 
1612. He was a scholar of Antonio Ricci, called 
Barbalunga ; and on leaving the school of that 
master visited Venice, where he studied with profit 
the works of the grent Venetian masters. Among 
his pictures are the * Martyrdom of St. Placido,' in 
San Paolo ; and the ' Nativity,' in the Chiesa della 
Grotta, at Messina. While ut Venice, he painted 
with success some pastoral subjects, in the style 
of Giacomo Bassano. Maroli fell a victim to the 
revolution which took place in Sicily in 1674. 

MA RON, Anton von, was an Austrian portrait 
painter, bom at Vienna in 1733. He was a pupil 
of Mengs, whose sister Teresa he married. Ho 
painted a portrait of the Emperor Joseph II. His 
death took place at Rome in 1808. 

MARON, Teresa von, a sister of Rafael Mengs, 
was born at Aussig in Boliemia about 1733. She 
studied painting under her father, and in 1752 
went to Rome with her brother Rafael. She 
married Anton yon Maron, and attained to some 
excellence as a miniaturist. 

MA RONE, Jacjopo, was a native of Alessandria, 
and flourished from about 1451 to 1484. He spent 
most of his life in and around Genoa, where he 
painted several altar-pieces for the churches. In 
the church of San Jacopo at Savona is a picture 
of the * Nativity ' by him, painted in distemper, in 
a careful, high-finished style. In Santa Brigida, 
at Genoa, are two pictures by this master, dated 
1481 and 1484. 

MA ROT, Daniel, the son of Jean Marot, was 
bom in Paris about 1650-55, and distinguished 
himself as an architect, designer, and engraver. 
He is usually styled architect to William III., King 
of England. He engraved several plateH in the 
style of his father, which were published at Paris, 
with some of those of Jean Marot, entitled * Receuil 
des planches des Sieurs Marot, pere et fils. ' He also 
engraved a set of architectural plates, which were 
published at Amsterdam in 1712 ; and the statues 
and vases in the palace at Loo. He was living in 
1718. We have also the following prints by him : 

The great Fair at the Hague, with the Burghers under 

arms, salutiug the Prince and Princess of Orange ; 

in tico sheets. 
The great Faur at Amsterdam, with the Citizens under 

arms. 
The Festival of the Birth-day of the Priooe of Orange. 

1086. 
The Interior of the Au<1ieuce-chamber at the Hague. 
A perspective View of Voorst. 
110 



MAROT, FRAN901S, a French painter, was born 
in Paris in 1667. He was the best scholar of 
Charles de la Fosse, and painted history in the 
style of that master. One of his most esteemed 
works is a picture in the church of Notre Dame, 
representing * Christ appearing to the Three Marys ' ; 
another is the ' Martyrdom of St. Lawrence,' in a 
church at Rotterdam. He died in 1719. Moreau, 
Chereau, and otliers have engraved after his works. 

MAROT, Jean, a French architect and engraver, 
was bom in Paris in 1620. We have by him 
several architectural plates, plans and elevations 
of the most remarkable edifices in Paris and its 
neighbourhood. In conjunction with 8. de la 
Boissiere, Is. Silvestre, I. de Paultre, Seh. le Clerc, 
F. Chavean, and other artists, he executed several 
of the plates for the cabinet of the King of 
France. The following are his principal prints : 

A set of thirteen plates of Churches and public edifices 
at Paris ; designed and engraved after their measure- 
ment by J. Marot. 

A second set of twelve plates of the same. 

Twenty-one Views of the Chateau de Kichelieu. 

Plans and Elevations of the Louvre ; three plates. 

Plans and Views of the Ch&teau de Vincennes ; three 
plates. 

Plau anl Bievation of the Chttteaxi de Madrid; two 
plates. 

MARQUEZ,E8T6BAN,aSpanish historical painter, 
was born in Estremadura about the middle of the 
17th century, and was a scholar of his uncle Fer- 
nando Marquez de Joya, who followed the school 
of Murillo. At the death of his uncle Marquez 
went as a workman to one of the establishments 
where they manufactured pictures for exportation 
to America ; but not having had sufficient practice 
and experience in this sort of work, he became the 
butt of his fellow labourers, and was obliged to 
quit Seville and return to his native place. After 
a while he returned to Seville, and having by close 
application acquired a tolerable facility in imitating 
the style of Murillo, he surpassed all those who 
had before made him the object of their mockery. 
His works are nearly all in Seville. He died at 
Seville in 1720. 

MARQUEZ DK JOYA, Fernando, uncle of 
Esteban Marquez, was a painter of portraits, among 
which he in 1649 produced that of Cardinal Spinola, 
which is engraved by Van der Gouwen. He fol- 
lowed the manner of Murillo ; and was a frequenter 
of the Academy of Seville from 1668 to 1672, 
when he died. 

MARQUIS, — , an English portrait painter, who 
painted small portraite in oil in the reign of 

James I. , . • 1 

MARQUIS, PiKRRE Ch., a French historical 
painter, was born at Toimere in 1798. He was a 
pupil of LethicJre. He died in 1874. 

MARR, Joseph Heinrich Ludwio, was bom at 
Hamburg in 1809; he there studied under Suhr and 
Rosenberg, and afterwards at Munich and Rome. 
His pictures deal principally with Bavarian and 
Italian peasant life. He died at Munich in 1871. 

MARRACCI, Giovanni, was bom at Lucca in 
1637, and was first a scholar of Pietro Paohni. 
When he was fourteen years of age he went to 
Rome, where he had the advantage of being 
received into the school of Pietro da Cortona, 
under whom he studied some time ; and before he 
was twenty-five had distinguished himself as an 
historical painter. On the d«ath of his father he 
returned to Lucca, where he painted several pic- 
tures for the fraternity of San Lorenzo, and the 



I 



Marrebeck 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Marteau 



Collegiate do San Michele. In the cathedral of 
Sant' Ignazio, at San Giovanni, he painted some 
considerable frescoes. His brother Hippolyte 
worked with hiin. He died in 1704. 

MARREBECK, J., was probably a native of 
Holland, and flourished about the year 1700. We 
have a few mezzotint portraits by him. 

MARRON, Marie Anne Carrelbt de, historical 
painter and poetess, was bom at Dijon in 1725. 
The cathedral of that town possesses a * Conception ' 
by her. She died in 1778. 

MARSDEN, Barbara. See under Meyer, 
Jeremias. 

MARSEUS. See Schrieck. 

MARSHAL, Alexander, a water-colour painter, 
who practised in the latter part of the 17th century. 
He worked in * Tradescant's ark,' and made some 
good copies after Vandyck. 

MARSHALL, Benjamin, an English animal 
painter, born in 1767, who practised in London 
and Newmarket. His specialty was horses, and 
he contributed to the ' Sporting Magazine.' His 
works occasionally appeared at the Academy 
between 1800 and 1819. He died in 1835. 

MARSHALL, George, a Scottish portrait painter, 
bom in the latter part of the 17th century. He 
was a pupil of G. Scougall and Kneller, and also 
studied in Italy. He practised at York and in his 
native country. He died about 1732. 

MARSHALL, Peter, born in 1762; died at 
Edinburgh in 1826. He practised as a painter, but 
is chiefly known as the inventor of a mechanical 
contrivance known as the 'Peristrephic Panorama.' 

MARSHALL, Thomas Falcon, an English sub- 
ject painter, born at Liverpool in 1818. He first 
exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1837, and in 
1840 obtained a silver medal at the Society of 
/^tU. His practice lay chiefly in Liverpool and 
ifanche^ter. He died at Kensington in 1878. 
Amongst his works are : 

The coming Footstep. 1847. (South Kensington 

Museum.) • 

The Parting Day. 
Sad News from the Seat of War. 

MARSHALL, William, was an English en- 
graver, who probably beg&n to practise the art 
early in the reign of James I. ; his works are 
dated from 1591 to 1649. He engraved chiefly 
for the booksellers, by whom he was employed 
upwards of forty years. He worked entirely with 
the graver, in a stifT style, without taste. His best 
prints are his portraits, of which he engraved a 
great number, mostly from his own designs. 
Although indifferently executed, they are inter- 
esting to the collector, on account of the personages 
they represent. He also engraved several frontis- 
pieces and other book ornaments. His portraits 
include the following : 

Sir Thomas More. 

Deriderins Erasmus. 

WilUam Cecil, Lord Burleigh. 

Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester. 

Nicholas Ridley, Bishop of Rochester. 

lAdy Jane Grey. 

James I. 

William Camden, Historian, &c. 

'William Shakespeare. 

Ben Jonsi n. 

Charles I. ; three prints. 

Francis, Lord Bacon. 

George Tilliers, Duke of Buckingham. 

Robert Devereuz, Earl of Essex. 

William Alexander, Earl of Stiriing. 

William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury. 



Nathaniel Bernard, Rector of Ramenham. 

Dr. Donue, when 18 years of age. 1635. 

The Rev. Dr. John Taylor. 

The Rev. John Sym. 

The Rev. Josiah Shute. 

James, First Duke of Hamilton. 

John Milton, at the age of 21. 

James Shirley, Poet. 

Sir Robert Stapleton, Poet. 1616. 

Sir John Suckling, Poet. 

FB0NTI8PIECB8. 

To the Arcadian Princess. 1635. 

To the Evangelical Harmony. 

To Virgirs Works, by Ogilby. 1640. 

MARSHALL, William, was an engraver and 
dealer in art, who edited, in 1771, Desgodet's fine 
work, * The Ancient Edifices of Kome.' 

MARSIGLI, FiLiPPO, bom at Naples about 1780, 
was professor of the Academy at that town. His 
best performance as a painter is * Homer and the 
Shepherds.* Some of his works are in the Palazzo 
Reale, others in the church of the Carapo Santo. 
MARSIGLIA, GuGLiELMO da. See Marcillat. 
MARSSEN. See Martss. 
MARSTRAND, Wilhelm Nicholas, a Danish 
genre and portrait painter, born in 1810 at Copen- 
hagen. He studied in the Academy there, and 
also at Munich and Rome. On his return he 
became professor, and subsequently director, of 
the Copenhagen Academy. His subjects were 
chiefly chosen from the manners and customs of 
his country, the plays of Holberg, &c. He died 
in 1873. Among his works are : 
Copenhagen. Gallery. Dalecarlians crossing the Siljan 

on their way to chnrch. 
Erasmus Montanus. 
Scene from Holberg's •Barsels- 

tuen.' 
The Visit. 

Portrait of Constantin Hansen. 
Scene from Holberg's *Potier 
d'Etain.' 

MARTEAU, Giles de, *the elder,' was bom 
at Liege in 1722. He went to Paris when he was 
young, and there acquired considerable reputation 
a.s one of the most successful revivers <-'f the dot 
style of engraving. He was elected into the 
Academy at Paris in 1764. He engraved several 
plates of academical figures, after the designs of 
some of the most eminent French artists. We 
have the following prints by him : 

The Portrait of O. van Loo, Painter. 

The Education of Cupid ; after Boucher. 

Venus and Cupid ; after the same. 

The Head of Heliodorus ; after Raphael. 

Bust of the Virgin ; after Pierre. 

The Entombment ; after Stellaert. 

Justice protecting the Arts ; after Cochin. 

Lycurgus wounded ; after the same ; his reception plate. 

An Allegory on the Death of the Dauphin ; after the 

same. 
A set of six Landscapes ; after J. Houel. 

MARTEAU, Giles de, *the younger,* the 
nephew and pupil of the elder artist of the name, 
was born at Liege about the year 1750. He engraved 
some plates in the style of his uncle. Among 
others we may name : 

Innocent Pleasure ; after Buet. 
The Pet Lamb ; after the same. 
Two Hunting-pieces ; after the same. 
Cupid crying ; after the same. 

MARTEAU, Louis, a French portrait painter, 
born in Paris, who spent most of his life in Poland 
and died there in 1805. 



» 






»i 



n 



Hamburg. 



n 

Museum. 



Marten 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Kartin 



MARTEN, John, an English water-colour painter, 
who practised at Canterbury at the end of the 
18th and the beginning of the 19th centuriea He 
exhibited at the Academy in 1794 and 1808. There 
is a water-colour view, * Near Dover/ by him, 
dated 1803, in the South Kensington Museum. R. 
H. Marten painted in water-colour about the same 
time. 

MARTENASIE, Pibter, a Flemish engraver, 
was a native of Antwerp, but was instructed in 
engraving in Paris by J. P. le Bas. We have the 
following prints by him: 

Tbe Watering-place ; after Berekgm. 
The Father of a Family ; at/er Greuze, 
The Bape of the Sabines ; after Bubnu. 

MARTIN, David, an English portrait painter 
and mezzotint engraver, was bom at Anstruther, 
in Fife, in 1736. He was a pupil of Allan 
Ramsay, and when quite young accompanied him 
to Rome ; after whicn he studi^ at the St. Martinis 
Lane Academy. He joined the Incorporated 
Society of Artists, and in 1776 settled in Edin- 
burgh, and was made chief painter to the Prince 
of Wales for Scotland. But before long he 
married a wealthy lady in London, and removed 
to Soho, where he lived till her death, when he 
returned to Edinburgh, and died there in 1798. 
Among his painted portraits were Dr. Franklin 
and Lord Mansfield, both of which were afterwards 
engraved in mezzotint, the former at least by 
himself. He engraved several portraits, among 
which are : 

L. F. Boabillao, Sculptor ; after A. Carpentien. 1765. 
Ladj F. Mannera, daughter of the Maxtiuis of Granbj. 

1772. 
J. J. Bousseaa ; after Ramsay, 
David Hume ; after the same. 

MARTIN, Eli AS, a painter and engraver, was 
born in Sweden in 1739. In 1769 he came to 
England, and became an associate of the Royal 
Academy. He painted portraits, landscapes, and 
genre pieces in oil and water-colour. One of his 
best performances is a view of Westminster 
Bridge, with the arrival of the King of Denmark. 
Several of his portraits have been engraved in 
aquatint. As an engraver we have by him six 
plates, called 'A Daughter*s Education from 
Cradle to Marriage/ On his return to Stockholm 
in 1760 he became court painter, and published 
with his brother, Johann Fribdrich Martin, 
a series of views of Stockholm. He died in 
1818. 

MARTIN, F. B., an English engraver in the 
latter part of the 18th century. Amongst his 
plates are : 

Maria Ooawaj ; after R. Onway. 
Sophia Wesfeem ; after Hoppner. 

MARTIN, GuiLLAUMR, a French painter, born at 
Montpellier in 1737. He was a pupil of Cipriani, 
but was more engaged in selling pictures than 
in painting them. He died in Pans m 1801. 

MARTIN, JoHANN Friedrich, engraver, was 
a brother of Elias Martin, A.R.A. He was bom 
at Stockholm in 1745, and died there in 1808. In 
1790 he visited England. He published a series 
of views of Stockholm in conjunction witli his 
brother Elias. 

MARTIN, Jean Baptiste, called 'Martin the 
elder,' was bom in Paris in 1659, and^was a pupil 
of La Hire. He also studied fortiJBcation, and 
was draughtsman to Vauban. He succeeded 
Van der Meulen as director of the GobelinSi and ' 

112 



accompanied the king and the dauphin in all their 
campaigns. He has been called * Martin des 
Batailles,* from the contests and victories with 
which he decorated Versailles and the Invalides. 
His death occurred in Paris in 1735. Of his works 
we may note : 

lAiaeviUe. Oalle^, A series of twenty potures from 

the career of Oharles V. 

{painted for the Duke of 

ILorraine). 
Paris. Louvre. Siege of Fribourg. 

Versailles. Forty-fi?e battles {by or after 

him). 

MARTIN, John, an English landscape and his- 
torical painter, born at Haydon, near Hexham, in 
1789. He originally worked at heraldic coach- 
painting, and at the decoration of china. He came 
to London in 1806, and diligently occupied bis 
spare time in studying for the higher branches of 
art Marrying at the early age of 19, he was com- 
pelled to exert himself strenuously, and in 1812 
he produced his first picture, ' Sadak in search of 
the Waters of Oblivion.' Owing to the manner in 
which one of his pictures was hung at the Academy 
in 1814, he commenced a life-long but not very 
bitter struggle with that body. He did not discon- 
tinue to send his pictures to its yearly show. 
In 1817 and 1821 his contributions obtained prizes 
at the British Institution, and his art became widely 
popular. He was instrumental in the foundation 
of the Society of British Artists, where his works 
appeared for some years. He did not confine 
himself to the oil medium; he painted many 
sketches in water-colours, and be furnished illus- 
trations for editions of the Bible and of ' Paradise 
Lost.* Many of his own pictures were engraved 
by himsell He died at Douglas, in the Isle of 
Man (whither he had gone for the benefit of his 
health after a paralytic stroke), in 1854. Among 
his chief works are : 

Joahua Commanding the Sun to stand still. 1816. 

The Fail of Babylon. 1819. 

Belshaaaar's Feast. 1821. 

The deatriiction of Herculaneum. 1822. (Manchetter 

Art Gallery.) 
The Fall of Nineveh. 1828. 
The Deluge. 1837. 
The Last Man. 1839. 
The Seventh Plague. 

Destruction of Sodom and Gtomonah. 1852. 
The Last Judgment. 
The Great Daj of Wrath. 
The Plains of Heaven. 
Mountain Landscape. (South Kensington Mueeum.) 

MARTIN, Leon, a French still-life and historical 
painter, bom in Paris in 1837, and died in 1861. 

MARTIN, PiBRRB Dknis, 'the younger,' who 
painted duriiig the early part of the 18th century, 
IS said to have been a cousin of Jeiui Baptiste 
Martin. He was also a pupil of Van der Meulen. 
He painted a number of views of royal residences, 
which are now at Versailles. One is signed, * P. 
D. Martin, peintre ordinaire et pensionnaire du Roi, 
1722'; on another is added * pensionnaire de sa 
Majesty Czarienne.* Like his cousin, he was em- 
ployed at the Gobelins. He painted a few hunting 
and battle pieces. The Louvre possesses a * Louis 
XV. hunting,' by him. 

MARTIN, PiBRRB Edmond, painter, was born at 
La Rochelle in 1783. He was instructed in Paris 
by Vincent, but afterwards went to Italy. On his 
return he painted portraits, but was principally 
engaged in the restoration of pictures. 



Xartin 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Kartinea 



MARTIN, William, an English historical painter, 
who practised in the end of the 18th and the 
19th centuries. He was a pupil of Cipriani, and 
in 1766 obtained a gold palette from the Society 
of Arts. His works were exhibited at the Academy 
from 1775 to 1816. He was patronized by George 
III., to whom he was appointed history painter, 
and for whom he executed some decorative works 
at Windsor Castle. There are at St. Andrew's 
Ball, Norwich, by him : 

Edward and Eleanor. 
Execution of Lady Jane Grey. 

MARTINEAU, Robert Braithwaitb, painter, 
was bom in London in 1826. At first intended 
for a lawyer, he forsook that profession for art 
and became a student at the Royal Academy. 
After^vard8 he was for a time a pupil of Mr. Holman 
Hunt. He began to exhibit in 1852, and in 1862 
attracted great attention by a picture called * The 
Last Day in the Old Home.' His later works were 
inferior to this. He died somewhat suddenly in 1 869. 

MARTINELLI, Giovanni, painter, flourished at 
Florence about the middle of the 17th century. 
In the Florentine Gallery there is a fine picture by 
him of* the ' Feast of Belshazzar ' ; and in Santa 
Lucia de' Bardi, the * Guardian Angel ' ; but his 
best work is a * Miracle of St. Anthony,' at Peso i a. 

MARTINELLI, Giulio and Luca, painters, 
were brothers, and pupils of J. Bassano. Giulio 
painted twenty-eight scenes from Genesis in the 
church at Enego. 

MARTINELLI, Giuseppe, an obscure landscape 
painter, was born at Bologna about 1740, and died 
there aoout 1795. 

MARTINELLO DI BASSANO, an obscure By- 
zantine, who worked at Venice in the 13th century. 

MARTINET, Achille- Louis, a French engraver, 
was born at Paris in 1806, and instructed by Heim 
and Forster. In 1830 he received the * prix de 
Rome.' He died in Paris in 1877. Among his 
best plates may be mentioned : 

The Last Honours paid to Counts Egmont and Horn ; 

afUr Gallait. 
The Sleep of Christ ; after Baphael. 
Tintoretto's Daughter ; after L. Cogniet, 
The Birth of the Virgin ; after Murillo. 
The Madonna with the Pink ; after Raphael, 
The Madonna with the Lily ; after Beltrqffio (?), in the 

Fal. Alham. 

MARTINET, Angelica, a French engraver, was 
bom in 1731. She was 'a niece of N. Dupuis. 
Her brother, Franz Nicolaus, also an engraver, 
produced some small vignettes of animals, land- 
scapes, &c. Angelica died about 1780. Among 
her plates are : 

Old Age ; after Fernet, 

The Alter Dinner Walk ; after Vemet. 

The Little Mnsician ; after Schenau. 

MARTINET, E., a French painter of little note, 
who lived early in the present century. He was a 
pupil of Fontaine. 

MARTINEZ, Ambrosio, was bom at Granada 
about the year 1630, and 'was brought up in the 
school of Alonso Cano. With the help of that 
artist, he became a reputable historical painter. 
His principal works are in the churches of the 
monasteries of S. Jerome, and of the Carmelites, in 
his native city. He died at Granada in 1674. 

MARTINEZ, Cbisostomo, of Valencia, a painter 
and engraver of considerable merit, flourishea about 
1680. He engraved portraits, and also twenty 
plates for a work on anatomy. He painted several 
devotional works for the church of S. Philip Neri. 
VOL. 11. I 



Pictures in the church of S. Michael and in the 
Carmelites are ascribed to him. He died in 
1694. 

MARTINEZ, Domingo, was bom at Seville near 
the close of the 17th century, and after having 
learned painting with an obscure artist named Juan 
Antonio, became one of the most popular artists in 
Seville. The Frenchman Ranc sought his friend- 
sliip, and he died rich and honoured in 1760. 
According to Cean Bermudez his best paintings 
are those in a chapel in Seville Cathedral. His 
fame was hardly deserved. 

MARTINEZ, Fray Antonio, a son of Jos^ 
Martinez, and painter to Philip IV. of Spain, was 
born at Sarngossa in 1638. He studied first with 
his father, and afterwards at Rome. On his return 
to Spain he helped his father in many of his works, 
and entering the convent of Seal a Dei in 1690 he 
there painted some creditable pictures from the 
life of St. Bruno. 

MARTINEZ, Gregorio, a painter of repute in 
Valladolid, was employed in 1594 by the chapter 
of Burgos to gild the high altar of their cathedral. 
Cean Bermudez mentions having seen a small 
picture on copper, signed with this master*s name. 
The subject was a Virgin with Saints. 

MARTINEZ, Josi, a painter and engraver, 
was born at Saragossa in 1612, and went young 
to Italy, where he studied some years at Rome. 
On his return to Spain he was employed in 
several considerable works for the churches and 
convents at Saragossa, and mttde court painter by 
Philip IV. in 1642. His chief productions are in 
the cathedral of that city, and in the convent De la 
Manteria. Palomino mentions a series of pictures 
of the life of our Saviour in the cloister of San 
Geroninio. He has also left an engraving of the 
portrait of Mathias Piedra, and a work on art and 
artists entitled ' Dircursos practicables del nobilis- 
simo arte de la Pintura.' ne died at Saragossa in 
1682 

MARTINEZ, Josi, flourished at Valladolid 
towards the close of the 16th century. He painted 
so exactly* in the style of the early Florentine 
masters, that it is conjectured he studied in their 
city. For the chapel of the Annunciation in the 
Augustine convent he painted various pictures 
from the life of the Virgin, also fresco decorations, 
and the designs for the tiles on the walls. This 
chapel was finished in 1698, and destroved by the 
French in 1811. A picture then rescued is now in 
the Museum at Madrid ; in this the drawing is good, 
the colouring rich, and the draperies finely cast 
He painted a few pieces for the Bemardine 
nuns. 

MARTINEZ, JosKF Luxan. See Luxan. 

MARTINEZ, Juan Bautista del Mazo. See 
Del Mazo Martinez. 

MARTINEZ, Sebastian, a Spanish artist, was 
born at Jaen in 1602. He was a reputable painter 
of history, and, according to Palomino, resided 
during the early part of his life at Cordova, where 
he painted several pictures for the churches, par- 
ticularly three altar-pieces for the Conve»it of 
Corpus Christi, representing the Immaculate Con- 
ception, Saint Francis of Assisi, and the Nativity. 
On the death of Velazquez, he visited Madrid, and 
was appointed painter to Philip IV. He died in 
the capital in 1667. He was an excellent landscape 
painter, and also produced many cabinet pictures, 
which are to be found in private collections at 
Jaen, Cordova, Seville, Cadiz, and Madrid. 

' 113 



MartinesE 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Martini 



MARTINEZ, ToMMASO, a Spanish historical 
painter, born at Seville. He was a pupil of Gut- 
tierez, an imitator of Murillo. He died in 1734. 

MARTINEZ DE GRADILLA, Juan, was a painter 
of Seville, and an office-bearer in the Academy there 
for some years. He was a pupil of Zurbaran, and 
painted a fresco in the Convent of Mercy, which 
m the time of C. Bermudez was his only surviving 
work. It has been completely ruined by frequent 
restorations. He died probably in 1673. 

MARTINEZ DEL BARRANCO, Bernardo, was 
born in 1738, at La Cuesta, in La Rioja. After 
preliminary study at Madrid, he went to Italy, 
visiting Turin, Rome, and Naples, and studying the 
old masters, especially Correggio. Returning to 
Madrid he was elected into the Academy ot St. 
Ferdinand in 1774. He painted a portrait of 
Charles III., and designed some of the illustra- 
tions for the fine edition of ' Don Quixote,' Madrid, 
1780. He died in 1791. 

MARTINEZ DE LOS CORR ALES, Juan, a minia- 
turist of Toledo, began in 1583 to illuminate a mass 
book for the cathedral of his native town, and in 
seven years had finished two volumes, which are 
characterized by fine colour and tasteful arabesques. 

MARTINI, Bernardino, who is better known as 
Zenale, was born at Treviglio in 1436, and was a 
disciple of Foppa. In early years he worked in 
common with Bernardino Jacobi, of Treviglio, who 
was sumamed Buttinone, and orders were given 
to the two painters conjointly. Zenale was the 
friend of Leonardo da Vinci, and was probably 
working at Santa Maria delle Grazie while the great 
Florentine was painting his ' Last Supper.* Vasari 
tells a story how that Da Vinci, despairing of being 
able to produce a face which should express his 
ideal of the Saviour, went to Zenale for advice and 
sympathy. When Zenale had seen and fully ad- 
mired his friend's labours, he told him that what he 
had already produced was so fine that it was useless 
to think of surpassing it; ''for to fancy that the 
Christ could be conceived in nobler lineaments was 
to covet attributes little short of divine.'' Zenale 
was a master of theory, and in 1524 wrote a treatise 
on perspective. The majority of his frescoes have 
now disappeared, and we can point to only one 
fully autlienticated work by his hands. This is an 
altar-piece in the parish church of Treviglio, on 
w^hich he worked jointly with Buttinone, a fact 
which makes it difiicult to use the picture as a 
standard to test other works ascribed to Zenale. 
From 1501, when he furnished a design for an 
intended decoration at Santa Maria sopra San Celso, 
until his death in 1526, he seems chiefly to have 
devoted his time to architectural pursuits. Pictures 
ascribed to him with more or less probability are 
to be found in the galleries of Bergamo, Berlin, 
Hanover, Milan, and St. Petersburg. 

MARTINI, Giovanni, (or Giovanni da Udine,) 
and GiROLAMO, were Friulans, sons of Martino, and 
nephews of Domenico da Tolmezzo. In 1501 
Giovanni competed with Pellegrino da San Daniele 
in the decoration of two chapels in the cathedral 
of Udine, and acknowledged his inferiority by 
signing an altar-piece representing the Glory of 
St. Mark, "1501, Johanes Utinensis hoc parvo in- 
genio fecit." The cathedral of Spilimberg has a 
' Presentation in the Temple ' by Giovanni. In 1503 
he begun to make carved and coloured altar-pieces ; 
his best work in this branch of art is the altar of 
the church of Morligliano, finished in 1527. Most of 
his works are still in the province of Friuli. 

114 



MARTINI, SiMONB— called by Vasari Simonb 
Memmi — a Sienese, was born in 1283. He mar- 
ried, in 1324, Giovanna, the daughter of the artist 
Mem mo di Filipuccio. He was a contemporary 
of Giotto. One of his earliest frescoes is that in 
the Hall of the Palazzo Pubblico at Siena, n>p re- 
senting an enthroned * Virgin and Child,' with 
numerous figures of * Saints and Angels,' enclosed 
in a border decorated with shields of arms and 
medallions. The date of this design is about 1315, 
and existing records prove that in 1321, Simone 
received twenty -six livres for the renewal of certain 
portions that had been injured by damp. In 1320 
Simone executed an altar-piece for the Church of 
Santa Catarina, Pisa. This has since been dis- 
membered, and parts of it may be seen in the 
Library of the Seminario Vescovile, and the re- 
mainder in the Academy of Pisa. At about the 
same date he painted an altar-piece of the * Virgin 
and Child with Saints and a kneeling donor,' for 
the high-altar of San Domenico, Orvieto, which is 
now in the cathedral. There it has for companion 
an altar-piece with the 'Virgin and ChiM and 
Angels.' In 1321, Simone seems to have been at 
Assisi, and amongst other works executed there 
by him, he decorated the chapel of San Martino in 
the catliedral by order of Cardinal Gentile. These 
frescoes fill the entire chapel, and illustrate difEerent 
episodes in the Life of S. Martin. They contain 
figures of the Cardinal, and of numerous Saints 
and Angels. Simone also commenced a series of 
eight half-length Saints in the Lower Church of 
Assisi, but these are said to have been finished by 
Lippo Memmi. Up to 1335, Simone seems to 
have principally resided in Siena, where he 
executed many frescoes and paintings which 
cannot now be traced. In 1339, Simone went to 
Avignon with his wife and his brother Donate, and 
there made the acquaintance of Petrarch and of 
Laura, whose portrait he painted. Whilst in Avig- 
non, Simone decorated two chapels in the Papal 
Palace, and some other rooms, and in 1349 painted 
some frescoes in the portico of the cathedral. 
These consisted of a St George and the Dragon, 
with ft female figure supposed to be Laura, which 
has now faded away; and a Virgin and Child, 
enthroned with angels and donor, and also a 
* Saviour in Benediction.' Both of these latter are 
still visible. Among his works we may name : 

Antwerp. GaUery, Triptych, Annunciation. 

„ „ Crucifixion and Deposition. 

Avignon. Cathedral, Fresco of Virgin and Christ. 

Florence. Uffizi, The Annunciation. 

liverpooL Institution. Betum of Christ from the 

Temple. 
{T%ts picture is dated 1342, so 

mfut have heen pairiud 

during Simone's stay at 

A vignon ) 
Milan. Ambrosiana. Miniatures of Petrarch's 

Virgil, 
Munich. Institution, Coronation of Virgin and 

Saints. 
Naples. CA. of S. Lorenzo St. Louis of Toulouse Crown- 

Maggiore. ing his brother. 

Orvieto. Cathedral. Virgin and Saints. 

P**ris. Louvre. Christ going to Calvary. 

Pisa. Acad* my. Virgin and Saints. 

Siena. Public Palace. Virgin and Saints. Fresco. 
„ „ Equestrian Portrait of Fog- 

liauo de Kicci. 

MARTINI, PiETRO. See Mercia. 

MARTINI, Pi KTRO Antonio, an Italian engraver, 
was born at Parma in 1739. He visited Paris when 
young, where he produced some plates after Teniers 



ii 



\ 






Xartinidre 



PAINTEKS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Uaryy 



and other Flemish artists ; these were finished by 
Le Bas. Martini worked for a time in London. 

MARTINlfeRE, La. See Mayer. 

MARTINO, Marco San. See San Martino. 

MARTINO Di BARTOLOMMEO. See Biagio. 

MARTINO DI BATTISTA, also called Martino 
DA Udinb, and Pelleqriso da San Daniele, 
was the son of a Dalmatian named Battista da San 
Daniele, who sometimes lived at Udine. In 1491 
he was partner with Ser Giovanni Antonio of San 
Daniele as goldsmith, but left that place and went 
to Venice, where he was commonly called Pelle- 
grino, most likely in allusion to his foreign origin. 
In 1494 he received the commission for the altar- 
piece now in the church of Osopo, which repre- 
sents an enthroned * Virgin and Child between SS. 
Colnmba and Peter, with Angels and Saints.* In 
1495-96 he painted altar-pieces for the cathedral 
of Udine, and for the church of Santa Maria di 
Piazza. He then determined to go to Rome, and 
according to the custom of his time, made his will 
before starting. His friends, hearing of this, deter- 
mined to prevent his departure by offering him 
some important work, and through their influence 
the brotherhood of Sanf Antonio gave Pellegrino 
a commission to decorate their churoh at San 
Daniele. This undertaking, which was commenced 
about 1498, suffered many interruptions through 
foreign wars and internal feuds, but was finally 
completed in 1522. These frescoes, which cover 
the entire sanctuary and chancel end of the church, 
consist of various scenes drawn from the lives of 
Christ, St Anthony, St. Sebastian, St. George, and 
other Saints, as well as innumerable figures of 
Prophets, Doctors, Saints, and Martyrs ; also scenes 
from Old Testament History. They vary in style, 
and betray the successive influences exercised over 
Pellegrino by artists with whom he was brought 
into contact during his travels in North Italy. In 
1501, in friendly competition with Giovanni Mar- 
tini, he painted the altar-piece of the * Glory of 
St. Joseph,' for the cathedral of Udine, and as a 
reward was elected a member of the city council 
for the years 1601 and 1503. In 1506 he retired 
to San Daniele, and painted a fresco known as 

* La Vergine di Strada,' in the church of the Ma- 
donna. Between 1508 and 1512 he visited both 
Venice and Ferrara. In 1512 he returned to Udine 
and designed the Allegories of Religion, Justice, 
Victory, and Fame, for the monument of Andrea 
Trevisano in the Palazzo Publico, and recommenced 
his labours at Sant' Antonio. Jn 1521 he painted 
the organ-doors of the cathedral, which were valued 
by Giovanni Martini and Sebastiano Florigerio. 
These though much injured are still preserved in 
the Town-hall of Udine. He is also know^n to 
have painted several banners, none of which are 
now extant. In the close of 1529, he produced 
the ' Madonna and Child with six saints between 
SS. Michael and Sebastian,' now in Santa Maria, 
Cividale, after which he devoted most of his time 
and energies to dealing in timber. He died in 
1547, more than eighty years old. Besides the 
works we have mentioned, we may name an 

* Annunciation,' in the Venice Academy, and a 
'Madonna and Saints/ in the Palazzo Giovanelli, 
as among his best productions. w.A. 

S. Crowe and Cavalcaselle, 'Painting in N. 
Italy,' vol. ii. p. 189 ; and Morelli, * Italian Masters 
in German Galleries,* p. 18. 

MARTINO DI CANDIDO. See under Tolmkzzo. 

MARTINOFF, Iwan, painter, was born at St. 

I 2 



Petersburg in 1765, and was a student in the 
Academy there. He painted landscapes and 
scenes for the theatre. He also painted thirty- 
six views of St. Petersburg. 

MARTINOTTI, Evangelista, was bom at Castel 
Monferrato in 1634. He was a scholar of Salvator 
Rosa, and, according to Orlandi, excelled in paint- 
ing landscapes, with figures and animals. Lanzi 
mentions him as a painter of history, and com- 
mends his picture of the * Baptism of Christ by St. 
John,' in the cathedral of Casale. He died in 
1694. He had a brother, Francesco Martinotti, 
who was also a disciple of Salvator Rosa, and 
painted history. He died in 1694. 

MARTIS, Ottav. de. See Nelli. 

MARTIS, Ottaviano, born at Gubbio, flourished 
from 1400 to 1444. In the church of St. Maria 
Nuova is a fresco of the * Virgin and Child ' by this 
artist, dated 1403. 

MARTIUS. This is the name of a large family 
of artists who resided at Ghent. Baudodin was 
the eldest son of Jan Martins, entered the Corpora- 
tion in 1432, was master painter in 1434, and Dean 
in 1475. Gerard, master painter in 1398. Gho- 
LOET, master painter in 1398. Gilles, master 
painter in 1396. Jan, a painter at Ghent, who, in 
conjunction with Van Axpoele, executed frescoes 
for the Counts of Flanders. He also worked at 
Toumai. Laurent, father and son, flourished in 
1364 and 1380 respectively. Nabur, Nabor, or 
Nabuchodnosor, was bom at Ghent in 1404. He 
was the son and pupil of Jan Marti us. He worked 
for the city and churches of Ghent and Gudenarde. 
He died in 1453. Regnier, son of Baudouin, 
flourished from 1447 to 1472. 

MARTORELLI, Gaetano, was bom at Naples 
in 1670, and was a pupil of Giacomo del Po or N. 
Massaro. His first attempts were in historical 
subjects, but not succeeding to his wishes, he 
abandoned that branch of tne art, and applied 
himself to landscape painting in the style of 
Salvator. He died in 1723. 

MARTSS, Jan, *de jonge,' (or Marssen,) in- 
correctly known as J. M. de Jonqe (or Jong), was 
a Dutch etcher and probably painter, who flourished 
about 1630. We have by him a set of etchings of 
battles, which are executed with great spirit, and 
supposed to be from his own designs. His manner 
is somewhat peculiar ; it is built up of bent strokes 
with very little hatching. He marked his prints 
J. M. D. Jongefeciti and J, M, 2). J. fe. 

MARUCELLI, Giovanni Stefano, (or Maku- 
SELLi,) was bom at Pisa in 1586. He was a 
scholar of Andrea Boscoli, and distinguished him- 
self as a painter of history, although he was more 
celebrated as an architect and engineer. His 
principal residence was at Pisa, where he painted, 
in the tribime of the cathedral, * Abraham and the 
Angels,' and 'The Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew.' 
He died in 1646. 

MARULLO, GiusBiTE, a native of Ceta in the 
kiijgdom of Naples, studied under Massimo Stan- 
zioni, but copied the style of his master's rival, 
Spagnoletto. He died in 1685. His son Angelo, 
also a painter, died early. 

MARVIE, Martin, painter and engraver, was 
bom in Paris in 1712. We have several prints by 
him, and among others * The Siege of Bergen op 
Zoom ' after Bronard, plates in BiondeFs * French 
Architectrire,' and others. 

MARVY, Louis, a French engraver, bom at 
Versailles in 1815. He was a pupil of Jules 

115 



I 

I 



Kary de' Kedici 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP 



HBMoa 



Dupr^, and engraved several pictures after Rem- 
brandt, Corot, C. Flers, Decamps, Diaz, &c. He 
died in 1860. 

MARY DE' MEDICI, wife of Henry IV. of 
France, bom in Florence in 1673, died at Cologne 
in J 642. At the age of eleven years she engraved 
a portrait of herself on wood, and signed it Maria 
Medici F. MDLXXXII. Another plate is ascribed 
to her, the portrait of a girl, signed L. 0. 1687. 

MARZIALE, Marco, was living in the early part 
of the 1 6th century. Of his life very little is known, 
except that he was employed by Giovanni Bellini 
as journeyman, at a salary of twenty-four ducats 
per annum, in the Hall of Great Council at Venice, 
in 1492. In the Conservatorio de' Penitenti at 
San Giobbe, Venice, is a * Circumcision ' painted 
by him in that same year ; and in the Academy of 
the same city is a 'Christ and the Apostles at 
Emmaus,* dated 1606. In the Gallery of Berlin is 
a similar subject, painted in 1607, which shows a 
strong leaning towards the German feeling. His 
two best works, however, are in the National 
Gallery. These are, ' The Circumcision,' signed and 
dated 1600, and 'The Madonna and Child, with 
Saints,' 1607. In the Locchis Carrara Gallery at 
Bergamo there is also a * Virgin and Child,' with 
profile portrait of donor, dated 1604. The dates 
on his pictures range &om 1499 to 1607. His 
works are fairly numerous, but many of them are 
ascribed to Bellini and other members of his school. 

MARZIO DE COLANTONIO, flourished at Rome 
in the 16th century. He painted landscapes and 
battle-pieces. He was for a time at Turin, in 
the service of the Prince of Savoy. 

MARZO, Andrea and Urban, were two brothers 
of Valencia, and painters of some credit, born 
about 1620. Andrea executed two pictures of St. 
Anthony of Padua for the parish churches of 
Santa Cruz and Santa Catalina ; he also designed 
the title-page for a book, describing a grand 
festival in the city, published in 1663 by Don 
Juan Bautista de Valda. Urban painted a picture 
of * Christ bearing the Cross,* said to possess some 
merit It is in a private collection at Valencia. 

MARZY, Jqhann Heinrich, an engraver, was 
born at Iglau in Moravia in 1722. He became a 
teacher in the Normal School, and afterwards 
devoted himself to engraving. He died in 1801. 

MASACCIO. See Guidi, Tommaso. 

MASCAGNI, DoNATO, (or Mascagio,) called 
Fra Arsenic, was bom at Florence in 1679, and 
was one of the ablest scholars of Jacopo Ligozzi. 
Soon after leaving the school of that master, he 
became a Servite monk, and took the name of Fra 
Arsenic, by which he is generally known. He 
painted several altar-pieces for tne churches at 
Florence, particularly for that of his monastery. 
His principal performance is a large picture at 
Vallombrosa, wnich Lanzi mentions in very favour- 
able terms. He also worked in Spain early in 
the 17th century, chiefly in the convents of Valla- 
dolid. He died in 1636. 

MASCALL, Edward, an English portrait painter, 
flourished about the year 1660. He painted a 
portrait of Oliver Cromwell, which was once in the 
possession of the Duke of Chandos. We have a 
print, by James Gammon, from a portrait of Mascall 
by himself. 

MASCHERINI, Ottaviano, a painter and archi- 
tect, was bom at Bologna in 1630. He was a pupil 
of the Carraccif but he abandoned painting for 
architecture. He died about 1610. 
116 



MASIJS. See Marsts. 

MASOLINO DA PANICALB. See Fini. 

MASON, Abraham John, wood engraver, was 
bom in London in 1794. He was apprenticed to 
Robert Branston, and in 1821 be set up on his 
own account. In 1829 he went to New York, 
where he was elected Associate of the Academy 
and Professor of Engraving. He engraved Cruik- 
shank's illustrations to 'Tales of Humour and 
Gallantry.' 

MASON, Georgb Hemming, was bom at Wetley 
Abbey in Worcestershire in 1818. His parents 
were well-to-do people, and by his fathers wish 
he studied for the medical profession, but aban- 
doned it in 1844 for art In company with a 
brother he travelled through France, Germany, 
Switzerland, and Italy, residing at Rome for several 
years. While Mason was in Rome he received 
news of financial losses at home, which for a time 
threw himself and his brother entirely on their own 
resources. Better times came, however, and in 
1866 he was enabled both to contribute to and to 
visit the Paris Exhibition. He contributed to the 
Academy from 1867, in which year he retumed 
to England and married, till 1872. All the subjects 
now chosen bv him were taken from the neigh- 
bourhood of his home at Wetley. In 1866 he 
settled in London, in Shaftesbury Road, Hammer- 
smith, where he remained faithful to the same 
rural themes. In 1868 he was elected A.R.A., and 
moved to a larger house and studio, where he 
worked for three years, and where he died in 1872. 
His two best works, perhaps, are, ' Girls dancing by 
the Sea,' etched in 1886 by Blr. R. W. Macbeth as 
' A Pastoral Symphony,* and ' The Harvest Moon,' 
also etched by the same artist The former is in 
the collection of Lord Wantage. Besides those he 
also painted : 

Wind on the Wold. 

Mist on the Moor. 

Catch! 

Oroaidng the Heath. 

Return from Ploughing, 

The Cast Shoe. 

ueese. 

The Gander. 

Young Anglers. 

Unwilling Playmates. 

Evening, Matlock. 

The Evenmg Hymn. 

Only a Shower. 

A Derbyshire Landscape. 

Blackberry Gatherers. 

The Milkmaid. 

MASON, James, an English landscape engraver, 
was bom in 1710, and died about 1780. He be- 
longed to the Incorporated Society of Artists, and 
was very eminent in his line, his works being held 
in great esteem by foreign amateurs. His principal 
pieces are after Claude, G. Poussin, Swaneveldt, 
Hobbema, Wilson, Lambert, Scott, and Zuccarelli. 

* The Landing of ^neas in Italy,' after Claude, is 
one of his finest landscapes; and he is no less 
admirable in the print, after Andrea Sacchi, of 

* Venus at the Bath, surrounded by Cupids.' He 
sometimes engraved in conjunction with Canot, 
Vivares, and other masters of the period, who, 
like himself, were employed by the enterprising 
Boydell. 

MASON, William, an English animal painter 
in the latter part of the 18th centurv. His works 
were engraved by J. Jenkins, R. Pollard, and VaU 
Green. 



■ 



Xasquelier 



PAINTERS AN ENGRAVERS. 



ICasnd 



MASQUELIER, Louis Josbph, a French en- 

f raver, was bom at Cisoing, near Lillet in 1741. 
[e was a pupil of J. P. le Bas at Paris, where he 
engraved several plates which possess considerable 
naerit, particularly his landscapes. He died in 
1811. He engraved several of the plates for 'Le 
Voyace d'ltalie/ by St. Non ; also several of the 
French battles and victories, and other subjects 
after Monnet and Vemet ; some of the plates for 
the voyage of La Pey rouse, and numerous designs 
illustrative of the * Metamorphoses * of Ovid, the 
Fables and the Kisses of Dorat, and, in con- 
junction with M. N^e, the work entitled ^ Tableaux 
de la Suisse/ consisting of 216 plates in folio. He 
was also director of tlie publication of ' La Galerie 
de Florence,* for which he engraved several of 
the pictures, statues, cameos, and bas-reliefs, and 
for which he obtained the gold medal in 1802. 
Numerous other works were produced by him, 
wliich are well known to amateurs of engraving. 
Among others, we may name the following : 

The Arriyal of Voltaire m the Elysian Fields; after 

Ia Bcarbier, 
An old ICan kneeling near a Skull, called Diogenes ; 

^ter G. Dou, 
A View ia Flanders ; after Tenien; etched by JUatgue- 

Iter and finished by 2> Bas. 
A Landscape, with GiBtttle ; after P. Potter, 
A pair of Landscapes; after Ruitdael; by Masqudier 

and Le Baa. 
A View in Italy ; after Vemet. 
A Shipwreck ; after the eame. 
Two Views of Oetend ; after Le May^ 
A lAadscape, with a Waterfall ; after JHetriek. 

He was the instructor of his son, Claude Louis 
Masquelier, born in Paris in 1781, who engraved 
in 1848 * The Entombment of Christ,' after Raphael. 
He obtained several gold medals and prizes, and 
was professor at the Academy of Rome. 

MASQUELIER, Nicolas Franqois Joseph, 
called 'the younger,' was a relation and scholar 
of Louis Joseph Massard. He was bom at Lille 
in 1760, and died in 1809. He received lessons 
also from L. J. Watteau and Gulret He engraved 
a 'Corps-de-garde,* after Leduc; 'Csssar at the 
Tomb of Alexander,' after S. Bourdon ; * Extreme 
Unction,' after Jouvenet ; * Christ at the Column,' 
after Vouet, all for the Mus^e Robillard : and several 
other pieces for the same collection. He also 
assisted in engraving the cameos and bas-reliefs 
for the * Galerie de Florence.' 

MASQUERIER, John James, a portrait painter, 
bom of French parentage at Chelsea in 1778. He 
went back to France with his parents in 1789, and 
received some instraction from Vemet. Returning 
to England in 1792, he became a student in the 
schools of the Academy, where his first exhibited 
work appeared in 1796. In 1800 he made a second 
visit to Paris, where he was enabled to take a 
portrait of Napoleon. This on being exhibited in 
England, where it was the first authentic portrait 
of the emperor, proved 'a source of considerable 
gain to the painter. After a successful career as 
a portrait painter — ^he painted 400 portraits in 
twenty-eight years — he was enabled to retire in 
1823 with a competence to Brighton. Here he 
died in 1855. 

MASRELIEZ, Louis, a painter, was bom in 
Paris in 1747. In 1752 he was taken to Sweden, 
but returned to Paris to study art, proceeding later 
to Italy. On his return to Stockholm he was made 
Director of the Swedish Academy. He painted 
portraits, landscapes, and historical subjects. He 
died at Stockholm in 1810. 



MASSA, Giovanni, was a native of Carpi. He 
was a pupil of Griffoni, and, in conjunction with 
Giovanni Pozzuoli, worked at architectural views 
and designing. He died in 1741. 

MASSARD, Jean, a French engraver, was born 
at Bell^me in 1740. He was instructed in the 
radiments of his art by Martinet, but owed more 
to private study. In 1814 he received the title of 
Engraver to the King. He was a member of the 
Academy, and died in 1822. His best plates are: 

Adam and Eve ; after Cignant. 

La Mere bien aim6e ; after Greuze. 

La plus belle des meres ; after the same. 

Abraham and Hagar ; after Girardon. 

The Family of Charles I. ; after Van Dyck. 

Erigone ; after Miens. 

The Death of Socrates ; after David. 

MASSARD, Jean Baptiste Louis, an engraver, 
was bom in 1774. He was the eldest son of Jean 
Massard. Among his works were * The Magdalene,' 
after Seghers, and the portrait of Francis I., after 
Titian. He died about 1810. 

MASSARD, Jean Baptiste Raphael Urbain, 
son and scholar of Jean Massard, was bom in Paris 
in 1775. He studied design in the school of David. 
He engraved many of the plates for the beautiful 
editions of Virgil and Racine, published by Didot, 
also for *Le Mu8§e Robillard,' and other collec- 
tions. The * St. Cecilia,' after Raphael ; * Apollo 
and the Muses,' after Giulio Romano ; * Hippocrates 
refusing the Presents of Artaxerxes,' after Girodet, 
and the * Burial of Atala,' after the same, are among 
his most esteemed works. 

MASSARI, Lucio, painter, was bom at Bologna 
in 1569, and was some time a scholar of Barto- 
lommeo Passerotti; but he afterwards studied in 
the school of the Carracci, and then at Rome 
from the antique and the works of the great 
masters. His style resembles that of Annibale, 
rather than Lodovico ; and in some of his works 
he approaches so near to his manner, that they 
may easily be mistaken for those of that master. 
He died in 1633. Among his works we may 
name: 



Bologna. 



»» 

If 
Florence. 



Uffiei. 



Life of St. Benedict (four pic- 
tures). 
Marriage of St. Catherine. 
Christ appearing to the Magdalen. 
St. Gaetano. 
Holy Family. 



MASSARO, NiccoLO, was a Neapolitan, and a 
scholar of Salvator Rosa. He painted landscapes, 
which resemble those of his instructor more in 
forms and scenery than in colour, which is weak. 
As he was not successful in figures, he was assisted 
in his pictures by other artists, particularly by the 
little known Antonio di Simone. Massaro's sons, 
GiROLAMO and Gennaro, were also painters. 

MASSAROTTI, Angelo, was bom at Cremona 
in 1655, and for some time studied under Agostino 
Bonisoli, in his native city. He afterwards visited 
Rome, where he became a scholar of Carlo Cesi. 
His principal work is a large picture in the church 
of Sant' Agostino representing that saint dis- 
tribtrting his regulations to his different orders. 
He died in 1723. 

MASS^, Charles, (or MACift,) a French designer 
and engraver, was bom in Paris about the year 
1631. He was employed by M. Jabach to make 
designs from his celebrated collection of drawings, 
and to etch them. The set consists of 280 prints, 
among which we may specify : 



Kasa6 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Xaston 



Sixty-seven after Annib. Carraoci 
Fourteen after Titian. 
Twelve after Gastiglione. 
Four alter Gampagnola. 

Several after Oorreggio, Guercino, Nic. Ponann, Par- 
migiano, and others. 

MASSA, Jean Baptistb, a French painter and 
engraver, was bom in Paris in 1687. In the early 
part of his life he applied himself to the sciences, 
but afterwards took to engraving, and shortly to 
painting in enamel. By the common device of re- 
presenting ladies as more beautiful than they were 
he soon succeeded in making himself the fashion. 
It was as an engraver, however, that he obtained 
in 1717 a reception into the Academy at Paris. 
He undertook the direction of the engravings from 
the pictures by Le Brun, in the Gallery of Versailles. 
The work consists of fiftv-two plates, entitled ' La 
grande galerie de Versailles et les deux salons qui 
Taccompagnent, dessin^e par J. B. Massi et grav6e 
par les meilleurs maitres du tems ' Paris, 1762. In 
1749 he became a Councillor of State, and in 1760 
inspector of the Gallery at Versailles. He died in 
Paris in 1767. 

MASSE, Samuel, a miniature painter, was bom 
at Tours in 1671. He settled in Paris, where he 
died in 1753. Another painter of the same name 
flourished at Tours at the same time. 

MASSEI, GiuoLAMO, was a native of Lucca, and, 
according to Bnglione, flourished at Rome in the 
pontificate of Paul V., where he painted several 
pictures for churches and other public buildings. 
In San Luigi de' Francesi is an altar-piece by him, 
representing the * Martyrdom of St. Sebastian'; and 
in the Triniti de' Monti tliere are several pictures 
in fresco of the Life and Miracles of St. Francis of 
Paula. Agostino Taja, in his 'Descrizione del 
Vaticano,' says he was one of the artists selected 
by Fra Jgnazio Danti, superintendent of the works, 
to ornament the Loggie of the Vatican, where he 
was employed several years. He returned to Lucca 
towards the latter part of his life, and died there 
at the age of eighty. 

MASSI, Caspar, painter and engraver, worked at 
Rome at the end of the 18th century. Among his 
works are plates from : 

Cardinal Fleury ; after Itiffaud. 
Pope Clement XII. 
St. John of Nepomnc ; after Poli. 
St. Nicolas ; after Calandrueci, 

MASSI, G., is mentioned by Strutt as the en- 
graver of a portrait of Cardinal Alaman Salviati, 
aftor P. Nelli, dated 1730. 

MASSI, Gkntilk, called Gentile di Nicx?ol6 (di 
Giovanni) da Fabriano, was probably bom at 
Fabriano between 13G0 and 1370. He learned his 
art under Allegretto Nuzzi ; his death took place 
between 1440 and 1460, and he was buried in San 
Francesco Romana, in the Campo Vaccino. He is 
known to have paid a visit to Venice, where he 
spent some years in decorating the ducal palace, 
and also painted an altar-piece for the church of 
S. Felice, representing St Paul and St. Antliony. 
From thence in 1422 he w^ent to Florence, and in 
1426 he was sent for to Rome by Pope Martin V., 
to paint in San Giovanni Laterano, and he painted 
a ' Holy Family ' for the church of S. Maria 
Maggiore. At Florence, in the church of S. 
Niccolo, is a subject by him from the life of that 
saint; and in the sacristy of la Trinity, the * Ador- 
ation of the Magi,' dated 1423. Gentile's master- 
pieces have perished both at Rome and Venice : 
118 



)> 



»» 



remains of his paintings can be seen at Perugia, 
at Fabriano, and as under : 

Berlin. Museum. Virgin between 8S. Catharine 

and Nicholas. 

Florence. 8. Niecolb. 88. Marr Magdalene, Nicholas, 

John the Baptist, and George. 
1425. 
Sacristy, God the Father, Christ, the Vir^ 

gin, and several Saints. 
Ac€tdemy. The Adoration of the Kings. 
1428. 
Milan. Br era. Coronation of the Virgin. 

„ n Four Figures of Saints. 

Orvieto. Cathedral. Madonna. 

,, „ Fragment of a Fresco. 

Paris. louvre. The Presentation in the Temple. 

„ „ Virgin and Child. 

Venice. Academy. Madonna and Infant. 

MASSIMI, Cavaliebe. See Stanzioni. 

MASSIMO, Aniblla di. - See Beltrano. 

MASSING £R, Andreas, an engraver, was bom 
at Wasserburg, Austria, in 1759. He migrated to 
Vienna, where he died in 1808. Among his plates 
are: 

The Spanish Pointer ; after Stuhis. 
A View near Exeter ; after Holmes. 
Sheep and Rams in groups ; after H. Roos. 

MASSINI, C. An etching after a picture of 
* Penelope at her Web,' by G. F. Grent, is signed 
with this name. 

MASSOLINI. See Azzolini. 

MASSON, Andrew, a Scotch landscape painter, 
bom near Edinburgh in 1750, who also practised 
as a drawing master. In the year before his death 
he assisted Turner by making wave studies from 
the Bell Rock Lighthouse. He died in 1825. 

MASSON, Antoine, a celebrated French en- 
graver, was bora at Louri, near Orleans, in 1636. 
He was brought up to the business of an armourer, 
and first exercised the burin in graving omaments 
on steel. Early in his life he settled in Paris, 
where he applied himself to drawing with great 
assiduity, and acquired some celebrity in painting 
and designing portraits. But he is principally 
distinguished as an engraver ; and in some of his 
plates, particularly his portraits, he reached an 
excellence which has seldom been surpassed. He 
worked entirely with the graver, which he handled 
with surprising firmness and facility, and at the 
same time with the utmost delicacy. His portrait 
of Brisacier, known by tlie name of * The Grey- 
headed Man,* is a model of lightness and precision. 
That of Olivier d*Ormesson is also admirable. Of 
his subjects, the celebrated print of * Christ with 
the Disciples at Emmaus,* after Titian, commonly 
called * The Table-cloth,' may be regarded as a 
ckef-d^oeuvre in the style to which it belongs. In 
1679 he became a member of the Academy in 
Paris, and died in that city in 1700. The following 
is a list of Masson's works : 

PORTRAITS. 

Anne of Austria, Queen of France ; after P. Mignard. 
Bfaria Theresa of Austria, Queen of France; after 

N. Mignard. 
Maria Anne Victoria of Bavaria, Dauphiness. 
Louis Augustus, Duke du Maine, ad xrivum se. 
Jean Jacques de Mesmes, Conte d' A vans. 1688. 
Fran9ois de Beauvilliers, Due de St. Aignan. 
Francois Bouzel de Medavi, Archbishop of Rouen . 1677. 
Maria de Lorraine, Duchesse de Guise ; after y, 

Mignard. 
The Count d^arcourt, called the Cadet de la perle; 

after N. Mignard ; extremely fine. 
Kicolas de Lamoignon Conte de Courson. 1676. 






ICasson 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



MaMys 



J6rAme Bignon, libnirian to the King. 1686. 

Denis -Marin, Secretary to the King. 1672. 

Louis Verjus, CJonte de Crecy. 1679. 

Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg. 1683; 

scarce. 
Goido Patin, M J). ; engraved in a singular style ; rare. 
Charles Patin, his son, MJ>. 
Francesco Maria, Doge of G^enoa. 1685. 
Hardonin de Beaumont, Archbishop of Paris ; after N. 

Miynard, 
Emanuel Theodore, Due d'Albert ; after the same. 
Caspar Charrier, Secretary to the King ; after Blaneket. 
Alexander du Puy, Marquis de St. Anor^; after De 

Seve. 
Louis, Due de Yendome ; after P. Migrutrd. 
G. de Brisacier, Secretary to the Queen, called ' The 

Grey-headed Man ' ; very fine. 
Olivier le Fdvre d'Ormesson.President of the Parliament. 

1668; wry fine. 
Pierre Dupuis, Painter to the King ; after N. Miyrutrd. 
Antoine Masson, engraver to the King ; ae ipse fecit. 

The following life-size heads, though finely en- 
graved, are less happy in the execution than the 
preceding portraits : 

Louis XIV. with a Hat ; ad vivum fecit. 1687* 

Louis Xiy. ; a large oval ; after C. le Brun. 

Louis the Dauphin, his son, with a Hat. 

Philip, Duke of Orleans. 

Jean Baptisto Colbert, Prime Ministor. 1677. 

Rraacois de Harley, Archbishop of Paris. 1684. 

Olande du Housset. 1681. 

Henri de la Tour d'Auvergne, Yicomte de Tarenne. 

Nicolas Potior de Novion, President of the Parliament. 

1679. 
Quillaume de Lamoignon, President of the Parliament. 

1675. 
Charles Colbert, Marquis de Croissi ; after H, Gascar. 

SUBJECTS. 

St. Jerome in Meditation ; Masson sc. 
The Holy Family ; after N. Mignard. 
Christ with the Disciples at Eramaus; after Titian. 

This fine print is celebrated under the name of * The 

Table-doth.' 
The Assumption of the Virgin ; after Rubens; fine and 

scarce. 
The Brazen Serpent; after the seme; in ttoo sheets; 

fine. 

MASSON, Madalkine, was a relation of Antoine 
M&<i8on, and was bom in Paris about the year 
1660. She was a pupil of Antoine, in whose fine 
style she engraved several portraits, or heads, 
life-size. She was living up to 1711. Among 
others, we have the following by her : 

Duke Philippe of Orleans. 

Elizabeth Charlotte, Duchess of Orleans; Jfad. 

Masson sc. 
Elizi^th of Orleans, Duchess of Alencon ; after P. 

Mignard. 

Maria Theresa of Austria, Queen of France; after 

Habert. 
EKzabeth Maria Josephine, Infanta of Spain. 
Victor Amadous II., Duke of Savoy. 
Ix>uis Henry de Gondrin de Montespaa; after a 

picture by A. Masson. 

MASSONE, Giovanni, was bom at Alessandria, 
and probably laboured there, but little is known of 
his life. He is best known by a triptych, executed 
about the year 1490, which now hangs in the Gallery 
of the Louvre. It represents the * Birth of Christ,' 
•St. Francis adored by Pope Sixtus IV.,' and *St 
Antony of Padua, with the Cardinal Giuliano della 
Eovere.' 

MASSOT, FiRMiN, a painter, was bom in 1766. 
He settled at Geneva, after a short stay in Italy, 
and painted there and at Beme several portraits 
and miniatures. In later life he produced some 
genre pictures. He died about 1826. 



MA8SYS, CoRNELis, painter and engraver, and 
the fourth (?) son of Quentin Massys, was born at 
Antwerp about 1513. Some writers make him the 
son of Quentin's brother, Jan Massys the elder. 
He was received into the Antwerp Guild of SL 
Luke in 1531. In the Dresden Gallery there is a 
red chalk drawing by him of * Lot and his Daughters.' 
The iigures have much elegance and refinement, 
betraying a master who had visited Italy without 
leaving his own Flemish manner behind him there. 
Cornelis was still living in 1580. He usually signed 
his works with the initials C^M-A.-, or C,M-E. in 
a monogram, and sometimes we find the abbreviation 
Cor. Met. Works : 

Berlin. Gallery. Landscape with figures. (Signed 

O.M-B. 1543.) 

PLATES. 

Henry YIII., in a cap and feather. 

Judith with the head of Holofemes. 

Scenes from the Uves of Samson, Tobias, and the 

Baptist. 
Melchizedec blessincr Abraham. 
<Holy Family' and the * Draught of Fishes;' after 

Raphael. 
A Battle piece ; after Geo. Penez. 
The Four Evangelists. 
The Virtues. 

MASSYS, Jan, (Metsys,) was the son of Qaentin 
Massys by his first wife. In 1516 he was a pupil 
of Jaket Osket, and was received into the Corpor- 
ation of St. Luke in 1531. He visited Italy, but 
afterwards returned to his own city. His eldest son 
Qqentin, also a painter, died at Frankfort. His 
death occurred after 1568. His two eider brothers, 
Paul and Cornelis, w^ero also painters. Paul was 
living in 1649. Among the pictures of Jan are : 

Antwerp. 
Berlin. 



Paris. 
Petersburg. 

Rotterdam. 
Stockholm. 
Vienna. 

n 



n 



Gallery. The Virgin and St. Joseph at 

Bethlehem. 
GaUery. The Healing of Tobias. 

„ The Money-Ghanger. 

Louvre. Dayid and Bathsheba. 

The Money-Ghangers {tv}0 ear- 
amples). 
GaUery. Danae. 

Portrait of a Lady. 

The AVandering Musicians. 

Lot and his Daughters. 

MASSYS, QuENTiN, (Matsys, Messys, or Metsys,) 
the son of a locksmith, Josse Massys, was born at 
Louviiin in 1466. In early life he worked under 
his father, but became a painter to obtain the con- 
sent of his wife's father, who belonged to that 
profession, to his marriage. This is recorded by 
the inscription on his tomb : '^ Connubialis amor 
de mulcibre fecit Apellem," and he wrote on l)is 
own portrait the words *' Pictorem me fecit amor." 
His wife's name was Alyt van Tuylt. After her 
death, which took place in 1507, he married Catha- 
rine Heyns. Quentin is believed by some to have 
studied under Dierick Bouts, who was town painter 
at Louvain ; but dates do not favour this theory, 
for Bouts died in 1475. In 1491 Massys settled at 
Antwerp, where he joined the Painters' Guild, and 
rapidly became famous. In 1508 he painted the 
* Descent from the Cross ' for the chapel of the 
Joiners' Company in Antwerp Cathedral. It is 
now in the Museum at Antwerp. Massys received 
300 florins for his work, but it was sold in 1580 to 
the magistrates of Antwerp for 1500 florins. 
Massys died at Antwerp in 1531, leaving a large 
family. Three of his sons were painters (see 
Massys, Cornelis and Jan). The lollowing are 

some of his principal works : 

119 



Kast 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Kanter 



Amsterdam. Jfuseutn, 
Antwerp. Museum. 



ti 



»» 

w 



•> 



>t 

»» 
»» 



Mu3ettm. 



it 



Gallery. 

Gallery. 

Gallery. 

VjSiei. 



Basle. 
Berlin. 

i> 

Brussels. 

Ca9sel. 

Dresden. 

Florence. 

ft 

n .. 

Frankfort. Gallery. 

London. Nat. Gallery. 

Longford Castle. 
Louvain. St. Peter't. 



»> 



n 



Madrid. 


Gallery. 


Naples. 


u 


Paris. 


Louvre. 


Petersburg. 




Rome. 


Pal. Doria. 


Stockholm. 


Gallery. 


Turin. 




Venice. 




Vienna. 


Belvedere. 


„ LiechtentteinColl. 



"Windsor. 



Coitle. 



Virgin and Child. 

Head of Christ. {Similar to 

the National Gallery picture.) 
Head of the Virsin. (Similar 

to the Nationcu Gallery pie- 

ture.) 
The Magdalen. 
Money-Changer. 
Head of Christ. 
Descent from the Crocs; a 

triptych. 
Portrait of a Man. 
Madonna and Child. 
St. Jerome in his Cell. 
The History of St. Anne. 
Old Man and Courtezan. 
The Banker. 
St. Jerome. 
Portrait of Massys and his 

Wife. 
Portrait of a Man. 
Portrait of Knipperdolling. 
Salvator Mundi and the Virgin 

Mary. 
Portrait of Egidius. 
Holy Family. Quinte Mbtsts, 

SCBEBF DEK8 A® 1509. 

The Village Doctor. 
The Saviour. 
Adoration of the Magi. 
Banker and his Wife. Quintik 

Matst's Sghildlb. 1^18. 
Virgin and Child. 
Parable of the Unjust Steward. 
The Usurers. 
Virgin and Saviour. 
Christ before Pilate. 
Lucre tia. 
S. Jerome. Quiktik Masts f. 

1513. 
The Two Misers. 



MAST, Herman. See Van deb Mast. 

MASTELLETTA, II. See Donducci. 

MASTER A. D. F., The, was probably a painter 
of the Austrian school about 1611, and is known 
by an altar-piece, now in the Belvedere at Vienna, 
representing St. Jerome, with scenes from his life ; 
on the inner side of the laterals are the three Fathers 
of the Church, the Emperor Henry the Saint, St. 
Elizabeth, and the Queen of Hungary. It is signed 
A DF 1511. 

MASTER B. M., The, was a pupil and imitator 
of Schongauer. We have nine plates by him, 
among them : 

The Judgment of Solomon. 

St. John in Patmos. 

A * Biposo.' 

APietiL 

Madonna and Child in a Duidscape. 

St. Barbara. 

MASTER C. T., The. See Anthoniszoon, Cob- 
nelis. 

MASTER E. S., or *Masteb of 1466,' a prolific 
engraver, whose name is unknown, but by many 
is supposed to be Erhardt Schon. He was a 
German, and judging from the dates on his plates, 
was bom in the early part of the 15th century. 
He is supposed to have travelled through 
Switzerland, and worked a long time at the Court 
of Burgundy. Bartsch names 136 plates from his 
hand, among which there are scenes from the Old 
Testament, scenes from the life of Christ, the 
apostles and saints, &c. Among his most cele- 
brated plates are : 

The Baptism. 
The Nativity of Christ. 
The Judgment of Solomon. 
The Creation. 
Virgin and Child. 
120 



MASTER F. V. B., The. See Bocholt, Franz 
von. 

MASTER J. M. a, probably identical with 
Mabuse (Gossabt, Jan, q. v.). 

MASTER L. 0. z. of 1492, The, seems to have 
been influenced by M. Schongauer. We have ten 
plates by him, of which the best is a * Christ enter- 
ing Jerusalem.' 

MASTER M. Z., The, was a miniaturist in the 
latter part of the i5th century, who painted under 
the influence of Wolgemuth. 

MASTER N. D. B. of 1544, The, engraved 
* Cupids at Play,' after Raphael. 

MASTER, Wy., The, an engraver of the Nether- 
lands in the 15th century, executed sixty-one plates, 
among which are a *Sancta Veronica' and a 
Gothic Fountain. 

MASTER OF 1423, The, is the author of the 
wood-cut of * St. Christopher with the Child Jesus,' 
which was found in the Carthusian monastery at 
Buchsheim, and is the earliest wood-cut but one 
known. It is now in possession of Lord Spencer. 

MASTER OF 1437, The, painted a ' St. Sebastian.' 

MASTER OF 1439, The, executed two astrono- 
mical plates for the Calendar of John de Gamundia. 

MASTER OF 1454, The, executed a wood-cue of 
' St. Bernard.* 

MASTER OF 1461, The, prepared two wood-cuta 
for a table of the golden numbers. They were 
found in the Buchsheim monastery. 

MASTER OF 1464, The, was an excellent en- 
graver of the Lower Rhine. There are by him : 

The Wheel of Fortune. 
The Judgment of Paris. 
The Fencing-room. 
St. Jerome. 
The Alphabet in Figures. 

MASTER OF 1480, The, was a Dutch engraver, 
who worked in the style of the Van Dycks. His 

Elates are very rare. The Cabinet at Amsterdam 
as the best collection. Among them are : 

A Young Man struck by Death. 

St. James the Less. 

Elizabeth and Zachariah receiving Mary. 

St. Philip. 

The Peasant with the Shield. 

St. Bartholomew. 

Woman riding on a Man. 

St. George and the Dragon. 

MASTER OF 1482, The, an unknown engraver, 
by whom we have : 

Christ on the Cross. 

The Power of Death. 

A Woman with a Boll of Ribbon. 

MASTER OF 1515, The, was the engraver of: 

Scenes in the Life of Hercules. 
The Death of Cleopatra. 
The Fight of the Tritons. 
Various Cornices and Entablatures. 

Another 'Master' of the same year executed 
thirty-six plates, including : 

Mary and Joseph adoring the Child. 
Pope Julius II. 1512. 
SoUmanll. 1526. 

MASTER OF THE ANCHOR, The, engraver of 
five very rare plates, representing scenes from the 
Bible. His mark was an anchor between B and B. 

MASTER OF (BOIRSERIIS) BARTHOLOMEW, 
also called The Master of the Altar of St. 
Thomas, and of the Altar of the Cross, a 
painter of the school of Cologne, working between 
141)0 and 1500. In style his work is not unlike 



H of the Bird 



PAINTEBS AND ENGRAVERS. 



M. of the Shuttle 



«9 



that of Lucas van Leyden. Among his pictures 
we may name : 

Manich. St. Bartholomew with SS. Agnes 

and Cecilia. 
M St. Christina and St. James the 

Less. 
St. John the Eyaugelist and St. 
Margaret. 

MASTER OF THE BIRD. See Del Porto. 

MASTER OF THE BOCCACCIO, The. In an 
edition of a Latin work by Boccaccio, entitled 
'De Casibufi illustrium Virorum et Mulierum,* 
published at the end of the 15th century, there 
are nine engravings by an unknown Dutch artist, 
which are superior to the works of Israel von 
Meckenen or Martin Sohongauer. There is a copy 
of this book in the British Museum, and another 
in the Fitzwilliam Museum at Cambridge. See 
essay by .Mr. Sidney Colvin in * L*Art,' No. 177. 

MASTER OF THE CADUCEUS. See Babbarj. 

MASTER G. A. with the CALTHROP, an 
tinknown engraver who flourished in the latter 
part of the 14th century, and engraved architectural 
ornaments. 

MASTER OF the CANDLESTICK. See Hopfeb, 
Jan. 

MASTER OF the COMPASS, an Italian en- 
graver, of whom BruUiot mentions a * Young Man 
and Pedestal, and landscape in the background.* 

MASTER OF the CRAB, The, probably identical 
with Fbans CRABBE, whom ^e. 

MASTER OF the DAYS of CREATION, The, 
an engraver, worked probably about 1485, in the 
Netherlands. He is Known only by his plates of 
the ' Seven Days of Creation,' three of which are 
to be met with as under : 

Berlin. Sayal Coli. The Fifth Day, with the creation 

of the animals and birds. 
Dresden. Cab. of ) The Second Day, with the fall of 

Engravinffi. j Lnoif er. 
WuRborg. The Day of Best. 

MASTER OF the DEATH of MARY, The, 
who was instructed by the Master of the Holy 
Family (so called from his painting principally 
Holy Families), was a painter of Cologne. His 
chiei performance is in the Pinakothek at Munich ; 
it represents * The Death of the Virgin.* To this 
painter, who may have died about 1^30, are 
attributed : 

Dresden. Gallery. Two paintings representing the 

Adoration of the Magi. 
Stattgart. Gallery, The Descent of the Holy Ghost. 
Vieima. Belvedere, Mary with, tn'e Child and the 

Bosary. 
„ „ The Child with the Cherries, and 

the Holy Family. 
„ Academy, The same. 

" '^^^^"'} Two portraits. 1688. 

He had several disciples, among whom we know 
by name only Bartolomaus de Bruyn, whose works 
are dated up to 1556. 

MASTER OF THE DIE, The, erroneously called 
Beatricius, studied under Marc-Antonio, and 
flourished in 1532 — 33. Among his plates we may 
name: 

The Portrait of Pope Jolins IH. ; very rare. 
Joseph sold by his Brethren ; after Raphael, 
Christ carrying the Cross. 
Abraham and the three Angels ; after Titian. 
Thirty-two plates of the Fable of Pqrche and Apuleius ; 
after Coxeie, 



MASTER OF THE FIGHTINQ-COCKa See 
Soye. 

MASTER OF THE FLAGS, The, so called from 
the scrolls with texts which occur in his plates. He 
flourished about 1464. There are by him : 

An Alphabet. 1464. {A specimen of a portion of this 
ie to be seen at the Vienna Court lAhrary^ and of the 
remainder in the Dresden Cabinet, where also are the 
following) : 

The Annunciation. 
The Family of St. Anne. 
Samson and Delilah. 
Christ and St. Christopher. 

MASTER OF THE KEY. See Cobona, Jacob 
Lucius. 

MASTER of the KNOT. See Qabnieb, Noel. 

MASTER of LEISBORN, The, is the name 
given to an unidentified artist of Westphalia, who 
was painting in the year 1465 for the Benedictine 
abbey of Leisbom, near Munster. He was the 
most important of the Westphalian masters of the 
15th century. His principal work was the 'Cruci- 
fixion* which hung over the high altar of the 
second convent church at Leisborn. It was sold 
and divided on the establishment of the kingdom 
of Westphalia by Napoleon in 1807. Some of 
the pieces have disappeared, but a good many are 
still in existence. Two panels, each with three 
saints, are in the National Gallery. They are 
painted on canvas primed with gesso, and stretched 
over panels. 

MASTER OF the LOCUST, The, was so called 
from the locust which accompanies his monogram 
on a plate of the * Holy Family,' which was copied 
by Albrecbt Diirer, Israel von Meckenen, and 
Marc- Antonio, with the omission of the monk 
and the book at the feet of Mary. He has also 
left a ' Madonna and Child,' and a few scenes from 
a * Dance of Death 

MASTER OF THE LYVERSBERQ PASSION, 
The, is so called from a series of pictures which are 
now in the Wallraf Richartz Museum at Cologne, 
but were formerly in the possession of Councillor 
Lyversberg. They were painted between 1463 
and 1490. A series of scenes from the life of the 
Virgin at Munich are, however, of greater merit 
than these title works. The Munich Gallery pos- 
sesses a large number of pictures by this master 
and his scholars. He was formerly erroneously 
identified with Israel von Meckenen and the Meister 
von Werden. In a * Presentation in the Temple ' 
the National Gallery possesses a good example of 
his art 

MASTER WITH THE NAME of JESUS, The, was 
an engraver who flourished at Rome between 1556 
and 1572. Among his plates are : 

The going ont of Noah from the Ark. 

The Annunciation. 

The Holy Family. 

Virgin and Child. 

Diana and Actoon. 

Pan and Pomona. 

View of the Colisenm. 

MASTER OF THE PACK of CARDS, The, a 
clever artist who engraved a pack of twenty-five 
cards with figures of Christ, of the Madonna, and 
of various animals. 

MASTER OF THE PICKLOCK. See Thufel. 

MASTER OF the RAT-TRAP. See Dati. 

MASTER OF THE SHUTTLE. See KOln, Johann 

VON. 

121 



of the Sibyl 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Matham 



MASTER OF THE SIBYL, The, was an engraver 
of some ability who has left seven plates, the best 
of which are : 

The Sibylla Tibartina before Augustas. 
The Virgin Beading. 
A Ohesa-player. 

MASTER OF THE SIGNS of ST. ANTHONY. 
See Anthokiszoon, Cornblis. 

MASTER OF THE SPARROW. See Pasberotti. 

MASTER OF THE STAR. See Star van Dirk. 

MASTER OF THE TAROTS, The, engraved 
sc ven ty- two excellent card-pl ates. He was a native 
of Cologne, and flourished from about 1461 to 1483. 

MASTER OF THE TREFOIL. See Thufel. 

MASTER OF THE TWELVE APOSTLES, The, 
the painter of a picture of the twelve apostles, 
now in the old Pinakothek at Munich, where it is 
classed in the school of the Master of the Lyvers- 
berg Passion. 

MASTER OF THE TWO CROSSED ANCHORS, 
an unknown engraver to whom the date 1672 is 
assicrned 

MASTER OF THE UNICORN. See Duvet, 
Jkan. • 

MASTER OF WERDEN, an old German histori- 
cal painter, who flourished about 1480. He is so 
called because many of his works were painted 
for the abbey of Werden near Dusseldorf. 

MASTER OF THE WINE- VAT. See Weiner, 
Hans. 

MASTROLEO, Giuseppe, painter, was a native 
of Naples and pupil of P. de Matteis. He painted 
historical pictures, and died in 1744. 

MASTURZO, Marzio, a native of Naples, 
flourished about 1670. He was a pupil of A. 
Falcone and Salvator Rosa, and accompanied the 
latter to Rome. He painted landscapes, battles, 
and historical subjecte. 

MASUCCI, Agostino, was bom at Rome in 1691, 
and was the last scholar of Carlo Maratti. The 
subjects he usually treated were, for the most part, 
Holy Families and scenes from the life of the Virgin. 
Of his works in the churches and public edifices at 
Rome, the best, perhaps, are his * St. Anna ' in the 
church Al Nome di Maria, and a * Holy Family * 
in Santa Maria Maggiore. But his most consider- 
able work is his * St. Bonaventura,* at Urbino. 
He also executed a number of works for the King 
of Portugal. He died in 1758. J. Beham, J. 
Frey, and others have engraved after him. His 
son and pupil Lorenzo died in 1772. 

MAT ARAN A, BARTOLOMii, a Spanish painter of 
Valencia, who flourished early in the 17th century, 
and is known only by his frescoes in the college 
chapel of Corpus Uhristi, representing various 
biblical and legendary histories. Matarana re- 
ceived for the whole 6879 crowns. Cean Ber- 
mudez praises his colouring. 

MATENARE, Jacques, a French historical 
painter, who was born at St Omer, and died in 
1677. 

MATEOS, J ran, a Spanish painter who 
flourished in 1666, and was one of the founders 
of the Academy of Seville. 

MATH AM, Adbiaen, the third son and a pupil 
of Jacobus Math am, was bom at Haarlem, prob- 
ably about 1608. In 1640 he visited Morocco 
in the suite of an embassy from the States of 
Holland, and did some work there. Five plates 
representing episodes of the reception are extant. 
An account of the journey is in the library at 

122 



Vienna. Between 1624 and 1627 Matham was at 
Haarlem, but in 1646 he was settled at the Hague, 
and a member of the St Luke's Guild there. He 
worked entirely with the graver, in a style 
resembling that of J. de Qheyn the elder. The 
following are his best prints : — 

PORTRAITS. 

James Graham, Marquis of Montrose. 

Peter Bor Cbristiaenfiz, Historian ; after F. Hah. 

D. Sibrandus Sixtins Oistervirius ; after N, Moyaert. 

SUBJECT PICTURES. 

The Golden Age ; after H. Goltn'us. 1620. 

An old Man caressing a Woman, to whom he presents 

his Parse ; after the same. 
Two Beggars, the Man playing on a Viol, the Woman 

singing ; arter A. van aer Venne. 
A Combat of six grotesque Figures ; after the same. 

MATHAM, Jacobus, a Dutch engraver, who was 
also a painter and designer, was bom at Haarlem 
in 1671. He was the son-in-law of Hendrik Golt- 
zius, by whom he was instructed in the art ; and, 
by his advice, went to Italy, where he engraved 
several plates after the works of the most eminent 
Italian masters. On his return to Holland he 
worked under the eye of Goltzius, and executed a 
great variety of prints, after the ablest painters of 
the Low Countries. In 1600 he entered the Guild, 
of which in 1605 he became the president. He 
died at Haarlem in 1631. He worked entirely 
with the graver. He sometimes marked his prints 
with Afath^ Intu, J. Math. t«v., Mfe., or a mono- 
gram. He painted the portraits of Dukes Wilhelm 
and Johann Wilhelm or Cleve, both of which were 
engraved by Swaneburg. The following are his 
principal engravings : 

PORTRAITS. 

Philip William, Prince of Orange ; after M. Mierevelt. 

Henry of Nassau, l^riuce of Orange. 1610. 

Bust of Philip Winghius, inscriU^d Henricus Goltziue 

Amieitim erao delineabat Roma. 
* Michel Ancelus Buoaarrotus.' 
Abraham Bloemaert ; tsfter Paul Mcredee. 

SUBJECTS AFTER ITALIAN MASTERS. 

The Holy Family, with St. Anne ; after Raphael. 
Mount Parnassus, with Apollo ana the Muses ; after 

the same. 
The Holy Family, with St. Catharine; after Titian. 

1592. 
The Alliance of Venus with Bacchus and Geres ; after 

the same. 
The Visitation of the Virgin ; after Salviatt. 
Christ washing the Feet of His Disciples; after Taddeo 

ZMceetro. 
Christ pra^ng on the Mount ; after the same. 
The Nativity ; after the same. 
The Assumption of the Virgin ; after the same. 
The Adoration of the Kinjpfs ; after Fed. Zuccaro. 
Christ curing the Sick ; after the same. 
Christ raising the Widow's Son ; after the same. 
The Visitation of the Virgin ; after Paolo Veronese. 

SUBJECTS AFTER GOLTZIUS. 

The Fall of our first Parents. 

The Visitation of the Virgin to St. Elizabeth. 

The Crucifixion, with the Virgin and St. John. 

Christ appearing to Magdalene. 16(^. 

Christ with the Disciples at Bmmaus. 

The Loves of the Gods, Jupiter and Europa, Apollo 

and Leucothoe, Mars and Venus, and Hercules and 

Deianira ; four plates. 
Perseus and Andromeda. 1597. 
The Four Seasons ; in four circular plates. 1589. 
Faith, Hope, and Charity. 1590. 
The seven Cardinal Virtues ; in seven plates. 
The seven Mortal Sins ; in seven plates. 
The l^pe of Human life ; in three plates. 1593; scarce. 



Xfttliaiii 



PAINTERS AND ENQRAVERa 



KathiMeiui 



SUBJiXTTS AFTER OEBMAN AND DUTCH MASTERS. 

Abrahtm sending awht Hagar ; afitr Ah, Bloemaert, 
The Annunciation ; after ike tame. 
The Adoration of the Shepherds ; after the tame. 
Jupiter and Danae ; after the tame. 
Cupid and Psrche ; after the tame, 
Samaon and Delilidi ; after Rubent. 
The dead Ghriat, with the Maiys ; after Jer, IVanek, 
The Orucifizion ; after Albrecht Vurer; scaroe. 
YenuB aaleep, surpriaed by Satjrrs ; after Rottenhamer, 
A set of five prints of ^ruit-pieoes, and the Interiors 
of Kitchens ; after Fieter Aartten ; scarce. 

MATHAM, Jan, painter, was tlie son of Jacobus 
Matham, and was bom at Haarlem. He was a 
member of the Guild of St Luke in 1628, and 
died young in 1643. 

MATHAM, TusoDOR, the second son and pupil 
of Jacobus Matham, was born at Haarlem in 1569. 
After engraving a few plates in his own country 
he went to Italy, where he entered the school of 
Comelis Bloemaert; in conjunction with Michiel 
Natalis, Renier de Persyn, and others, he engraved 
tlie statues in the Palazzo Giustiniani. On his 
return to Holland he engraved a variety of plates, 
principally portraits, which are executed with Uie 
graver, occasionally assisted with the point As a 
painter he worked for the Duke of Savoy at one of 
his palaces near Turin. He died about 1677. He 
usually signed his plates with his initials T. Af,, 
with the addition of fecit or scidpsiL We have 
the following prints by him : 

P0BTRAIT8. 

Michel le Blon, Agent to the Grown of Sweden ; after 

Van Dyek, 
Jooet van de Yondel, Dutch Poet ; after Sandrart, 
D. GerarduB Yossius, Ganonicus Gaotuariensis ; after 

Sandrart. 
Philip William, Gount Palatine of the Rhine; after 

J. Spilberg, 
Wolfgang William, Gount Palatine; after the tame. 

6UBJBCTS. 

The Virgin and Infant, with St. John ; after Battano. 

The Holy Family ; after J, Sandrart, 

Diana and Aeteon ; Th. Mathamfee. 

The Deaoent from the Gross, with the Marys, St. John, 

and Joaeph of Arimathea ; after Gerardut Lejfdamu ; 

fine. 

MATHEI, Paul de. See Matthai. 

MATHES, Cbristoph Qeoro, (Matthrs,) a 
painter and engraver, bom at Berlin in 1738. He 
was a pupil of B. Rode, and painted portraits, 
landscapes, and architectural views. He engraved : 

The Prodigal Son; after Dietrich, 
Portrait of P. P. Werner. 

MATHES, NicoLAUB Chbistiak, (Matthes,) en- 
graver and draughtsman, was bom at Hamburg in 
1729. He went to Nuremberg and married a niece 
of J. G. Prestol. Lichtensteger engraved after 
him a portrait of F. G. Baier. His wife, Elizabeth 
Christina, bom at Nuremberg in 1749, and died 
about 1800, painted flowers and birds. 

MATHEUS, — , a French engraver, resided in 
Paris about the year 1620. He was chiefly em- 
ployed by the booksellers, and engraved several 
plates of frontispieces, and other book ornaments, 
which are, for the most part, fix>m his own designs. 
We may name the following by him : 

The Adoration of the Magi ; from hit own detignt, 
Tlie Frontispiece to a * General History of France ' ; 

pabliahed at Paris m 1619. 
A Frontiapieoe to the * Works of Thomas Aqninas.' 

1622. 

A Frontispiece to 'Amours d'Endvmion et de la Lane.' 
1624. 



MATHEY, G. The name of this engraver is 
affixed to the portrait of Arcangelo Corelli, the 
musician, after Howard. 

MATHIAS, Gabriel, exhibited in London in 
1761 and following years, but being unsuccessful 
in art he obtained an appointment in the Privy 
Purse Of&ce*. One of his pictures, *■ A Sailor splicing 
a rope/ is engraved by McArdelL He died very 
old in 1804. 

MATHIEU, A., a French engraver, flourished 
about the year 1656. We have by him some 
spirited etehiugs, completed with the burin, in a 
style somewhat resembling the works of Cullot, for 
a tliin folio volume entitled * Les Armes triomphantes 
de son Altesse Monseigneur le Due d'Esperon pour 
le sujet de son heureuse entree, faite dans la ville 
de Dijon.* 1666. 

MATHIEU, Anna Kosinb. See Lisczewska. 

MATHIEU, Antoine, bom in England in 1632, 
worked as a portrait and historical painter in Paris, 
Dijon, and other French towns. He died in London 
in 1673. 

MATHIEU, Augusts, a French painter of in- 
teriors, was bom at Dijon in 1807, and died in 
1866. 

MATHIEU, David, a portrait painter, bora at 
Berlin in 1697, was a pupil of J. Werner 'the 
younger.' He married Anna Rosine Lisczewska. 
His sons, Gborg David and Hbinrich Freidricu 
Leopold, bom at Berlin in 1737 and 1750, were 
instructed by their mother. Georg David settled 
in Sweden, where he died in 1776. Heinrich died 
at Gottingen in 1778. 

MATHIEU, Jean, (or Matthieu,) an engraver, 
bom in 1749, was a pupil of Longueil. He was 
one of the artiste employed in the * Voyage de la 
Gr^ce,' by Ghoiseul Gonmer, in the * Voyages des 
Royaumes de Naples et de Sicile,* by St Non, and 
'Voyage d'Espagne,' by Laborde. Some of his 
engravings are in the Poullain Cabinet and in the 
^Galerie de Florence.* He engraved ' La Vierge 
aux Candelabres,' after Raphael \ and subjecte 
after Carracci, Claude, G. Poussin, F. Mola, I^. du 
Jardin, J. Vernet, Ruisdael, and Wouwerman. He 
died at Fonteinebleau in 1816. 

MATHIEU, Lambert Joseph, a Belgian his- 
torical, genre, and portrait painter, bom at Bure 
(Namur) in 1804. He studied at Antwerp under 
Van Bree, and settled at Lou vain, where he oecame 
Director of the Academy. He died in 1861. 
Amongst his chief works are : 

Death of Mary of Bujmmdy. (BrHteelt Museum,) 

The Entombment, {fne tame,) 

Virgin and Child. 

Young Venetian Girl in a Balcony. 

MATHIEU, Pierre, a portrait and historical 

?ainter, son of Antoine Mathieu, was bom at Dijon, 
n 1708 he became a member of the French 
Academy, and died in 1740. 

MATHILDE, Princess op Bavaria, and Grand 
Duchess of Hesse, painted landscapes early in the 
present century. She was a pupil of D. Quaglio.^ 
At Munich are views of Puzzuoh near Ischia, and 
Nymphenbourg near Munich by her. She was bom 
in 1813, and died in 1862. 

MATHISSENS, Abraham, (Matthyssens, or 
Mattts,) a Flemish painter, was bom at Antwerp 
in the year 1681. He was a pupil of Tobias van 
Haecht According to M. Descamps, he was a 
reputeble painter both of history and landscapes. 
In the cathedral at Antwerp is a picture by him 
of the ' Death of the Virgin ' ; in the church of the 

123 



ICaton 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Kattioli 



Recollets, an altar-piece representing the * Virgin 
and Infant Saviour with St. Francis/ and in the 
Dresden Gallery a picture of still life by him, 
which is signed Broder Matthisen fecit, Anno 1641. 
He died in 1649. His son, Balthasar, was also 
a painter. 

MATON, B., (Matton, Mathon,) was a Dutch 
painter, who copied the works of Gerard Dou and 
Willem Mieris. He was particularly successful in 
his copies of Dou^s candle-light pieces. No par- 
ticulars of his life are recorded, but from the 
appearance of his works he seems to have been 
contemporary with Willem Mieris. His pictures are 
of small dimensions, and on panel. 

MATSIJS. See Massys. 

MATTEI, SiLVESTRO, historical painter, was 
bom at Ascoli in 1653. He was a pupil of C. 
Maratti. He died in 1739. 

MATTEIS, Paolo dk, a nainter and engraver, 
was bom at Cilento, near Naples, in 1662, and, 
according to Lanzi, was the most celebrated scholar 
of Luca Giordano and J. Maria Morandi. He first 
followed the style of Giordano, whose rapidity of 
execution he appears to have largely acquired. He 
worked at Rome for Popes Clement XI. and XII. 
and Benedict XIII. In the early part of his life 
he went to France, where he was employed for 
three years in some considerable works for the 
court. He was invited to Rome by Benedict XIII., 
where he painted several pictures for la Minerva 
and the church of the Ara Cceli. At Genoa, in 
the church of S. Girolamo, are an ' Immaculate 
Conception,' with a gloiy of angels, and *St. 
Jerome appearing to S. Saverio in a dream.' 
At Naples he painted for churches (especially 
in San Femando) and galleries, and was em- 
ployed in Monte Casino m 1692 and 1706-9. He 
Eainted the great cupola of Gesu Nuovo in sixty- 
ve days. He died at Naples in 1728. He signed 
his works with P, M. t/., Pan de Mat Inv, Aquila, 
J. Daull^, and others engraved after him. Among 
his works are : 

Milan. Jftueum, Acis and Oalatea. 

Munich. Gallery. Death of Gate of Utiea. 

Kstoja. Church of St.\St. Oaetano and a Christ in 

Foul. } glory. 
Vienna. Oalltry, Meeting of Herminiaand the 

Shepherds. 

MATTENHEIMER, Andreas Theodob, was 
bom at Bamberg in 1752. His father was a 
gardener, and after his death he received his first 
instruction from a painter at Waldsassen. After 
that he went to Munich, and then to Berlin and 
Di'esden. He afterwards returned to Bamberg, and 
worked with Scheubel at altar-pieces for different 
churches. He also painted several altar-pieces on 
his own account He died in 1810. His son 
Joseph, who studied under his father, and died 
young in 1802, painted portraits. 

MATTENHEIMER, Carl, son of Andreas 
Mattenheimer, was bom at Bamberg in 1791. He 
was instructed by his father, and also studied at 
Vienna and Munich. He remained in Munich 
some years, and painted several portraits. In 
1820 he became teacher of drawing at Zwei- 
briicken, and later on inspector of the Gallery at 
Bamberg. He died in 1852. 

MATTENHEIMER, Theodor, was bom at 
Bamberg in 1787. He was instmcted in painting 
by his father, Andreas Theodor Mattenheimer, 
and afterwards attended the Academy at Munich, 
and in 1811 that at Vienna. Subsequently he 

124 



became inspector, conservator, and director of 
several galleries, and distinguitthed himself by his 
paintings of still-lLfe. Of his portraits those of the 
Duchess Mary Anne and the Queen of Pmssia are 
noteworthy. He successfully restored several 

Eaintings in the churches at Munich, in which city 
e died in 1850. 

MATTED and his pupil Aloise, were miniature 
painters who lived in the 16tli century. The first 
was a native of Terranova, Calabria, and studied 
at Rome ; the second was bom at Naples. They 
painted during 1507-23 the mass-books in Monte 
Casino at Naples, and in 1526-27 the mass-bookB 
at Peru£nL 

MAITEO Di GIOVANNI (di Bartolo), called 
MArrEO DA Siena, the son of a tinman of Borgo 
San Sepolcro, was bom not later than 1435. He 
was considered one of the best Sienese painters of 
his time. The ' Madonna della Neve ' (the * Madonna 
in the Snow '), painted for the brotherhood of that 
name at Siena, is a fine example of his art ; it is 
signed ''Opus Matei di Senis," and dated 1477. 
Matteo painted several pictures representing the 
' Murder of the Innocents,' two of which are still 
preserved in Siena. A third is in the Naples 
Gallery. A mosaic by him of the same subject 
is on the floor of the Siena Cathedral ; a rub- 
bing from it is in the South Kensington Museum. 
An 'Assumption of the Virgin,' in the National 
Gallery, is a first-rate specimen of Matteo da Siena. 
He is also represented in the same collection by a 
small *Ecce Homo,' which was long ascribed to 
Niccolo da Foligno. Matteo died in 1495. 

MATTEO DA SIENA, called Matteino, land- 
scape painter, was a native of Siena, and flourished 
in the 16th century. He lived chiefly at Rome, 
where he painted the landscapes in the pictures of 
Circignano. He died at Rome. 

MATTEUS, CoRNELis. The name of this artist 
is afiixed to a spirited etching of a landscape, with 
a min in the background ; it is executed in a style 
resembling that ox Herman Swanevelt. 

MATTHAI, JoHANN Friedrich, was bom at 
Meissen in 1777, and studied at the Academy at 
Dresden. He went subsequently to Vienna, where 
he worked under Fiiger, and afterwards to Florence 
and Rome. He di^ at Vienna in 1845. Matthai 
was director of the Dresden Gallery and Academy 
of Art Among his best scholars were Rietschel 
and Steinle. Two of his best pictures, the ' Death 
of Codms ' and the ' Death ox ^gistheus,' are in 
the Gallery over which he himself presided. His 
son, Heinrich MatthIi, acquired some distinction 
as a landscape painter. He died at Dresden in 1880. 

MATTHIEW. See Mathieu. 

MATTIOLI, Girolamo, a painter, bora in the 
neighbourhood of Bologna about 1550. He studied 
first under Sabbatini, and then under the CarraccL 
He died youn^* 

MATTIOLI, LoDOvico, was bom at Guisa, near 
Crevalcore, in Piedmont, in 1662, and leamed design 
in the school of Carlo Cignani, with the intention 
of becoming a painter, but ti^e success of some 
essays in etching induced him to devote himself 
principally to that art. He died at Bologpia in 
1747. He painted several landscapes in fresco 
at the Orphanage of San Bartolommeo in that 
city. We have a variety of etchings by him, 
after the Bolognese masters, as well as from his 
own designs ; among them the following : 

The Annonciatioii ; after Lod, Carraeci; scarce. 
The Giroamcision ; after the iome. 



Xatton 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Xaiirer 



The NatiTity ; ahir Jgo$t Carraeci. 

Ohrist aad the woman of Samaria ; after Anmh. Car^ 

racet. 
The Death of St. Joseph ; a/tar Franeesehini, 
The Presentation in the Temple ; after G. M, Oreepi. 
The Martyrdom of St. Peter ; after the same, 
Boce Homo ; after Van Dyck. 
Several Landsoipes ; after Gueixino, 

MATTON, B. SeeMATON. 

MATURING, B. C, was bom at Florence in 
1490. He had the advantage of studying under 
Raphael, and was employed by him in ornamenting 
the Lof gie of the Vatican. He was the instructor 
of Polidoro da Caravaggio, in conjunction with 
whom he was much employed in ornamenting the 
exterior of Roman palaces. Gne of the most cele- 
brated of the united works of the two painters was 
the ' Death of the Children of Niobe,' at the Mas- 
chera d'Gro. The sacking of Rome by the Spaniards 
in 1527, separated the friends, and interrupted their 
work. Maturino did not long survive that event, 
and is said to have died of the plague when he 
was little more than thirty-seven years of age. 
His works are signed B, G> M. The greater part 
of his work done in collaboration with Poliaoro 
has long disappeared, but most of it has been 
engraved by Cherubini Alberti, Pietro Santi Bartoli, 
and others. The 'Story of Perseus and Andro- 
meda * is still to be seen in the summer-house of 
the Palazzo del Bufalo. 

MATVEIEFF, Feodor Michailowitsch, bom at 
8t Petersburg in 1758, stayed at Rome in the early 

Sart of the 19th century, and was one of the most 
istinguished Russian landscape painters of his time. 
He died there in 1826. His chief productions are 
in tiie Hermit^e at St Petersburg. 

MATVLEFF, Ivan, a portrait painter, was bom 
at Novgorod in 1704. He was sent by Peter the 
Great in 1719 to Holland, and went afterwards 
to Rome, where he passed some time. He died 
at St Petersburg in 1736. 

MAUBERT, Jacques, portrait painter, and a 
pupil of * Magdalen ' Smith, was probably a native 
of France. According to Lord Grf ord, he resided 
in England in the reigpi of George I. He distin- 
guished himself by copying all the portraits of 
English poets he could meet with. He painted 
Dryden, Wycherley, Congreve, and some others, 
from the life, and the first of these three portraits 
is in the National Portrait Gallery. He died in the 
year 1746. 

MAUBEUGE. See Qossaebt. 

MAUCH, Bduard, engraver and designer, was 
born at Geisslingen in 1800. His artistic education 
was received in Ulm and Stuttgart Most of his 
life was passed in forwarding the cause of art in 
his native district. In 1840 he published, in con- 
iunction with Dr. Gruneisen, * Ulnis Eunstlebeit in 
Mittelulter.' 

MAUCH, ' JoHANN MatthaOs von, architect, 
designer, engraver, lithogropher, &c., was bom at 
Ulm in 1792. Most of his life was passed in the 
teaching of the minor arts connected with archi- 
tecture at Manich. He died at Stuttgart in 1856. 
Among his pictorial works we may name a * View 
of the Bay of Naples, from the top of Vesuvius,* in 
watei-colours. 

MAUCGURT, Charles, a portrait painter and 
mezzotint engraver, was born in Germany, and 
resided for several years in London, practising in 
both oil and water-colours, as well as miniature. 
He belonged to the Incorporated Society of Artists, 
and exhibited from 1761 to 1767. He died in 



P°^° 1° 1768. Among other prints, he left one 
of 'The Expulsion of the Jesuits from Spain,* 
signed (7. maucourtfec, 

MAUDUIT, LouiSB Marie Jeanne, a French 
portrait and history painter, was born in Paris in 
1784, and became the wife of Louis Hersent She 
learnt her art under Meynier. Her death took 
place in 1862. Her chief works are : 

Visit of Louis XIV. when a child to Peter the Great. 
St. Vincent de Paul and Sisters of his Order. 
Henriette de France. (Portrait.) 

MAULBERTSCH, Anton Franz, (Maulpabtsch, 
Maulbetsch,) was born at Langenargen, on the Lake 
of Constance, in 1724. He was instructed by Van 
Roi at Vienna. There are several frescoes by him 
at Inspruck, in the court chapel and rooms of the 
Empress Maria Theresa ; at Dresden, in a chapel 
of the court church, and at Prague in the library, 
these last having been executed in 1794. Gf his 
oil-paintings may be mentioned * Christ on the 
Cross,' He etched several plates, among others 
* The Death of Joseph ' and * The Quack on the 
Rostmm.' He sometimes signed his works A. M, 
He was a member of the Academy at Berlin, and 
cabinet painter to the court there. He died at 
Vienna in 1796. Alberti, Schmutzer, and others 
have engraved after him. 

MAUPAIN. See Madpin. 

MAUPERCH6, Henri, a French painter and 
engraver, was born in Paris in 1602. He painted 
landscapes in a style somewhat like that of Her- 
mann Swanevelt. He was a member of the 
Academy of Paris, and became a professor in 1665. 
He died in 1686. In the large room at Fontaine- 
bleau are fourteen landscapes in fresco by him. 
We have fifty-one etchings of his, some of which 
are from his own designs, and others after H. 
Swanevelt. The following may be named : 

A set of six plates of the History of Tobit. 

A set of six plates of the History of the Virgin, from 

the Annunciation till the Flight into Egypt. 
Twelve Landscapes ; after Hermann Swanevelt, 
Two plates of the Prodigal Son. 
Four Landscapes, with Figures and Ruins. 

MAUPIN, Paul, (or Maupain,) according to 
Basan, was a native of Abbeville, and flourished 
about the middle of the 17th century. He executed 
some wood-cuts in chiaroscuro, after J. Stella. Basan 
mentions another engraver on wood, of the name 
of Maupain, a relation of the above-mentioned 
artist, but he does not specify any of his works. 

MAURER, Caspar and Domenico, brothers, 
gained great reputation at Munich in the end of 
the 17th and beginning of the 18th centuries for 
their decorative and architectural paintings. 

MAURER, Christoph, (or Murer,^ was bom at 
Zurich in 1558. His father, Josias Maurer, was a 
painter of some merit, by whom he was instructed 
in the first elements of design, but he afterwards 
studied at Strassburg, under Tobias Stimmer, whose 
style he adopted, and in conjunction with whom 
he published a series of hunting-pieces in 1606, 
He painted a large number of fa9ades with scenes 
from Scripture and Roman history, as well as from 
that of his own country. His portraits in oil are 
little inferior. He died at Winterthur in 1614. 

MAURER, Hbinrich, a Swiss painter and en- 
graver, was born near Zurich, in 1774. He was 
instructed by J. C. Huber, and studied after- 
wards under Dillio at Munich and Granicher at 
Dresden. He died in 1822. 

126 



Xaorer 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP 



Hayer 



MAURER, Hubert, historical and genre painter, 
was born at Rattehen, near Bonn, in 17S8. His 
parents were poor, and in 1762 he came without 
means to Vienna, where he was instructed in 
painting by Baum^artner and Meytens. Through 
application and ability he, in 1774, obtained a pen- 
sion for Rome. He remained there four vears, and 
became in 1785 a professor and councillor of the 
Academy at Vienna, where he died in 1818. He 
painted a considerable number of altar-pieces and 
portraits, among which are : 

Vienna. Belvedere, Ohrist reoeiWng Children. 

M Hofbura Chapel, St. CSaiharine. 
„ Aead.of Lngineere. Qtad. the Father in the Clouds. 

MAURER, Jakob, a painter, was bom at Schaff- 
hausen in 1732. He studied at the Academy 
of Amsterdam, and painted landscapes, animals, 
portraits, and historical subjects. He lived in 
Holland, where he died in 1780. 

MAURER, J., was a native of Switzerland. He 
came to England about the year 1745, where he 
engraved several .views of buildings, &c. in 
London. He also drew largely with the pen. 

MAURER, JosiAS, a portrait and historical 
painter, bom at Zurich in 1530. In 1576 he 
engraved on wood a plan of his native town. He 
died in 1580. 

MAURICE, Louis Joseph, a French historical 
and decorative painter, bom at Nancy in 1730. He 
was brought up for the law, but his art tastes 
proved too strong. In 1758 he went to St. Peters- 
burg, where he became principal painter to the 
Empress Elizabeth, and directed the coronation 
fdtes on the accession of Caitharine II. On his 
return to France he was employed by Marie 
Antoinette in decorative work. He formed a rich 
collection of objects of art. He died in Paris in 
1820. 

MAURICE, Saint. See Saint Madricb. 

MAURIN, Antoine, a French historical painter, 
born at Perpignan in 1793, and died in 1860. 

MAURIN, Nicolas Eustacbe, a painter, probably 
related to the last-named, was bom at Perpignan 
in 1798. He went to Paris, and became a pupil 
of Regnault. He painted portraits and historical 
pictures, among which were : 

Leopold I., King of the Belgians. 

Eleven portraits of the Boyal Family of France. 

Portrait of Charles Y. 

Taking of the Louvre. 

MAUS, EuoBNE, a Flemish painter, bom at 
Ixelles, near Brussels, in 1847. He painted land- 
scapes and still-life. He died in 1881. 

MAUZAISE, Jean Baptiste, was bora at Corbeil, 
Seine et Oise, in 1784, and studied under Vincent. 
He first exhibited in 1812 with an 'Arab bewailing 
the loss of his Horse.* He was a member of the 
Legion of Honour, and died in 1845. He was 
one of the earliest practitioners in lithography. 
Among his paintings are : 

Bordeaux. Jfuseum. The Death of Clorinde. 

Paris. Palais Royal. Lorenso de' Medici, with his 

Family and the Learned 
Men and Artists at his Court. 

MAWLEY, Georqb, an English landscape 
painter in oil and water-colours, bom in London 
in 1838. He studied at Gary's school and in the 
schools of the Academy. His works appeared at 
the Dudley Gallery and the Academy. He died 
in London in 1870. 

126 



MAXWELL, George, an Euglish landscape 
painter, born in 1768. His works were praised by 
Sir Joshua Reynolds, and were exhibited at the 
Academy in 1787-9, in which latter year he died. 

MAY, Jan or Hans. See Vebmeubn. 

MAY, Olivier le, a landscape and marine 
painter, bom at Brussels in 1720. Masquelier and 
others engraved his views. He paid two visits to 
America, and died about 1797. 

MAYER, Bartolomaus, a painter, was bora at 
Ulm about 1650. None of his plantings are 
known. He died in 1729. 

MAYER, Christian, was bom at Vienna in 
1812, and studied the art of engraving under 
Kininger. He died at Vienna in 1870. The best 
of his plates are : 

The Development of the Sciences upon Greoiaa soil ; 

after Bahl^s frieze for ike Athens University, 
Anadne ; after Reynolds. 
Madonna ; after Odio Orsi, 
The Pursuit of the CSiristiant in the Boman Cata^ 

combs ; after Rahl. 
lo ; ^^er Correayio. 

The Four Divisions of the World ; after Rubens. 
Boreas carrying off Orithyia ; after tM same. 

MAYER, Frirdrich, landscape painter, was 
bom in 1825, and died in 1875. He painted 
chiefly Alpine scenes. 

MAYER, JoHANN Alois, was bom at Lienz in 
the Tyrol in 1801. He practised for a time as a 
portrait painter at Innspruck. Afterwards he 
went to Munich, and deserted portrait for genre. 
He died in 1831. 

MAYER, Earl, was bom at Nuremberg in 1798, 
and died at the same city in 1868. He studied 
under Freiherr Christoph Haller, Friedrich Fleisch- 
mann, and subsecnientl^ under Desnoyers and 
Coigny in Paris. He distinguished himself as a 
painter and an engraver on steel, and illustrated a 
number of books, including Schiller^s works and 
some almanacs. His best plates are : 

The Qood Shepherd ; after Fiihrick. 
Christ on the Cross ; qfier D€rer. 

MAYER, Karl, was bom at Vienna in 1810, 
and his father dying soon after his birth, his 
mother supported herself and child upon a very 
small pension. His father's brother taking an 
interest in the orphan, adopted him, and wished 
him to be educated for the service of the Govern- 
ment, but his talent for art was so decided that 
his uncle finally encouraged it, and he was placed 
under Gsellhofer in the Vienna Academy. Karl 
Mayer travelled in various parts of Austria and 
Germany, and acquired the friendship of Schubert 
the composer. In 1834 he settled for a time at 
Munich. In 1842, having obtained the prize of 
Rofbe with his * Prometheus and Pandora,* he com- 
menced his travels in Italy, and after his retum, in 
1846, painted many noticeable pictures. In 1851 
he was elected to the professorship of the smaller 
Academy at Vienna, and was largely employed in 
fresco paintings. In 1873 he fell out of health, 
and received assistance in the form of a pension, 
which he enjoyed until his death in 1876. 

MAYER, Maris Franqoise Constance M. la 
Martin lisRE, was born in Paris in 1778. She was 
instructed by Sauv^e, Greuze, and Prud'hon. §he 
exhibited many portraits and other subjects, in 
France, from 1800 to 1821, in which year she com- 
mitted suicide through vexation caused by her 
love for Prud'hon. Among her works the most 
popular were : 



Majmo 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Kazzoni 



Madrid. 



Toledo. 



Innooence between Love and Riches. 

Veniu and Cupid asleep, caressed and awakened by 

Zephyrs. 
The Torch of Venus. 
The Happy Mother. 
The Abandoned Mother (in the Louvre), 
A Young Naiad repelling a Troop of LoTers who are 

disturbing her iu her retreat. 
ADream of Happiness. 

MAYNO, Fray Juan Bautista, was bom in 
1569| and is said to have been instructed by Greco. 
At an early period of his life he became a Domini- 
can monk ; but this seclusion from the world did 
not prevent the exercise of his talents, and he was 
reputed one of the ablest painters of his time. He 
had the honour of being drawing-master to Philip 
IV., and was employed by him to paint his cele- 
brated battle-piece in the Buen* Retire, into which 
he has introduced Olivarez animating the troops 
to victory, by showing them the portrait of their 
King Philip. He was also supermtendent of the 
paintings m the royal palaces. He died at Milan 
in 1649. Among his paintings we may name : 

Museo. The Nativity. 
„ The Resurrection. 
„ The Descent of the Ho]y Ghost. 
„ The Mystery of the Trinity. 
S. Pedro ) oi. T> t 

,9 Cathedral. The History of St. Ildefonso. 

MAYO, Juan db. See Vermeubn. 

MAYOR, BabnabV, painter and engraver, who 
flourished in the last half of the 18th century. He 
painted a picture of Wenlock Abbey, engraved by 
Valentine Green« He died in 1774. 

MAYR, Heinbich von, was bom at Nuremberg 
in 1806, and after studying in tliat city under the 
direction of his step-father, went to Munich in 
1825. On accompanying Duke Maximilian on his 
journey to the East, he executed several excellent 
genre paintings, some of which are at the loosen- 
stein near Stuttgart. 

MAYR, JoHANN Ulrich, (or Mair,) was born at 
Augsburg in 1630, and died at the same city in 
1704. He was an excellent disciple of Rembrandt 
and Jakob Jordaens, and was most distinguished as 
a painter of portraits, amongst which were Joachim 
von Sandrart and a painting on glass of himself. 
Of his other works we note : 

Augsburg. Aiaut-kirche. Christ in Prison. 
Vienna. Belvedere. The Apostle Philip reading in 

a book. 

MAYRHOFER, Johann Nepomuk, flower painter 
and lithographer, was born at Oberneukirchen, in 
Austria, in 1764. He was instructed by Haslinger 
at Linz, and studied afterwards at Munich. He 
was an excellent painter of flowers and fruit, as 
we may see in his ' Flora Monaceosis ' (Munich, 
1816—30). He died at Munich in 1832. 

MAZELL, Petbb, an English engraver who 
flourished in the second part of the 18th century, 
and worked for Pennant and Boydell, and all the 
engravings in Cordiner's * Ruins and Romantic 
Prospects in North Britain ' (1792) are by him. 

MAZO, Martinez Juan Bautista del. See Del 
Mazo Martinez. 

MAZOT, — f is mentioned by Strutt as an en- 
graver, by whom we have a few indifferent por- 
traits : among others, that of Christian IV., King 
of Denmark. 

MAZZA, Damiano, was a native of Padua, and 
disciple of Titian. He chiefly resided at Venice, 
where he painted for the churches ; but his most 



celebrated work was his picture of ^Ganymede 
taken up by the Eagle,' in the Casa Sonica at 
Padua. Mazza died young. 

MAZZAROPPI, Marco, waa bom at San Ger- 
mane, near Naples, about 1570. His principal 
works are to be found in the Abbey of Mont 
Cassin, near San Germano. He died in 1620. 

MAZZIERI, Antonio di Donnino, according to 
Vasari, was a native of Florence, and a disciple of 
Francia Bigio. He flourished about the year 1620, 
and distinguished himself as a painter of land- 
scapes and battle-pieces, which were well coloured 
and handled with spirit. 

MAZZOCCHI. See Doni, Paolo. 

MAZZOLA, Fran, and Girol., (Mazzoli, or 
Mazzolo.) See Mazzuola. 

MAZZOLA, Giuseppe, was bom at Valdnggta, in 
Piedmont, in 1748. He formed himself at first on 
Gaudenzio Ferrari, afterwards on Correggio. By 
the assistance of King Victor Amadeus 111. of 
Savoy, he went to Rome in 1774, and studied the 
works of Raphael and Michelangelo. From 1789 
to 1797 he was court painter to his patron. In 
1802 he established himself at Milan, and became 
director of the Gallery there. From 1803 he was 
obliged to paint with the left hand. Mazzola died 
at Milan in 1838. Among his best paintings are : 

A * Holy Family.' (Brera, Milan.) 

The Ascension of Mary. 

The portrait of King Amadeus HI. 

MAZZOLINI, Giov. Bern. See Azzolini. 

MAZZOLINI, LoDovico, called Mazzolini da 
Ferrara and Lodovico Ferraresb, was bom at 
Ferrara about 1481. He was a scholar of Lorenzo 
Costa, and may be placed next after Garofalo 
among the masters of his native town. His pictures 
are even more remarkable than others of their 
school for their architectural backgrounds. Three 
Buiall examples in the National Gallery show this 
tendency in a very marked way. Perhaps Mazzo- 
lini's best picture is the first in the list below. He 
died in 1530. 

Christ and the Doctors. 1624. 

Holy Family. 

The Nativity. 

God the Father. 

Ecce Homo. 

Virgin adoring the new-bom 

Infant. 
The Nativity. 
Holy Family. 
The Circumcision. 
Massacre of the Innocents. 1548. 
Virgin, Child, and Saints. 
Holy Family. 

The Woman taken in Adultery. 
Hol^ Family. 
„ „ Christ preaching to the Multitude. 

MAZZONI, Cesare Giuseppk, was born at 
Bologna in 1678, and was a scholar of Lorenzo 
Paeinelli, and afterwards of the younger dal Sole. 
There are several of his works in the churches 
and public edifices at Bologna, which prove him to 
'have been a respectable painter of history. He 
died in 1763. His best works are : 

In San Colombano, Bologna, an altar-piec*. 
In San Tommaso di Strada Maggiore, a ' Crucifixion.* 
In San Giovanni in Monte, a ' St. Peter delivered from 
Prison.' 

MAZZONI, GiULio, was a native of Piacenza, 
but studied at Rome under Daniele da Volterra, 
and flourished about the year 1568. He is men- 
tioned by Vasari, in the life of that master, as a 

127 



Berlin. 


Museum. 


Bologna. 


Finacoteca. 


>» 
Dresden. 

Ferrara. 


Gallery. 
Finacoteca. 


Florence. 


Ujfizi. 


n 


» 


Hague. 
London. 


Nat. Gal. 


» 


n 


Paris. 


Ijouvre. 



Mauoni 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



KazsuolA 



painter of considerable merit His principal work 
18 the * Four Evangelists * in the cathedral at 
Piacenza. 

MAZZONI, Sebastiano, was born at Florence 
about 1615. He removed to Venice, where, after 
a life of some local success, he died near the end 
of the century. 

MAZZUCHELLI, Pietro Francesco, called II 
MoRAZZONE (MoRANZOMB, or Marazzone), was bom 
at Morazzone, in the Milanese, in 1671, and is 
generally called from the place of his nativity. 
He resided at Rome in the early part of his life, 
where he painted for the church of Santa Maria 
Maddalena al Corso, the * Assumption of the 
Virgin, with the Apostles,' and for San Silvestro 
in Capite, the * Adoration of the Magi.* He after- 
wards went to Venice, where he studied the works 
of Titian, Tintoretto, and Paolo Veronese, by which 
he greatly improved his colour ; and on going to 
Milan he painted the * Adoration of the Kings,' for 
the church of Sant' Antonio Abate, in a style so 
superior to the picture of the same subject be had 
painted at Rome, that it appeared to be by a 
different hand. At Como, in the church of San 
Giovanni, is one of his principal works, representing 
'St Michael discomfitmg the rebel Angels.* He 
was employed and patronized by the King of 
Sardinia, by whom he was knighted. In 1626 he 
was invited to Piacenza to paint the great cupola 
of the cathedral, which he only lived to commence. 
He died the same year, and his work was finished 
by Guercino. 

MAZZUOLA, Annibalb, a native of Siena, was a 
painter of history. He passed his life in Rome, 
where he died in 1743. 

MAZZUOLA, FiLiPPO, was born at Parma in 
the latter part of the 15th century, and was some- 
times called ' Filippo dair Erbette,' from a habit he 
had of introducing plants into his pictures. He 
was the father of Parmigiano. The Gallery of 
Parma possesses a * Virgin and Child, between 
SS. Francis and John the Baptist,* painted by him 
in 1491 ; at the Palazzo Vescovile, in the same 
city, is a * Baptism of Christ,* dated 1493. In the 
year 1500 he completed the * Dead Christ, with the 
Virgin, and SS. Magdalene, Catharine, Monica, 
AppoUonia, and Barbara,* now in the Naples 
Museum. The Brera, Milan, and the Doria Gallery, 
Rome, both possess portraits of men by Mazzuola. 
His death occurred in 1505. Additional works by 
him are : 

Berlin. Museum. Virgin and Ohild between SS. 

Catharine and Chiara. 1502. 
„ BaezynsJd Coll, Bust of Christ. 1504. 

MAZZUOLA, Francesco, (Mazzola, Mazzuoli, 
Mazzoli, Parmigianino, &c.,) called II Parmigiano, 
was the son of Filippo Mazzuola, and was bom at 
Parma in 1504. His father dying when he was 
very young, he was brought up under his uncles, 
MicHELE and Pier Ilario Mazzuola, who taught 
him what they knew of the art, and curious tales 
are told of his precocity. Surrounded by the pro- 
ductions of Correggio, he studied them with 
attention and success. His earliest works were 
entirely in the style of that painter ; among them 
we may name a ' St. Bernardo * at the Osservanti at 
Parma, and the * Holy Family * in the collection of 
the Presidente Bertioli. The desire of seeing the 
works of Michelangelo and Raphael led him to 
Rome when he was twenty years of age, and there 
his talents recommended him to the notice of 

128 



Clement VII., for whom he painted a picture of 
the ' Circumcision * for the palace of the Vatican. 
He improved his taste by the help of Raphael, and 
his energy by that of Buonarroti. Vasari reports 
that it was said at Rome ^' that the soul of Raphael 
had passed into the person of Parmigiano.'* Maz- 
zuola was high in his patron's favour, and in the 
public esteem, when his career was interrupted by 
the sacking of Rome in 1527. This event obliged 
him to take refuge at Bologna, where he painted 
some altar-pieces for the churches, among which 
was the * Virgin and Infant Christ, with St. John^ 
St Margaret, and St Jerome,* in Santa Margherita, 
now in the Louvre. The church of San Petronio 
possesses a 'St Roch,* a noble and dignified 
performance. On his return to Parma he was 
engaged to decorate in fresco the vault of La 
Madonna della Steccata, where he painted 'Adam 
and Eve,* and his famous chiaroscuro of 'Moses 
breaking the Tables of the Law,* which is one of 
the chief productions of the school to which it 
belongs. Of his easel pictures one of the bast is 
the * Virgin and Infant, with St Catharine, St. 
John, and St Jerome,* in the Florentine Gallery, of 
which there are several repetitions. Another good 
picture by him, representing the * Virgin and Child, 
with Mary Magdalene and Angels,* called ' La 
Madonna del coUo lungo,* is now in the Pitti 
Gallery at Florence. Lastly we may name the 
* Vision of St Jerome,' in the^ National Gallery, as 
also among his finest work's. Parmigiano was 
unfortunately addicted to alchemy, and wasted his 
substance and health in the absurd pursuit of the 
philosopher*s stone. This fatal infatuation occa- 
sioned him to neglect, and at last to abandon, the 
important works he was engaged on at the Steccata, 
and having received several sums of money in 
advance, he was prosecuted by the confraternity. 
He fled to Casal Maggiore, where he died in 1540 of 
a fever, brought on by disappointment and chagrin, 
at the age of thirty-six. The following are the 
chief works of Parmigiano to which we can point : 

Baptism of Christ. 

Virgin, Ohild, and Saints. 

St. Margaret. 

Mary and Martha. 

Holy Familv. 

Virgin and Child adored by 

Saints. 
Virgin with the Child holding a 

Rose {Madonna dMa Bosa). 
Ganymede. 

La Madonna del oollo lungo. 
His own portrait. 
Holy Family of the Tribune. 
Marriage of St. Catharine. 
The Vision of St. Jerome. 
Holy Family. 
Apollo and Marsyasi 
The Annunciation, 
Holy Family. 
St. Sebastian. 
Lucretia. 

Holy Family, with St. John. 
Holy Family, with SS. Margaret, 

Benedict, and Jerome. 
) Frescoes — Moses, and Adam and 
j Bve. 
Baptism of Christ. 
St. Bernardino. 
Holy Family. 

Entry of Christ into Jerusalem. 
An Entombment 
The Virgin. 
St John the Baptist. 
St. Catharine. 



Berlin.- 
Bologna. 


Pinaeoteca. 


w 


n 


Brussels. 
Dresden. 


n 
Museum. 


ft 


99 


n 

Florence. 
>» 


Pitti Pal. 

Uffiti. 


n 

Genoa. 
London. . 
Madrid. 
Modena. 
Naples. 


n 
Museum. 

Nat. Gallery. 

Museum. 

Museum. 

Museum. 


n 


i» 


n 


»» 


Paris. 


M 

Louvre. 


99 


n 


Parma. Ch. de la 

Steccata. 

„ 8. Annunziata. 


»f 


n 


w 


ft 


♦t »t 
Petersburg. Hermitage. 

Bome. 


>• 


BorghtH. 



ICazzuola 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Kecliel 



Vienna. Belvedere, 



If 
» 



n 



Cupid mending his Bow. 

St. Catharine. 

Portrait of Malatesta Baglioni (?) 

Three male portraits. 

As an engraver Francesco Mazzuola has been 
erroneously supposed to have been the inventor of 
etching; but it was practised in Germany a con- 
siderable time before him, though he is considered 
as the first artist who wielded the point in Italy. 
This is rendered extremely probable, by the diffi- 
culty he appears to have laboured under in the 
mechanical part of the execution of some of his 
first prints. His plates are scratched in with tbe 
point, and being sometimes not well bitten, are 
coarsely retouched with the burin. From his in- 
experience in the proces^i, his earliest etchings are 
seldom clear or perfect, but some of those executed 
in the latter part of his life are better. These de- 
fects are, however, amply compensated by the 
tasteful arrangement of nis subjects, and the spirit 
and animation of his design. It is very difficult 
to meet with fine impressions of his prints, as the 
plates have been much retouched. We have a 
number of wood-cuts from his designs, printed in 
chiaroscuro, which have been incorrectly said to 
have been executed by himself ; but it is now well 
known that he only superintended their execution 
by Ugo da Carpi, Andrea Andreani, and others, 
including Antonio da Trento, who robbed him of 
his designs, which were eventually found by Count 
Antonio Maria Zanetti in the possession of the Earl 
of Arundel in London, and taken to Italy. He 
signed his works F. P., F. P. F, F. Farm., Ac, 
or with a monogram. We have the following 
etchings by Parmigiano : 

Moses and the Baming Bush ; supposed to ba^e been 

his first plate. 
Jndith witn the Head of Holofemes. 
Joseph and Potiphar's Wife. 
The Nativity. 

The Marriage of St. Catherine. 
The Holy Family, with St. John presenting a Basket 

of Flowers. 
The Holy Family, with Zacharias. 
Another Holy Family, with St. John embracing tbe 

Infant Jesus. 
The Eotombment, Guido has copied this print. 
The Resurrection, with several Soldiers. 
A Man and a Woman seated in a landscape. 
A Mother instructing her four Daughters. 
A Shepherd resting on his Crook. 
Diogenes seated near his Tub. There is a chiaroscuro 

cut of this by Uffo da Carpi. 
St. Peter and St. Paul healing the lame Man; after 

Baphad; fine. 
A set of thirteen plates of Christ and the Apostles. 

MAZZUOLA, GiROLAMO, whose real name was 
Bedolo, but who took. the name of his father-in- 
law, Pietro Ilario Mazzuoli, was bom at San 
Lazzaro, near Parma, in the first half of the 16th 
century. He studied under his cousin Parmigiano, 
and became an imitator of his style. Works by 
him are to be seen in the Galleries of Berlin, 
Dresden, Paris, and Parma. He was still living 
at Parma in 1666, but apparently died soon after- 
wards. His son Alessandro, who died in 1608, 
was a feeble imitator of his father. 

MAZZUOLI, Giuseppe, called II Bastaruolo, 
was bom at Ferrara about the year 1526, and was 
a fellow-student with Giovanni Francesco Surchi, 
in the school of Dosso Dossi. He acquired the 
name of 11 Bastamolo from the profession of his 
father, who was a dealer in grain. His pictures 

VOL. II. K 



were in such estimation, that there is scarcely a 
public building in his native city which does not 
possess some works of his. In the cathedral there 
IS a fine picture of the * Virgin and Child, with 
Angels*; in San Maurelio an * Ascension,' one of his 
best works ; in the Jesuits' Church, an 'Annuncia- 
tion,' and a ^Madonna, with Mary Magdalene and St. 
John ' ; but perhaps his best known performance 
is a ' St. Barbara and St Ursula,) with a number of 
female figures, in the Conservatorio of St. Barbara. 
Giuseppe (he has sometimes been erroneously 
called Filippo) was drowned in the Po in 1689. 

MEADOWS, Robert Mitchell, an English en- 
graver in the second half of the 18th century, 
who published some lectures on engraving. He 
worked for Boydell's 'Shakespeare Gallery,' and 
there are plates by him after Westall, Hamilton, 
Lawrence, &c. He was already dead in 1812. 

MECARINO, IL. See Beocafumi. 

MECHAU, Jakob Wilhelm, a German painter 
and engraver, was bora at Leipsic in 1746. He 
was for some time a pupil of Bernard Rode and Le 
Sueur, at Berlin, and afterwards frequented the 
Academy at Leipsic, where he studied under 
Casanova. In 1776 he went to Rome, and im- 
proved his style by studying the works of Claude 
de Lorrain and Philipp Hackert. On his return to 
his native city in 1780 he became a member of 
the Academy, and after a second visit to Rome 
in 1790 he settled at Dresden, where he died in 
1808. He painted history and landscapes, in which 
he acquired considerable reputation in Germany. 
The following are among his works : 

View of Castel Gandolfo. 

Landscape near the Tiber, with Cindnnatus. 

The Flight into Egypt, 

He is, however, more generally known as an en- 
graver. He etched several plates, some of which 
are from his own designs, and engraved a variety 
of views in Italy in aquatint. Among others, we 
have the following prints by him : 

St. Michael yanquishing the Demon; Jfechaufee. aqua 

forti. 
The Resurrection of Lazarus. Mechaufee. 1761. 
The Adoration of tbe Shepherds ; after C. Schut. 
A Dance of Nymphs and Fauns ; after Oiulio Carpioni. 
A set of six Italian Landscapes ; in the style of StoaTtevelL 

1792. 
A set of six Views in and near Rome. 1792, 179S. 

He signed his prints J. M. /., or M tnv. cu: de 
G. Sc (Meckau tnvenit ac De Geyser sculpsit), 

MECHEL, Christian von, was a native of Basle, 
in Switzerland, where he was bom in 1737. After 
studying under various German masters he visited 
Paris in 1767, and, eight years later, went to Italy, 
where he was received a member of the Academy 
at Florence. Subsequently he returned to his 
native country and settled at Basle, carrying op 
considerable business as a dealer in works of art. 
In 1806 he was elected a member of the Academy 
at Berlin, where he died in 1816. The following 
are among his best plates : 

portraits. 

The Emperor Joseph II. on horseback, reviewing his 

troops ; after J. U. Brand. 
Frederick ll. King of Prussia, on horseback; the 

companion. 
General Elliot, Lord Heathfield. 
Caspar Lavater. 
Michel Nostradamus. 
His own Portrait. 

129 



Mechelen 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Hedlna 



SUBJECTS. 

An old Man mending a Pen ; after Metsu. 
Cupid shooting an Arrow ; a/tgr Carlo van Loo. 
Four Views of the Rhine; after Brinkmann and 
fVeirotter, 

MECHELEN, Jan van, a Flemish painter who 
flourished in the 17th century. He was a pupil of 
Schoof. He was made master of the Guild at 
Antwerp in 1609, and he is named for the last 
time in 1627-8. 

MECHELN. The name of this artist is affixed 
to a portrait of Pope Urt>an VIII., dated 1623. 

MECHOPHANES, an ancient Greek painter, 
was a disciple of Pausias. His manner, we are 
told, was dry and hard, but this defect was in a 
great de^j^ree compensated by extreme correctness 
of defiign. 

MECKENEN, Israel von, (Mbcken; Meck, 
Mecheln, Meesteb, Mbkenick, Metro, Mentz, 
Van Mechelen, Db Malines, Mechliensis, De 
Mayence, MoQUNTins, De Munsier). There were 
two artists of this name, father and son, both of 
whom lived at Bocholt, where they had the right 
of citizenship. The father was probably born at 
Mecheln, a small village between Zutphen and 
Cleves, about 1440. He was a goldsmith and en- 
graver, while his son was a painter and engraver. 
In Bocholt is a tomb bearing the name of Israel, 
and the date March 13, 1603. This is generally 
assigned to the son, but Eramm mentions an en- 
graving bearing tlie date 1517. In tiio annals of 
the town of Bocholt there are records of Meckenen 
from 1482 to 1498, one of which speaks of Ida as 
the wife of Israel. As engravers father and son 
probably worked together. It has not been found 
practicable to distiuguish precisely the prints of 
the elder Meckenen from tliose of his son. M. 
Heineken estimates the number of their prints at 
about two hundred and fifty. They are usually 
signed with the initials I. M. or I. V. M. or Israkel 
V. M., or sometimes at length, Tsrahd van Mekenen 
Goldschmit, or IsroAel tzu BockhoU ; the letters in 
the Gothic character. The younger one seems to 
have been the painter. 

The British Museum possesses a very fine set of 
their engravings, which fills three volumes. The 
series known as the ' Life of the Virgin * is con- 
sidered their best work. There are also four 
drawings in the British Museum : 

A Group of six draped Female Firnres. 
A Man standiug with a Book in bis hand. 
An Entombment. 
A Holy Family. 

The following are among their most remarkable 
prints : 

The Portrait of Israel von Meckenen the elder, with 

a beard, and a kind of turban ; signed Israhel von 

Meckenen Goldschmit. 
The Portraits of Israel yon Meckenen the younger and 

his Wife ; inscribed Figuracio faeierum Jtrahelia et 

Ida Uxorisy I. V. M. 
A set of Prints of the Life of Christ. These, as well as 

the two following prints, are supposed to he some of the 

earliest icorks of the elder Mechetn. 
The Descent of the Holy Ghost. 
St. Luke painting the Virgin. 

Judith with the Head of Holofemes. In the back- 
ground is a battle, with cannons, and other warlike 

instruments. 
The Death of the Virgin. 
The Virgin standing upon a Crescent, crowned by 

Angels. 
The Annunciation ; the Angel holds a Scroll, on which 

i.H inscribed A FE. GRA, 

130 



The Virgin seated, in a landscape, embracing the Infant, 
and St. JoKeph reposing. On the right of the print 
is a Grasshopper, on which account it is called the 
* Virgin with the GraHshopper.' The same subject has 
been engraved by Albrecht Diirer, and copied from 
him by Marc Antonio. 

The Virgin and Infant surrounded by four Angels. 1 480. 

The Virgin seated, holding the Infant, with a garden- 
wall in the background, inscribed in Gothic letters, 
Ave pottssitna Maria. The same is engraved by 
Schongauer. 

The Feast of Herod ; Herodias with the Head of St. John. 

Herod's Cruoltv. 

Christ bearing His Cross. 

The Scourging of Christ. 

The Crucifixion ; Israhel, M. : with a light ground. 

The Crucifixion ; Israhel, V. M. ; with a dark ground. 

St. George and the Dragon ; I. V. M. 

St. Jerome seated in a room, pointing to a Skull which 
lies on the table. This is eonsiilered one of their best 
prints. It has been copied by Lucas van Lryden. 

St. Anthony tormented bv Devils. The same subject is 
engraved by Martin Schongauer. 

l%e Dea^ of Lucretia. 

A Man and a Woman walking, with Death behind a 
tree, shaking an hour-glass. This print has been 
copied by Albrecht D&rer and others. 

Several single Figures of male and female Saints. 

A Woman singing, and a Man playing on the Lute. 

A Man playing on the Organ. 

Three naked Women, with a Globe hanging above 
them. Albrecht D'urer and others have copied this 
print. 

A Man holding a Skull, inscribed Respicejinem. 

A Cup, richly omameuted. The same has been en- 
graved by Schongauer. 

A variety of goldsmith's ornaments, and a great number 
of other subjects. 

MEDA, GinsEPPB, a Milanese painter, who 
flourished at the end of the 16th century. He 
seems to have been a pupil of B. Campi, but he 
gained more reputation as an architect than as a 
painter. 

MEDICI, PiETRO, was born at Florence in 1686, 
and was a scholar of Lodovico Cardi, called Cigoli. 
By the instruction of that master, he became a 
reputable painter of history, and was the author of 
several altar-pieces for the churches at Florence. 
He died in 1648. 

MEDINA, Andres db, was a painter of Seville, 
and a disciple of Juan del Castillo. He etched 
several sacred subjects, amongst others, in 1663, 
the image of our Lady * de la Soterrana,' in" the 
church of St. Nicolas at Seville. Medina died in 
1663. 

MEDINA, John, portrait painter, bom in 1721. 
He was a grandson of Sir J. B. Medina, and prac- 
tised in Edinburgh and London. Copying and 
picture-cleaning occupied much of his time. He 
died at Edinburgh in 1796. 

MEDINA, Sir John Baptist, the son of Medina 
de TAsturias, a captain in the Spanish service, was 
bom at Brussels in 1660. He was a scholar of 
Francois Duchastel, and afterwards improved him- 
self by studying the works of Rubens. When he 
was twenty-six years of age he came to England, 
and for a time painted portraits with some slight 
success. He was invited to visit Scotland, under 
the patronage of the Earl of Leven, who procured 
him many commissions ; and he painted the por- 
traits of many of the S(;otch nobles. At Went- 
worth Castle there is a large picture of the first 
Duke of Argyll, with his two sons, John and Archi- 
bald. The portrait of Medina, by himself, was 
sent to the Grand Duke of Tuscany by the Duke of 
Gordon, and was placed in the Florentine Gallery. 
He occasionally painted history and landscapes, 



Kedina 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Mei 



ond the plates in a folio edition of * Paradise Lost * 
(1688) were designed by him. Medina was knighted 
by the Duke of Queensberry, when Lord High 
Commissioner. He died at Edinburgh in 1711. 
Some of his portraits have been engraved. 

MEDINA, MoiSE Cisimir, a portrait painter, 
was bopi at San Felipe in 1671, and died at 
Valencia in 1748. In early life he painted history, 
but without success. 

MEDINA Y VALBUBNA, Pkdro db, was a 
painter of Seville about 1620. He was a pupil of 
Juan del Castillo, and friend and fellow-pupil of 
Murillo, whom he assisted in forming the Academy 
of Seville, in which he afterwards filled various 
offices. He painted and gilded several retablos, 
and being dexterous in water-colours, he executed 
in 1673-4 many flags for the royal fleet of New 
Spain. The year of his death is unknown. 

MEDLAND, Thomas, an English engraver in 
the latter part of the 18th and the beginning of 
the 19th centuries. He was chiefly engaged on 
landscape and topography, and occasionally ex- 
hibited at the Royal Academy up to 1822. In his 
latter years he taught drawing at the East India 
College, Hertford. Of his works we may name : 

* Views in Camberland and TVestmoreland.' 1789. 
< Cities and Castles of England.' 1791. 

* Robinson Crusoe/ illustrated by Stothard. 1798. 
' Select Views in London and Westminster.' 1800. 
Barrow's ^^nbassy of Lord Macartney to China.' 

1804. 
Sir W. Cell's * Topography of Troy.' 1804. 

* Egyptian Monuments in the British Museum.' 1805. 

MEDLEY, Samuel, a painter, was bom at Liver- 
pool in 1769. He was a follower of Reynolds and 
Gainsborough. In 1811 he had to abandon art by 
medical advice. He died in 1857.' Some of his 
works were exhibited in the Royal Academy. He 
painted the picture representing the Medical Society 
of London in Session ; Dr. Lettsom speaking, and 
Jenner, the discoverer of vaccination, in the back- 
ground, which now hangs in the Society's Rooms 
in Chandos St., Cavendish Square. 

MEDOLLA. See Meldolla. 

MEE, (Mrs.) Anne, an English miniature painter, 
bom in the last half of the 18th century. She was 
the daughter of John Foldsone, a painter, who died 
young, and through an unfortunate marriage had 
to work to support her family. Her works appeared 
at the Academy from 1815 to 1836. She obtained 
a good practice, and had- many commissions from 
George IV. She died, very old, in 1851. 

MEEN, Mabgabet, an English flower painter in 
w^ater-colours in the second half of the 18th cen- 
tary. Her works appeared at the Academy from 
1776 to 1785. There is a flower-piece by her, 
dated 1806, at the South Kensington Museum. 
Her work shows considerable vigour and ability. 

MEEL, Jan. See Miel. 

MEELE, Matthiaus, a portrait painter, born 
at the Hague in 1664, was for some time in England, 
and practised under Sir Peter Lely. On his return 
to the Hague he was appointed one of the prin- 
cipals of the Academy, and died there in 1714. 

MEER, Van deb, (Meebb, Meibe, Meeben,) 
Babbnd, (Bbbnhabd,) Cathabina, Jacob, Jan * the 
elder* (of Haarlem), Johannes (of Utrecht), and 
N., see Van deb Meeb ; Jan (of Delft), see Veb 
Mbeb; Qebabd and Jan ' the younger' (of Ghent 
and of Haarlem), see Van deb Meibe. 

MEEREN. See Van deb Meeben. 

MEEHKERE, Dirk van, painter, was bom at 

K2 



Gouda in 1702. lie studied in Italy, and after- 
wards went to France, where he entered the service 
of the Bishop of Nantes. 
MEERSCH. See Van deb Meebsch. 
MEERT, PiETEB, (or Meebte,) was born at 
Bmssels in 1619, for we are told in the Gulden 
Cabinet of De Bie, that he was forty-two when 
that was published, in 1661. Mecrt haa a consider- 
able reputation as a portrait painter, imitating the 
style of Van Dyck. He died at Bmssels in 1669. 
In the Museum at Brussels there is a fine group 
of portraits by him. Others of his works are in 
the halls of the city guilds. A ' Sea Captain with 
his Wife sitting on the Seashore,' in the Berlin 
Museum, is perhaps the best of his known works. 
MEERTENS, Abbaham, (Meerte and Mebten,) 
a painter, bom at Middlebourg in'1757. He painted 
birds, flowers, and landscapes, and was one of the 
original founders of the Academy of his native 
town. He died in 1823. 

MEGAN, R. or P., a German landscape painter, 
who flourished at Vienna in the 16th century. The 
Belvedere possesses several landscapes by him. 

MEGEN, PiBTEB WiLHELM VAN, engraver, was 
bom at the Hague in 1750. He studied under 
Schoumann and Duboulnois, and in 1772 went to 
Paris, where he worked for two years under Le Bas 
and J. G. Wille. -He died in 1785. 
MEGLIO. See Copn. 

MEHEUX, Jacob, was a native of Holland, and 
flourished about the year 1680. He engraved some 
plates in mezzotint, among which is a copy of the 
print of the * Ratcatcher,' by Coraelis Visscher. 

MEHEUX, Fbancis, an English engraver, born 
at Dover in 1644. He practised in mezzotint as 
well as with the graver. 

MEHEUX, John, an English painter of the 18th 
century, after whom William Blake engraved 
* Clorinda ' and * Robin Hood.' 
MEHLEM. See Melem. 

MEHUS, LiBVEN, (or Meus,) was born at Oude- 
nardein 1630. The troubles which soon afterwards 
took place there obliged his family to leave Flan- 
ders, and they settled at Milan, where he received 
some instruction from the Flemish artist named 
Carlo, then i:e8ident in that city. At an early age 
he visited Florence, where he was placed under the 
tuition of Pietro da Cortona, who was at that time 
employed by the Grand Duke Ferdinand II. in 
the Palazzo Pitti. After a time he left Florence 
secretly, and entering the army of Christine of 
Savoy, he served three years as a soldier. On his 
retum to Florence he was again taken under the 
protection of the Duke, and, later on, was employed 
by the Marquis Gerini to ornament his palace, in 
conjunction with Ciro Ferri, who had been his 
fellow-student under Pietro da Cortona. Here he 
painted his ' Bacchus and Ariadne.' Although ho 
was more engaged on the palaces than the churches, 
he was chosen to paint the dome of La Pace, in 
which he acquitted himself with credit. He was 
afterwards employed in the Palazzo Pitti, where 
he painted a * Sacrifice of Abraham.' The auto- 
graph portrait of Mehus is in the collection of 
Painters in the Florentine Gallery. He died at 
Florence in 1691. 

MEI, Bebnabdino, was a native of Siena, and 
flourished from the year 1636 till 1676. It is not 
known under whom he studied, but the Padre della 
Valle, who had seen several of his works, says his 
style sometimes resembles that of the Carracci, and 
sometimes of Guercino. There are some of his 

131 



Meichoner 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Melar 



pictures in the churches at Siena. One of his hest 
performances is a ceiling in fresco, an * Aurora/ 
m the Ci^a Bandinelli. He died at Rome. 

MEICHONER, Johann Nkpomuck, was bom at 
Engen in Austria in 1739. He studied at the 
Academy at Vienna, and afterwards went to Ulm. 
He established himself as a portrait painter at 
Sollingen, where he died in 1815. 

MEIGEL, Christoph, was a German engraver, 
who resided at Nuremberg, where he engraved and 
published a folio volume of prints in 1730, repre- 
senting the follies of people of all professions. 

MEIGHAN, R., was an English engraver and 
bookseller, who flourished in the early part of 
the 17th century, and carried on business in St. 
Dunstan's Churchyard. 

MEIL, Johann Heinrich, brother of Johann 
Wilhelm Meil, was born at Gotha in 1729. After 
spending twenty years at Leipsic he removed to 
Berlin m 1774, and became a member of the 
Academy of Arts. He furnished designs for the 
fables o£ La Fontaine and Gellert, the poems of 
Biirger, &c. He died in 1803. 

MEIL, Johann Wilhelm, a German designer and 
engraver, was bom at Altenbourg in 1733. He 
first studied the sciences, but on visiting Berlin he 
conceived a strong preference for art, and zealously 
took to the practice of drawing and painting and 
the use of the graver. He was for the most 
part his own instructor, and engraved 667 vignettes 
and book ornaments, from his own designs, also 
numerous other plates, in a neat, spirited style, in 
which he appears to have been emulous of imitating 
the works of Delia Bella. He was highly esteemed 
in the theatre at Berlin for his knowledge of cos- 
tumes. The design ' A Sailor Drinking exists in 
a wood-cut by J. F. Unger. His works are signed 
with J, W, M.y J. W, M. inVy or a monogram. 
In 1791 he was rector, and in 1798 vice-director, of 
the Academy at Berlin. He died there in 1805. 
Amon^ a variety of other prints we have the 
f oUowmg by him : 

A set of eight small plates of Heads and Garicatores ; 

icaret. 
Four of Qaack-doctors and Ballad-aiiigers ; in the 

manner of Dietrich. 
A set of ten Vignettes for the Poem of ' Joseph,' by 

Bitanb^. 
Twelve Allegorical Yigoettes. 
Hercules playing on the Lyre. 
A set of four Landscapes, with fignres. 
Fifty-two subjects, entitled 'Spectaculum Natane et 

Artium * ; published at Berlin in 1765. 
The portraits of the most learned men and artists. 

1780. 

MEIRERPECK, M. Wolfgang, was a German 
draughtsman and engraver on wood, who flourished 
about the year 1660. In conjunction with G. Liberal 
he designed and executed the wood-cuts for the 
' Commentaries of Matthiolus on Dioscorides,' 
published at Venice in Latin in 1648, and in 
Germany in the Bohemian language in 1660. 

MEIS, B., is mentioned by Strutt as the etcher 
of a plate representing a poet writing. 

MEISSEN, Agnks von. See Agnes. 

MEISSONIER, Juste AurAle, painter, sculptor, 
architect, and goldsmith, was born at Turin in 
1675. He went to Paris, where he carried on his 
different professions, but it was chiefly as a gold- 
smith ana decorator that he gained his reputation. 
He died in Paris in 1750. 

MEISTER, Simon, bom at Coblenz in 1803, was 
a disciple of H. Vernet He established himself 

132 



at Cologne in 1833, and distinguished himself as a 
painter of battles, animals, and portraits, which 
are carried out with vigour, but with some loose- 
ness of hand. He died at Cologne in 1844. The 
Wallraf Reichartz Museum at Cologne contains by 
him: 

The Portrait of Sling li^lliam lY. of Prossiay as Grown 

Prince (lithoyrapked by J. B, H&tzer). 
lions Fighting. 

He generally signed with his full name, but also 
with a monogram. His brother Nicolas Meisteb 
.was also a painter, and assisted him in his work. 

MEITENS. See Mttkns. 

MEIXNER, LuDWio, was bom at Munich in 
1828, and instructed by Stange. He travelled in 
Sweden, and distinguished himself as a painter o£ 
sea and shore pieces, both in oil and water-colour. 
He died at Gniz in 1872. Among his best works 
are: 

Lake Constance with a cloudy sky. 

A Moonlight Night on the Swedish shore. 

Landscape with the Moon rising. 

Sketch on the Untersbeig. 

Yohring, near Munich. 

Sketch from the English Garden at Manioh. 

Venice. 

MEL, Giovanni da, was the son of Antonio 
Rosso, and was living at Cadore and Belluno in 
the 16th century. His earliest picture is dated 
1621 ; he was still at Belluno in 1648. The dates 
of his birth and death are both uncertain. Messrs. 
Crowe and Cavalcasselle assign to Giovanni the 
frescoes in the choir of San Lorenzo at Selva di 
Cadore, which are dated 1644. 

MELA, Antonio, was a native of Verona, bom 
in 1700. He was a pupil of Prunati, and with him 
painted several historical pictures. He also painted 
altar-pieces. He died in 1742. 

MELAN. See Mellan. 

MELANI, Giuseppe and Francesco, bom at 
Pisa about 1680. These brothers were natives of 
Pisa. Giuseppe, a scholar of Camillo Gabrielli, 
was a reputable painter of history, as is evident 
from his large picture in oil of the * Death of S. 
Ranieri,^ in the cathedral at Pisa. His chief merit 
is in fresco painting, in which he never appears to 
more advantage than when he paints the figures 
in the architectural views of his brother Francesco, 
which are modelled on the style of Pietro da 
Cortona. Francesco was esteemed one of the 
ablest painters of perspective of his time. The 
best-known performance of the brothers is the 
vault of San Matteo at Pisa. Francesco died in 
1742 ; Giuseppe in 1747. 

MELANO. See Jacobini, Giov. 

MELANTHTUS, (or Mklanthds.) a pupil of 
Pamphilus and Apelles, is said by Pliny to have 
painted in only four colours. He is also men- 
tioned by Plutarch and Quintilian. His school 
was frequented by numerous disciples, and ho 
wrote some treatises on art. 

MELANZIO was a local painter of Montefalco, 
and one of Perugino's pupils. Of his birth and 
death nothing is known. He was a fourth-rate 
artist, of whose paintings examples may be seen 
in the cathedral at Montefalco, and in the monas- 
tery of Subiaco. 

MELAR, Adrian, was a Flemish engraver, who 
resided at Antwerp about the year 1650. He 
attempted to imitate the style of Paul Pontius, 
but with very little success. We have several 
portraits by him, among which are Charles I. of 



Melbo^ 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



HeldoUa 



Spain, and Frederick III. of Denmark. He also 
engraved a plate representing * St. Michael over- 
coming the Evil Spirit/ after Rubens. 

MELBOGI. See Gossaebt. 

MELBYE, D. H. Anton, a Danish marine painter, 
bom at Copenhagen in 1818. He was originally a 
shipwright, then became a musician, and finally 
devoted himself to painting, studying under Eckers- 
berg at Diisseldorf. In 1840 he first exhibited three 
pictures at Charlottenburg, and gained the patron- 
age of Christian YI. He migrated in 1847 to 
Paris, where he attracted the notice of Louis 
Philippe, and in 1853 made his way to Constanti- 
nople, where he wan employed by the Sultan. 
Returning to France he gained tbe favour of 
Napoleon III., from whom ne received the Legion 
of Honour in 1854. He died in Paris in 1875. 
Among his works are : 



Copenhagen. 



n 



Stockholm. 



OaUtry. The Eddystone Lighthouse. 
1846. 
„ Sea-fight between Danes and 

Swedes in 1677 at Kjoga, 
1855. 
National ) The French Steamer * Le For^ 
GaUery,] fait' 1866. 



MELCHIOR, Heinbich Anton, son of Johann 
Peter Melchior the architect, studied first at the 
Academy of Munich, and afterwards went to 
Berlin, where he won the Academy prize with 
his allegory of the peace between France and 
Prussia. He died young in 1796. 

MELCHIOR, WiLHELM, bom at Nymphenburg 
in 1813. was an excellent painter of animals and 
of hunting parties. One of his best pictures 
represents a cat, which has crept up to a plate 
of fish, gripped by the head in the claws of a crab. 
Other pictures are in the new Pinacothek at 
Munich. Melchior died at Munich in 1860. His 
brother Josef, who was bom in 1810, had some 
repute as a painter of horses. 

MELCHIORI, Giovanni Paolo, was bom at 
Rome in 1664, and was brought up in the school 
of Carlo Maratti. He painted historical subjects, 
and was employed for some of the ]3ublic edifices 
at Rome. His most esteemed work is his picture 
of the nrophet Ezekiel, in the Lateran Church. 
He was living in 1718. 

MELCHIORI, Melchiob, an obscure painter of 
history, who was bom at Castelfranco in 1641. He 
worked at Venice and Castelfranco, and died in 
1686. 

MELDEMANN, Nicolaus, flourished at Nurem- 
berg in 1529-32, and was a card painter and wood 
engraver. 

MELDER, Gebard, was bom at Amsterdam in 
1693. He showed an early inclination for art, and 
when a boy neglected the usual amusements of 
his age to devote his time to drawing. He 
acquired some miniatures by Rosalba Carriera, 
and by copying and imitating them, he arrived 
at great proficiency in that branch of painting. 
His productions are landscapes (sea-coasts and 
mountains) in water-oolour and Indian ink. He 
also drew the portraits of many of the principal 
persons of his time, and was especially noted for 
his miniatures in enamel, both original and after 
Dou and Van der WerfE. He died at Utrecht in 
1764. 

MELDOLLA, Andbea, (or Medula,) called II 
ScHiAVONB, was bom at Sebenico, in Dalmatia, in 
1622. He painted portraits, history and historical 



genre, and decorative compositions, in a style 
which bears strong traces of the influence of 
Titian, Tintoretto, and Giorgione. It is said that 
by Titian Meldolla was rescued from obscurity, 
and put in a way to reach the success of his later 
years. He was a good colourist and a man of 
considerable imagination, but his works suffer 
from hasty composition and weak drawing. One 
of his best pictures is the ' Birth of Jupiter * in the 
possession of the Earl of Wemyss. Schiavone 
died in 1682. The following list includes the more 
accessible of his good works : 



BerUn. 



n 



Dresden. 




»» 


■ 


Florence. 


Ufiti. 


f» 


n 


» 
Munich. < 


OldPinacoduk, 


Paris. 


Louvre. 


Venice. 


Academia. 


n 


. » 


»t 


ft 


Vienna. 


» 

Belvedere. 


y* 


t> 


n 


n 


»> 


■> 


>» 


» 


n 


» 



The Parable of the Unrighteous 
Steward. 

The Parable of the Vineyard. 

Mountain Landscape. 

Forest Landscape. 

A Dead Christ, with an Aogel 
and St. Joseph of Arimathea. 

Madonna and Child, and St. 
John. 

Adoration of the Shepherda. 

Man's Portrait. 

Supper at Emmaos (?) 

Parnassus. 

St. John the Baptist. 

The Circumcision. 

Landscape. 

Christ before Pilate. 

A Holy Conversation. 

Holy Family, with St. John and 

St. Catherine. 
Adoration of the Shepherds. 
Christ before Caiaphas. 
Apollo and Daphne. 
Dentatus and the Samnites. 
Five Allegorical Compositions. 



MELDOLLA, Andbea, an Italian designer and 
engraver, who flourished between 1540 and 1650. 
There has been much discussion respecting his 
works, but very little has been accurately ascer- 
tained of his history. Until a recent period the 
etchings now allowed to be by him were attributed 
to Andrea Meldolla, called .Schiavone ; or to Fran- 
cesco Mazzuola (Parmigiano), because the greater 
number of them are evidently from pictures or 
drawings by that painter. Zani claims the honour 
of ma&g the (uscovery that Meldolla was a 
different artist from Schiavone or Parmigiano. 
He establishes the fact that Meldolla was the en- 
graver of the print of * Heliodorus driven from 
the Temple,* from a drawing by Parmigiano after 
the painting by Baphael. He had heard in the 
course of his researches respecting this master, 
that an impression was in the possession of Count 
Antonio Kemondini. which had the inscription 
Andrea Sclavonus Mddola fecit. To ascertain the 
fact he wrote to the Count, who replied, " It is 
true that I possess the cited print of * Heliodorus,* 
but without the Sdavofiua*^ Andrea's monogram 
or other signature is often so slightly put in that 
it is dif&cult to find. But sometimes the word 
' Meldolla * is very distinct, and in a few instances 
* Andrea' also. The following list, with details 
now omitted, was supplied by the late Messrs. 
Smith to a former edition of this work. Down 
to No. 87 it is arranged in the order of Bartsch. 
It is now generally believed that the plates on 
which Meldolla etched were of pewter, which will 
account for the scratches and corrosions that appear 
on the later impressions, and for the freouent 
alterations made in the treatment of the subject 
and the accessories. 

133 



MeldoUa 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Keleun 



(The figures in brackets give the number of states^ 
when more than ont^for euch plate,) 

1. Jacob's Ladder. 

2. Moses saved from the Nile (4). 

3. Qod appearing to Moses (3). 

4. Moses showing the Quails to the Israelites. First 
state, a pare etching before the monogram ; second, 
retouched all over. 

6. The Annunciation. 

6. The NativiJ^. 

7. The three Kings (2). 

8. The three Kings (2). 

9. The Flight into Egypt 

10. Presentation in the Temple (4). 

11. Presentation in the Temple. 

12. The Circumcision. 

13. The Circumcision (3). 

14. Jesus with the Woman on the Steps. 

15. Christ healing the Sick. 

16. Christ healing the Lepers. 

17. The Entombment (4), 

18. The Entombment (S). 

19. The Entombment (2). 

20. The miraculous Draught of Fishes (2). 

21. St. Peter and St. John curing the Lame Man (3). 

22. St. Paul preaching at Athens. 

23. The Pentecost, or the Descent of the Holy Ghost (2). 

24. The Saviour. 

25. St. Peter. 

26. St. Andrew. 

27. St. James the Great. 

28. St. John. 

29. St. Philip. 

80. St. Bartholomew. 

31. St. Matthew. 

32. St. Thomas. Two variations. 

33. St. James the Less. Profile. 

34. St. Simon. 

35. St. Judas Thaddeus. Full-face figure. 

36. St. Mathias. 

37. St. Paul. 

38. The Saviour (2). 

39. St. Peter. 

39.* St. Peter. A repetition of the preceding. 

40. St. Andrew. 

41. St. James the Great. 

42. St. John (8). 

43. St. Philip (3). 

44. St. Bartholomew. 

44.* St. Bartholomew ; the same in design as the pre- 
ceding, but reversai. 

45. St. Matthew (3). 

46. St. Thomas. 

46.* St. Thomas ; the same design as the preceding, bvt 
reversed. 

47. St. James the Less. 

48. St. Simon (2). 

49. St. Judas Thaddeus (2). 

50. An anonymous Saint, as described by Bartsch. 
60.* A Saint walking to the right, but having his head 

inclined towards the left. 

50.** Replica with variations of the last. 

61. The Saviour, a repetition of No. 38, but with varia- 
tions. 

52. St. Andrew, a repetition of No. 40, the reverse way. 

63. St. James the Great. 

64. A Madonna (2). 

65. The Christian Religion triumphant over Heresy (3). 

56. The Marriage of St. Catharine (2). 

57. The Virgin (2). 

58. The Virgin surrounded by several Saints. 

59. A similar design, but reversed (3). 

60. A similar subject to the last. 

61. The Holy Family (3). 

62. The Infant Jesus in the Cradle surrounded by 

Saints (2). 

63. The Infant Jesus and St. John embracing in the 
presence of several Saints (3). 

64. Difi'erent Saints present at the Homage paid by St. 

John to the Infant Jesus (2). 

65. Saints adoring the Infant Jesus in His Cradle (2). 

66. The Present of Flowers. 

67. Heliodorus driven from the Temple; after Ra- 
phael (2). 

134 



68. Bellona. A back figure turned towards the right. 

69. Diana. 

70. The Coronation of Pegasus. 

71. Mercury (2). 

72. Hercules, Deianira, and Nessus. 

73. Mars and Cupid. 

74. Ganymede and Hebe (2). 

75. Venus after Bathing. 



76. Bellona (2) ; agnadj^ 



77. Bellona (2). 

78. Mars. 

79. Minerva and the Muses. 

80. The Judgment of Paris (4). 

81. The Rape of Helen (6) ; signei Andbea Meldolla 
In-Vkntob. 

82. Virtue victorious over Vice. 

83. A Prophet; full length. 

84. A Woman carrying a Vase (2). 

85. The same print as described No. 74. 

86. A Woman accompanied by a Child. 

87. A Woman writing. 

88. Eleazar at the Well. 

89. The Adoration of the Shepherds. 

90. The Adoration of the Kings, a grand composition of 
sixteen figures. 

91. The Holy Family. 

92. Marriage of St. Cathwine. 

93. The Holy Family. 

94. Christ and His Disciples; signed with the monogram 



W. 



95. Christ healing the Lepers. 

96. Boy bending a Bow. 

97. Mars. 

98. Return of the Prodigal Son (3) ; second state with 

the monogram Aj , ; third, with monogram 

altered, thus : j/ft^ 

99. Mercury (2). 

100. Apollo and Daphne. 

101. Apollo and Daphne (2). 

102. Judith. 

103. Judith (3). 

104. St. James the Great (?). 

105. St. Paul. 

106. Nymphs Bathing (2). 

107. Cupid, a whole-length figure walking. 

108. Bellona, whole-length figure looking towards the 

right. 

109. Bellona; the same design as the preceding, but 
reversed. 

110. Virgin and Child with St. John. 

111. Apollo and Python. 

112. Diana. 

113. Bellona, in profile, walking towards the left. 

114. Female Figure walkiug. 

115. Five Figures, in the centre a young woman. 

116. Faith ; signed with the monogram /^^\ 

117. Quos Ego. Neptune appeasing the storm ; copy of 
the centre compartment qf the celebrated prtnt by 
Marc Antonio. 

118. St. Christopher. 

119. Woman pouring Water from a Vase. (British 

Museum) 

MELEAGER. See Mommers. 

MELEM, JoHANN VON, (or Mehlkm,) painted in 
Cologne during the first half of the 16th century. 
It has been supposed that he was a native of the 
village of Mehlem, near Bonn, and, from an in- 
scription on his autograph portrait in the Munich 
Gallery, that his birth took place in the year 1493. 
He was a pupil of Jan van Scorel. His only 
authentic work is the portrait above alluded to. 

MELEUN, Comte db, was a French amateur 
engraver, mentioned by Basan. He lived about 
the year 1760, and etched several small plates 
I after Berchem, Callot, and other masters. 



Melgarejo 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Helluel 



MELGAREJO, Fray Gbromimo, an Augustine 
friar and painter of Granada, who flouriahed about 
the middle of the 17th century, left in his convent 
two pictures of which Gean Bermudez praises the 
composition. The first represents four monks of 
the order and sundry ecclesiastics, carrying the 
bones of their patron saint in solemn procession. 

MSlINGUE, Etienne Marin, bom at Caen in 
1808, was an actor, sculptor, and painter. He died 
at Veulles in Calvados in 1875. 

MELINI, Carlo Dombnico, (or Melliki,) was 
an Italian engraver, bom at Turin about the year 
1745, but chiefly resident in Paris, where he became 
a pupil of Beauvarlet. We have several plates by 
him, among which are the following : 

Portrait of the King of Sardinia. 

The Children of the Prince of Turenne ; after Droumi. 

La belle Soorce ; after NaUitr. 

The Rdacation of Cupid ; after LagrewU, 

Morning, a landscape ; after LauXMrhowrg* 

MELISSI, Agostino, was a native of Florence, 
and flourished about the year 1675. According to 
Baldinucci he was much employed by the Grand 
Duke in painting cartoons for tapestry, from the 
designs of Andrea del Sarto. He also painted 
several pictures of his own composition ; among 
which the above-mentioned author commends his 
* Peter denying Christ,' in the Palazzo Gaburri. 

MELLAN, Claude, ^or Melan,) an eminent 
French draughtsman ana engraver, bom at Abbe- 
ville about 1601. His disposition for art discover- 
ing itself at an early age, he was sent to Paris, 
where he studied under Simon Vouet An inclina- 
tion for engraving induced him to attempt the 
management of the burin, which he soon handled 
with extraordinary facility. He executed several 
plates from the busts and statues in the Giustiniani 
Collection. The greater part of his work at Rome 
is in the usual manner, with the strokes crosfled a 
second and a third time, as the strength of the 
shadows require. After his return to Paris he 
adopted a novel and singular method of working, 
with single parallel lines, without any cross strokes 
over them, variety of light and shade being rendered 
by variations in the thickness of the lines. By 
this method he acquired considerable celebrity, 
but his permanent success is, of course, to be attri- 
buted to the dexterity w^ith which he handled his 
tools, rather than to the peculiarity of his process. 
His ' Rebekah,* after Tintoretto, is full of colour ; 
it is evidently engraved from the work of a great 
colourist ; yet it is only in some of the accessories 
that cross lines are introduced. Mellan lived to 
the advanced age of ninety, and died in Paris in 
1668. The following are his best prints : 

PORTRAITS. 

Urban YIU. ; after Bemiiti, 1631. 

Cardinal Bentiyoglio. 

The Marquis Gioitiniani. 

Anne of Anstria, Queen of France. 

Henxj, Duke of Montmorency. 

^e Cardinal, Dake de Kichelieu. 

The Cardinal de Mazariu. 

Francig de Tillemont^, Binhop of St. Malo. 1661. 

Peter Segnier, Chancellor of France. 

Nicolas Caeffeteaa, Bishop of Marseilles; after Du 

Mouttier. 
The Cardinal du Perron ; after Herbin, 
Victor le Bonthillier, Archbishop of Tours. 1658. 
Kicohis Claude Fabri de Peiresc ; one of his' finest 

portraits. 
Charles de Crequis Lesdigneres, Marshal of France. 

1633. 



Pietro Gassendi, Professor of Mathematics. 
Louisa Maria de Gonzaga, Queen of Poland. 1645. 
His own Portrait. 1635. 

SUBJECTS FROM HIS OWN DESIGNS. 

Lot and his Daughters. Borne, 1629. 

Samson and Delilah. 

Moses and the Burning Bosh. 1663. 

The Miracle of the Manua. 

The Annunciation; inscribed Eece Virgo eoneipiei, 

1666. 
The Virgin, with the Infant Jjbsus on her knee. 1669. 
The Holy Family. Rome. 1635. 
Christ praying in the Garden ; a night-piece ; fine. 
Christ seized by the Soldiers ; inscribed Fater, iynosct 

illis, ^c, 
St. John, with Magdalene embracing the Cross. Rome. 
The Cruci6xion, with the Yirgin, Magdalene, and St. 

John. 

The Entombment, with an insoriptiou, Terra mata est. 
The Resurrection ; inscribed Per tte resurgens, 1683. 
The Sudarium of St. Veronica ; executed by a single 

spiral line, begim at the extremity of the nose, and 

continued unbroken, but with variations in ita 

thickness over the Whole face and background. 
St. Peter Nolasqoe, supported by two Angels. One 

of the finest and rarest of Mellan's prints. 
Four large plates from the life of St. Bruno. 
St. Bruno praying in the Desert. 
St. Francis praying. 1638 ; very fine. 
Several other Ssints in acts of Devotion. 
Mary Magdalene expiring, snppotted by Angels. 

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS. 

Herodias with the Head of St. John ; after S. Vouet, 

Roman Charity ; after the same. 

The Death of Lucretia ; after the same. 

St. Catherine kneeling, with an Angel presenting the 

palm of martyrdom ; after the same. 
Rebekah meeting the Servant of Abraham ; after Tin- 

toretto; considered his finest plate. 

His plates from the Giustiniani Collection are 322 
in number. They were published in two folio 
volumes at Rome in 1640. Mellan also executed 
a number of plates from antique marbles in the 
French royal palaces. Mellan signed his works 
G, M, 0, {Galltu) ; CL Mell. ; Ma. p. et sc ; Md. 
9cul, Eomae, &c., or a monogram. 

MELL IN, Charles, (Meslin,) painter of Lor- 
raine, was a pupil of Vouet, ana afterwards went 
to Rome, where he spent the greater part of his 
life. He was called Lorenese. He painted his- 
torical and mytliological works, and flourished 
between 1636 and 1693. 

MELLING, Anton Ignaz, bom at Carlsruhe in 
1763, was instructed in art by his uncle, Joseph 
Melling, at Strasburg, and afterwards visited Italy, 
Egypt, and Smyrna. On his return in 1803 he 
became landscape painter to the Empress Josephine, 
and subsequently painter to Louis XVIII., and a 
member of the Legion of Honour. He died in 
Paril in 1831. Among his published works are : 

* Voyage pittoresque dans les Pyr6n^ fran9alses.' 
' Voyage pittoresque de Constantinople et des Rives du 
Bosphore.' 

In conjunction with his daughter, Madame Ad^lb 
Clerget, who was also an artist, he produced an 
* Entry of Louis XIII. into Paris,' and a * Dis- 
tribution of the Colours to the National Guards.' 

MELLING, Joseph, studied in Paris under Van- 
loo, and afterwards went to Strasburg. In 1777 
he became court painter at Carlsruhe, where he 
died at the end of the century. 

MELLISH, Thomas, an English marine painter, 
who practised about the middle of the 18th century. 

MELLUEL. See Malwkl. 

135 



Melone 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP 



Hemline 



MELONE, Altobbllo, a distinguished contem- 
porary of Boccaccino, was living at Cremona in 
the beginning of the 16th century. He painted 
seven frescoes from the lives of Christ and the 
Virgin in the cathedral of Cremona in 1517. The 
organ shutters at San Michele, in the same town, 
which represent the Virgin and Qabriel, and SS. 
Anthony and Paul the Hermit, are by this artist. 
He was also a portrait painter, and examples of 
his work may be found in the public galleries of 
Stuttgart, Bergamo, Naples, Venice, and Milan. 
The National Gallery possesses an excellent though 
somewhat bizarre picture of * Christ and the Two 
Disciples going to Emmaus' by him. Panni, in 
his account of the pictures in Cremona, describes 
apicture in the cathedral divided into two subjects, 
* The Slaughter of the Innocents ' and *The Flight 
into Egypt,' which was signed Altobellus de Me- 
lonibus F. MDXVII. Vasari, too, in his life of 
Garofalo, mentions Melone as superior to most of 
the Lombard painters of his time. He is praised 
also by Baldinucci, Zaist, and Grasselli. 

MELONI, Antonio, a native of Mantua, who 
went to Rome in 1656 and worked in the school 
of Trevisani. He painted historical subjects, and 
died about 1700. 

MELONI, Francesco Antonio, an Italian painter 
and engraver, was bom at Bologna in 1676. He 
was instructed by P. A. Padema, J. Monti, and 
Marc Antonio Franceschini ; but not succeeding to 
his wishes as a painter, he etched some plates after 
the designs of Franceschini, which encouraged 
him to devote himself entirely to engraving. He 
died at Vienna in 1713. His works are signed 
F.AM, dd, et inv,<, F.A.M.F., &c. Among others 
we have the following by him : 

The Adoration of the Shepherds ; aftfr C. dgnam. 
Aurora ; from a ceiliiig painted at I«orli ; iy the tame, 
Diana and Endymion ; t^fter Franceschini, 

MELONI, Maboo, of Carpi, is the author of a 
'Madonna with SS. John the Baptist, Bernard, 
Francis, and Jerome^' dated 1504, m the Gallery 
of Modena. 

MELONI, PiBTRO Antonio, bom at Imola in 
1761, was a pupil of Dardane and Gottarelli. He 
painted historical subjects, and was on the house- 
hold of Pope Pius VI. He founded an Academy 
at Ancona, and died in 1836. 

MELOTIUS, M. DR. See Palmbzzano. 

MELOZZO DA FORLI. See Dbqli Ambrgsi. 

MELZER, JoHANN GoTFLiEB, was bom in 
Prussia about 1680, and after remaining some 
time in his own country he went to Hamburg, 
where he distinguished himself as a portrait 
painter, and where he died about 1730. 

MELZI, Francesco, II Conte, the pupil and 
friend of Leonardo da Vinci, was bom at Milan 
about 1491. He was of noble birth, and practised 
the art of painting as a delightful employment 
rather than as a profession. No really authentic 
work by him has come down to us, but many are 
ascribed to him in various galleries and private 
collections. The 'Vertumnus and Pomona' at 
Berlin has more to be said for it, perhaps, than 
any other, although ' Lermolieff ' will not accept 
it as a Melzi. Melzi followed Leonardo to France, 
and attended him at his death, and succeeded to 
the whole of his drawings, instruments, books, 
and manuscripts. He furnished Vasari and Lo- 
mazzo with notes on Leonardo's life, and it is to 
him that posterity is indebted for the preservation 

136 



of the valuable collection of the master's writings. 
He died in 1568. 

MEMLINC. Hans, was bom about 1430—1440, 
perhaps at Memling, near Aschaffenberg, in Ger- 
many, or at Memelynck, in Holland. He was 
probably settled at Bruges in 1471, certainly in 
1478. In May 1480 he was in possession of 
house property in the street now called Sint Joaris 
Straet. In the town accounts of 1480 he appears 
among the 247 burgesses who advanced money 
towards the carrying on of the war between the 
Emperor and the King of France. Memlinc was 
married ; his wife's Christian name was Anne, 
and she bore him three children, two boys and a 
girl, John, Nicolas, and * Nielkin,' which may have 
been short for Cornelia. Anne was already dead 
on the 10th September, 1487, and Hans followed 
her, as Mr. Weale has ascertained from the 
orphan registers of the town, between the 1st 
June, 1492, and the 10th December, 1495. Vasari 
says Memlinc was the scholar of Roger van der 
Weyden, and in the collection of pictures in the 
possession of Margaret of Austria, once at Mechlin, 
there was a triptych of which the centre was by 
Roger and the wings by Hans. The names of 
two of Memlinc *s pupils have been ascertained : 
Hannekin Verhanneman, son of Nicolas, and Pas- 
scier van der Meersch, son of Passcier. The roman- . 
tic tale first told by Descamps, which narrates how 
Memlinc fought as a soldier in the battle of Nancy, 
and retumed grievously wounded to Bruges, to be 
nursed by the sisters oi the Hospital of St. John, 
finds too little support before the year in which 
Descamps wrote (1713) to be accepted now. Mr. - 
Weale, however, found in a MS. of the 17th century i 
a statement to the effect that Memlinc painted one 
of his pictures for the Hospital out of gratitude for 
the services rendered to him by its members. For 
harmonious frankness of colour and purity of ex- 
pression, Memlinc must be put at the head of the 
old Flemish painters. The following list of his 
works is divided into two classes, the first con- 
taining all those of which authenticity is undoubted, 
in their approximate chronological order : 

CLASS I. 

France. Chantilly, Diptych ('Gracifixion ' and 'Joan 

of France at a Prayer-deak ' ). 
1460 (?). 

Triptych. ' 1471 (?). 
) Large Altar-piece. (Triptych.) 
) 1479. 

The Light of the World (called 
in catalogue ' The eeven Joys 
of the Virgin '). 1480. 
Bruges. Hospital, Small triptych with donor (J. 

Floreina). 
BruBsels. Oallery, Portraits of William Moreel and 

of hia Wife, Barbara Vlaen- 
derb ich. 1480. 
Bruges. BospiUU, Portrait of their daughter Mary 

(called the ' Sibyl Sambetba '). 
1480. 

Large Altar-piece from the 
church of St. Jamea. 1484. 

Diptych for Martin Nieuwen- 
hove. 1487. 

Portrait of a Man prayiog. 
1487. 

Chasae of St Ursula. 1489. 
(3fuek injured and repainted,) 

Virgin and Child. 

A 'light of the World.* (Simi- 
lar to that at Munich.) 

Triptych painted for Adrian 
Beins. 



England Chieteidc Haute. 
Bruges. Hospital of St, 

John. 
Munich. Old Pinacothek, 



» 


Academy. 


>» 


Hospital, 


Florence. 


Uffizi, 


Bruges. 


Hospital, 


London. 
Turin. 


Nat, Gallery. 
Gallery. 


Bruges. 


Hotpital, 



Memmi 



Paris. 



PAINTERS AND ENGfiAVERa 



Henendea 



LouvT$. Virgin Enthroned. 

{The dates of these last four 
are uncertain.) 



CLASS II. 



Antwerp. Museum, 

>t n 



9i 



Dantzig. 


Ckurchofihe\ 
Virytn. } 


Florence. 
London. 


Ufflzi. 
Ifat. Gallery. 


Lubeck. 


Cathedral. 



Madrid. 



Museum, 



Mnnich. Old Pinacothek. 



Portrait of an old Monk. 

Portrait of a member of the De 
Oroy family. 

Diptych ('Virgin,* and a por- 
trait of Chretien de Hondt). 

The Last Judgment. 1467 (?). 
{The doubts as to Memlinc's 
authorship which some uriters 
have cast on this picture do 
not seem to be toell founded.) 

Vir^n Enthroned. (Triptych.) 

St. John the Baptist and St. 
Lawrence. (The doubts ex- 
pressed as to these two panels 
seem to be ill founded.) 

The Crucifixion; a triptych. 
(l%e largest production of the 
Khool, out only partly from 
the hand of Menuinc.) 

Triptych (* Adoration of the 
Magi/ 'Presentation in the 
Temple,' and the * Nativity '). 
(Much iTtjuredf and parts only 
by Memlinc's own hajtd.) 

St. John the Baptist. (Signed 
H. V. D. Goes, 1472, but the 
signature is a forgery.) 

[See * Early Flemish Painters,* by Crowe and 
Cavalcaselle (p. 261, ed. of 1879); and *Hans 
Memling,' by W. H. James Weale (Arundel Society, 
1865).l W.A. 

MEMMI. See Mabtini. 

MENA, Felipe Qil dr, was a Spanish painter, 
born at Valladolid in 1600. He studied under 
Vanderhamen at Madrid, and was himself a teacher. 
At his death, in 1 674, he left a large collection of 
prints and models, valued at 3000 ducats. His 
most curious work, representing an * Auto-da-F6 at 
Valladolid,* was painted for the Inquisition. His 
portraits of the painter Diaz and his wife resemble 
I'antoja in style. In 1444 he painted a series on 
the life of St. Francis for the convent of that saint, 
and some of the pictures are now in the Museum 
at Valladolid. 

MENABUOI, GiusTO Di Giovanni de', called 
Padovano, or Justus of Padua, was bom at 
Florence in the earlier half of the 14th century. 
He was a follower of Giotto, and studied the 
works which that master had executed in Padua, 
of which city Giusto was made a citizen in 1375. 
He is supposed to have executed several frescoes 
in Padua, but those in ^e baptistery of the 
cathedral, and in the chapel of St. Luke, in the 
church of Sant' Antonio, which were formerly 
ascribed to him, are now declared to be the work 
of two unimportant painters, who were probably 
his pupils — Giovanni and Antonio da Padova. The 
on]y authesticated picture by him is a small trip- 
tych in the National Gallery ; it represents in the 
centre, the * Coronation of the Virgin,* with various 
saints. On the interior sides of the wings are the 
•Birth* and 'Crucifixion of our Lord,* and the 
' Annunciation.' On the exterior wings are various 
scenes in the life of the Virgin before her marriage. 
The picture, which was formerly in the Wallerstein 
Collection^ and was presented to the National 
Gallery by the Queen, is signed on the back ' Justus 
pinxit in arch^* and dated in the front mccclxvii. 
Giusto died in the year 1400. 

MENAGEOT, FRANgois Guillaume, (or Mesna- 
GBOT,) an historical painter, was bom of French 



parents m London in 1744. He worked succes- 
siyely under Augustin, Deshayes, Boucher, and 
Vien. He distinguished himself by his classic 
compositions, and became in 1780 a member, and 
in 1781 one of the professors of the Academy, and 
in 1787 director of the French School at Rome. 
After having spent eight years at Vicenza he 
returned to France in 1809, and became a member 
of the Institute, dying in Paris in 1816. Among 
the best of his works are ; 

Nebuchadnezzar ordering Zedekiah's sons to be put to 
death. '^ 

The Death of Leonardo da Vinci. 

Industry stopping the flight of Time. (Louvre.) 

Mars and Venus. (St. Petersburg.) 

Polyxenus taking leave of Hecuba. 

Astyanax torn from the arms of his Mother. 

Cleopatra at the Tomb of Marc Antony. 

Diana and Venus. 

Dagobert giving orders for the construction of the 
Church of St. Denis. 

MENAGEOT, Robkbt, an engraver, was born 
in Paris in 1748. He was for some time a pupil 
of Boucher, and at first practised painting, but he 
afterwards devoted himself entirely to engraving. 
We have several plates by him, executed in the 
dotted manner, some of which were engraved for 
Boydell during a residence in London. Among 
others we have the following prints by him ; 

Friendship ; a circular print ; after Correggio. 
Innocence ; the companion ; Menaaeotfectt. 
The Virgin and Infant, with St. Ehzabeth ; after Guido, 
An African Woman; after Loutherbourg. 

MENANT, P., a French engraver, flourished in 
Paris about the year 1716. In conjunction with 
Raymond, Fonbonne, Scotin, and others, he exe- 
cuted part of the plates of the * Views of the 
Palace and Gardens at Versailles.* 

MENAROLA, Christoporo, an Italian painter, 
who flourished at Vicenza in 1727. He was a 
pupil of Volpato, and painted historical subjects. 
In the churches of Vicenza several of his pictures 
are to be seen. 

MENAROLA, Crestano, was a painter of Bas- 
sano, who produced gigantic figures in the style 
of Michelangelo, and composed in the manner of 
Paolo Veronese. He died in 1640. 

MENDEZ, DB Haro Sotomayor Guzman Ber- 
nardo Inca, a native of Cordoba, is mentioned by 
Bermudez as working in 1790 in pen-and-ink. 

MENDEZ, Juan, was a Spanish engraver who 
flourished at Seville, and in 1627 executed an 
architectural frontispiece, with Ionic columns and 
several figures, designed by one Juan de Herrera 
for Rodrigo Caro's edition of the 'Apocryphal 
Chronicle * of Flavins Lucius Dexter. 

MENDOZA, Esteban Hurtado de, a Spanish 
painter who lived at Seville in 1630. He painted 
religious subjects, and his pictures are to be found 
in the principal buildings of Seville. He was a 
Knight of the Order of St. James of Campostello. 

MENEGHINO (or Menichino). See Ambrogi. 

MENENDEZ, Anna, daughter and pupil of 
Francisco Menendez, was bom at Naples in 1714. 
She painted miniatures and scenes from 'Don 
Quixote.' In 1759 she was made a fellow of the 
Academy. Her sister Clara, a portrait painter, 
was born at Naples in 1712, and died at Madrid in 
1734. 

MENENDEZ, FRANasco Ani-onig, was bom at 
Oviedo in 1682, and at an early age joined his 
hrother Miguel at Madrid. He proceeded to Italy 

137 



Menendez 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Hengs 



in 1699, visiting Genoa, Milan, Venice, Rome, and 
Naples. On his return in 1717 he devoted himself 
to miniature painting, achieving great success 
in portraits oi the royal family. In 1726 he 
addressed a memorial to the king on the scheme 
for estahlishing an Academy or Art, but died 
before the realization of his hopes by the crea- 
tion of the Academy of St. Ferdinand in 1752. 
A votive picture of a * Storm * by Menendez adorns 
the high altar of our Lady of Atocha. 

MENENDEZ, Jos:^ Aqostino, son of Francisco 
Menendez, was born at Madrid, 1724. He resided 
at Cadiz, and practised miniature painting. - 

MENENDEZ, Lqis, also a son of Francisco 
Menendez, was born at Naples in 1716, and studied 
painting under his father, and afterwards at Rome. 
At Naples he presented two pictures to King 
Charles, who appointed him painter-in-ordinary. 
Returning to Madrid, he was employed by Ferdi- 
nand VI. to illuminate the choir books of the 
royal chapel. In 1773 he painted a * Holy Family,* 
in miniature, for the portable oratory of the Prin- 
cess of the Asturias. Although he painted several 
large devotional pictures, his favourite subjects 
were of a lower genre. As many as forty-four 
of his less ambitious works used to hang in the 
king's apartments at Aranjuez. Many good speci- 
mens are in the Royal and National Museums at 
Madrid, and in the latter collection is a portrait of 
himself, painted in a smooth and agreeable manner. 
He died at Madrid in 1780. In nearly all his 
pictures we find a dish of large Andalusian olives. 

MENENDEZ, Miguel Jacinto, was bom at 
Oviedo in 1679, and studied painting at Madrid. 
He was appointed painter to Philip V. in 1712. 
Amongst his principal pictures were two for the 
cloister of the Shod Carmelites, a * Magdalene' in 
the Recolete convent, and an ' Apostle * in the 
church of San Gil. His sketches for two com- 
positions for the church of San Felipe Real were 
afterwards made use of by his friend Andres de la 
Calleja. A drawing by Menendez representing St. 
Isidore in pontifical robes, on horseback, slaying 
Moors, was tolerably engraved by Juan Bernabl 
Palomino. 

MENESE8, OsoBio Francisco, bom at Seville 
in 1630, was a pupil of Murillo^s. He was 
president of the Seville Academy, for which he 

Sainted a * Conception.' In the church of St. 
[artin, at Madrid, is an ^Elijah.' He died at 
Seville in 1705. 

MENGELBURG, Eqidius, painter, was bom at 
Cologne in 1770. In 1783 he studied at the 
Academy of Diisseldorf , returning to Cologne in 
1787. From 1790 to 1800 he was engaged in 

Saintin^ portraits and copying pictures m the 
^Usseldoit Gallery. From 1800 to 1806 he resided 
at Elberfeld, and returned to Cologne in 1821, 
where he died in 1848. 

MBNGAZZINO. See Santi, Domenioo. 

MENGOZZI-COLONNA, Girolamo, was bom at 
Ferrara in 1688. He studied under A. Ferrari, and 
resided chiefly at Venice, where he painted in 
churches and palaces. He died in 1772. 

MENGS, Ana. See Carmona. 

MENGS^ Anton Rafael, was bom at Aussig, in 
Bohemia, m 1728. His father, Ismael Mengs, in- 
structed him. in the first rudiments of drawing, and 
having removed to Dresden whilst his son was 
young, young Mengs had an opportunity of im- 
proving himself, by studying the works of the 
best masters in that celebrated Gallery. When he 

138 



was thirteen years of age his father took him to 
Rome, in 1741, where he was employed in copying, 
in miniature, some of the works of Raphael, for 
Augustus HI., Elector of Saxony and King of 
Poland, which were sent to Dresden, and much 
admired. Mengs remained three years at Rome, 
where he studied under Marco Benefial and Seb. 
Conca, and on his return to Saxony was appointed 
one of tlie painters to the King-Elector,with a salary, 
and was permitted by his royal patron to visit Rome 
a second time, where he resided four years, and 
exhibited a large picture of the * Holy Family ' 
of his own composition, which gained him great 
reputation. He married at Rome (his bride being 
a oeautif ul peasant girl, Margaretha Quazzi, who 
had sat to him as a model), and was desirous of 
fixing his residence in that capital, but his father 
would not permit him to indulge his inclination, 
and he was compelled to return to Saxony, where 
he arrived in 1749. He remained three years at 
Dresden, where the tyranny of his father rendered 
his situation so distressing, that he found his 
health and spirits impaired, and he requested and 
received the king's permission to return to Rome. 
He was soon afterwards reduced to very embar- 
rassed circumstances, by the discontinuance of his 
salar}% which was stopped from the embarrassment 
of the king's finances occasioned by the war. He 
was working in Rome, at very low prices, when he 
was employed by the Duke of Northumberland to 

Eaint a copy of the celebrated * School of Athens/ 
y Raphael. In 1754 he undertook the direction 
of the newly-established Art Academy in the 
Capitol. In 1787 he was engaged to paint the 
ceiling of the church of St. Eusebius, and soon 
afterwards he executed his fresco of * Mount Par- 
nassus,' in the Villa Albani, which has been finely 
engraved by Rafael Morghen. In an excursion he 
made to Naples, to execute a commission for the 
Elector of Saxony, he became known to the king, 
afterwards Charles III. of Spain, who, on his suc- 
cession to the throne, invited Mengs to Madrid, 
with the offer of a very considerable appointment 
This proposal was not refused, and he arrived at 
the Spanish court in 1761. His first undertaking 
was the ceiling of the king's antechamber, repre- 
senting the Graces; and afterwards that of the 
queen's apartment, where he painted one of his 
most celeorated works, the ' Aurora,' a grand and 
beautiful composition. He was elected a member 
of the Academy of Madrid. The climate of Spain 
not agreeing with his constitution, he was per- 
mitted by the king to return to Rome, for the 
re-establishment of his health. On his arrival he 
was employed by Clement XIV. in the Vatican, 
where he painted two pictures in the Camera de* 
Papini. Mengs remained three years at Rome, 
and on his return to Madrid in 1773 was re- 
ceived with great kindness by his royal protector. 
It was soon after his return that he undertook the 
ceiling of the great saloon in the palace, on which 
he pamted the * Apotheosis of Trajan.* The fresco 
paintings of Mengs are greatly superior to his 
pictures in oil. Of the latter, perhaps the best 
18 his picture of tlie * Nativity,' in the royal col- 
lection of Spain. Mengs died at Rome in 1779. 
The following are some of his chief pictures : 



Berlin. 

»» 
Dresden. 



»> 



Museum. Portrait of Ismael Mengs. 
„ Holy Family. 

^^j^ } Aflromption of the Virgin. 

OuUery. The Angd appearing. 



Kengs 
Dresden. 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Mercey 



>9 



*» 



»> 



»» 



n 



»» 



w 



n 



ft 



n 



M 



M 



M 



n 



Gallery, Penitent Magdalen. 

Portrait of Maria Antonia, wife 
of Frederick Ghrifltian, Elec- 
tor of Saxony. 
Magdalen ; miniature. 
Holy Family ; miniature. {From 
the original by Raphael in the 
Naples Gallery.) 
„ Madonna della Sedia; minia- 

ture ; after Raphael. 
„ August III., King of Poland ; 

miniature. 
C^ki, His own Portrait. (Replicas are 
at Afunichy St. Petersburg, and 
Madrid.) 
Madrid. Gallery. Adoration of the Shepherds. 

Munich. Pinakothek. Portrait of a Capuchin Friar. 
Petersburg. Hermitage. Annunciation. 

St. John preaching in the "Wil- 

derness. 
The Descent of the Holy Spirit. 
Apotheosis of a Poetess. 
Perseus and Andromeda. 
„ „ Judgment of Paris. 

Borne. fllla Albani. Apollo and the Muses. 
Vienna. Belvedere. The Angel appearing to St. 

Joseph. 
„ „ Madonna and Ohild. 

Annunciation. 
St. Peter. 

Portrait of Infanta Maria The- 
resa of Naples. 
Portrait of the Grand Daehess 
Maria Ludovica of Tuscany. 

MENGS, ISMAEL, a miniature painter, and father 
of Rafael Mengs, bom at Copenhagen in 1690. He 
was the pupil of an En^i^liflh painter called Cooper. 
He was painter to the King of Poland and director 
of the Dresden Academy, where he died in 1764. 

MENGS, Julia, sister of Anton Rafael Mengs, 
was a miniature painter, and died in 1789. 

MENGS. THERiteE. See Mabon. 

MENUEERE, Cornelis Laurensz, a Dutch 
marine painter, lived at the beginning of the 
18th century. He resided at Flushing, and the 
greater part of his pictures are views of that city 
taken from the sea-coast. 

MENICO, Sand, or Ansano di. See Sang di 

PiBTRO. 

MENINI, Lorenzo, an historical painter, was 
bom at Bologna about 1600. He was a pupil of 
Oessi, whom he accompanied to Naples. 

MBNJAUD, Alexandre, a French historical and 
portrait painter, bom in Paris in 1768. He worked 
under Regnault, and having obtained the Prix 
de Rome in 1802, proceeded to Italy to complete his 
studies. His works obtained medals at the Salons 
of 1806 and 1819. He died in Paris in 1832. 
Among his pictures we may name : 

The Death-bed of Louis YI. 1817. {St. Denis.) 

The Miner punished. 

The Death of Abb6 Edgeworth. 1817. {Bordeaux 

Museum.) 
The Death of the Duke of Berri. 

MENKEN, Johann Heinrich, was bom at Bre- 
men in 1764. He studied under Klengel and 
Casanova at Dresden. He painted cattle-pieces, 
landscapes, forest scenes, &c. in the style of 
Ruisdael, Berchem, Potter, and Wouwerman, and 
engraved among others : 

A Landscape with a MUl, and Cattle in the water. 
A Forest with Cottages and Cattle. 
The plates for ' Reinecke Fuchs.' 

He died in 1837. Gottfried Menken, his son and 
pupil, bom in 1799, was also a painter. 

MENSAERT, G. P., a Flemish historical painter 
who resided at Bmssels, where he executed, in 



company with several other artists, a * Life of 
the Virgin ' for the church of the Jesuits. He 
died in 1760. 

MENSCHEL, Alotshts, portrait painter, was 
born at Rumburg, in Bohemia, in 1782, and studied 
at the Dresden Academy from 1801 to 1807. In 
style he was an imitator of the early Gennan 
school. He was also employed as a picture-restorer. 
We can find no record of his death. 

MENSING, Jan, painter, was bom at Haarlem 
in 1686. He was a pupil of Van der Vinne the 
elder, and was enrolled in the registers of St. 
Luke in 1705. He died in 1741. 

MENTON, Frans, was born at Alkmaar in 1550, 
and was a disciple of Frans Fioris. He painted 
historical subjects and portraits. He also etched 
four spirited plates for tne * History of Lot,* which 
are now very rare. He died at Alkmaar in 1615. 
His chefdceuvre is an 'Assumption' in the Jesuits' 
Church at Antwerp. 

MENZEL, Jorann Georg, (Mentzrl,) an en< 
graver, was bom at Leipsic in 1675. He engraved 
several portraits, among which were Philip, Duke 
of Orleans, and Anna, Empress of Russia. He 
died in 1730. 

MERA, Josef de, a Spanish painter, bom at Villa 
Meava de la Serena. He was a pupil of Bamab6 
d'Ayala. His best pictures are at the Carmelite 
convent at Seville. He died at Seville in 1734. 

MERA, Pibtbr, a Dutch historical painter who 
resided at Venice, where he painted several pictures 
for the churches. He died in 1580. 

MERANO, Francesco, called II Paggio, was 
born at Genoa in 1619. He began life as a page, 
but took to art, and was a pupil of Fiasella, called 
Sarzana, whose style he followed. He died of the 
plague in 1657. 

MERANO, Giovanni Battista, was bora at 
Genoa in 1632. He was a scholar of Valerio Cas- 
tello, and by the recommendation of liis master 
studied with attention the works of Correggio, at 
Parma, where he was employed by the Duke and 
by many private patrons. One of his best per- 
formances is the * Murder of the Innocents,' in the 
Jesuits' church at Genoa. He died in 1700 (or 1698). 

MERC ATI, Giovanni Battista, a Florentine 
painter and engraver, was bom at Citta San Sepol- 
cro, and flourished at Rome from 1616 to 1637. 
He was an imitator, if not a scholar, of Pietro da 
Cortona, and painted history in the style of that 
master. In tlie church of Santa Chiara, in his 
native city, he painted two subjects from the life 
of the Virgin ; and in San Lorenzo, an altar-piece 
which resembles the style of the Carracci. We 
have several spirited etchings by this artist, some 
of which are from his own designs ; they are 
variously signed G.M.^ G.M I.F., S.B.M.L, G.M. 
del. Jo. BaU, intien. et F., J,BM.fecity Ac. The 
following are the principal : 

A set of fifty-two plates of Ruins and Views in Italy ; 

engraved m the manner of Sylvestre ; Gio. Bat. 

Mercati fee. 
Four Antique Figures, from the arch of Constantine ; 

engraved in the style of Qalestruzzi ; circular ; Gio. 

Bat. 3fercati. 
The Marriage of St. Catharine ; after Correggio. 
St. Bibiana refusing to sacrifice to false Gods ; after 

Pietro da Cortona. 

MERCEY, Frederic Bourgeon de, a French 
landscape painter, bom in Paris about 1806. From 
1829 to 1837 he made many tours in Scotland, 
Italy, Switzerland, the Tyrol, Germany, &c., which 
fumished subjects for the pictures he exhibited at 

139 



Mercier 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Merian 



the Salon, where he first appeared in 1831. He 
subsequently held high office in the Department of 
Fine Arts, in connection with which he superin- 
tended the erection of the building for the Paris 
Exhibition of 1855. He died in Paris in 1860. 
Amongst the works which he published are : 

* Etudes sar les Beaux Arts/ 3 voIa. 1855. 

*Le Toscaae et le Midi de Iltalie/ 2 vols. 1858. 

MERCIER, Philip, was born of French parents 
at BerUn in 1689, and was brought up in the 
Academy there. After visiting France and Italy 
he went to Hanover, where he painted the portrait 
of Prince Frederick, son of George II., which he 
brought with him to England. When the Pruice 
came over Mercier was appointed his painter, be- 
came a favourite, and was taken into his household, 
when by the prince's order he drew several of the 
royal family, particularly the three eldest prin- 
cesses, his work being reproduced in mezzotint by 
J. Simon. After some years he lost the favour of 
the Prince of Wales, and was dismissed from his 
service. He afterwards lived in Govent Garden, 
painting portraits and pictures of domestic subjects 
in the style of Watteau, in whose manner he has 
left an etching of himself, with his wife and two 
children. Still later he spent some time at York, 
and then in Portugal and Ireland. He died in 176C. 
A portrait of Peg Woffington by him is at the 
Garrick Club, and he has also left one of Queen 
Anne. His daughter Coarlotte, who was also a 
painter and engraver, died in 1762. 

MERCK, JoHANN Chrisix)ph, a painter of Hall, 
in Wurtemberg, who flourished in the 18th century. 
He painted several pictures for King Frederick 
William, as also his portrait and those of the two 
Dukes Philipp and Ludwig on horseback. He 
died at Potsdam early in the present century. 

MERCOLI, Jakob, an engraver, was born at 
Mugena in 1745. He worked chiefly in Italy, 
and died in 1825. His son Michelangelo, bom 
in 1773, who was also a painter, died in 1802. 

MERCURIUS. See Rocs, Phil. Pet. 

MERCURY, PAUt^ a French engraver, was bom 
at Rome in 1808, died in Paris in 1886. He was 
often premiated at the salon, and, in 1847, was 
appointed professor of engraving at the French 
Academy in Rome. He occasionally exhibited a 
picture at the Salon. His best known plates are : 

Lady Jane Gray ; afUr Pavi Delaroche. 
St. Am^lie ; a^ier tht same. 
Madame de Maintenon ; after Puiiot. 
La Pia ; an ortaijuU suhfect, 

* Tasso ' and * Christopher OolumbuB ' ;for the * Galleries 

hifltoriques de Versailles.' 
Reapers in the Pontine Marshes ; after Leopold Robert. 
Madonna ; after Raphael. 
A Series of Oostomes from the XIII., XIY., and XY. 

centuries. 1828. 

MARECINUS, p. See Merica. 

MERELLE, P., a portrait painter, who worked 
in Paris from 1660 to 1710. Several of his works 
were engraved. 

MERIAN, Dorothea Maria Henrietta, daugh- 
ter of Maria Sibylla Merian, was born in 1678. She 
followed in the steps of her mother, and painted 
insects. She married the painter Xeils, who lived 
at St. Petersburg. She retained through life the 
name of Merian, though her real maiden name was 
Graff. She died in 1745. Her sister, Johanna 
Maria Helena, was born at Frankfort in 1668. 
She also painted flowers and insects. She married 
a merchant named Herold, who was in business at 
Surinam. The date of her death is unknown. 

140 



MERIAN, Gaspar, was a native of Germany. 
He engraved a set of plates representing the 
* Ceremonies at the Election of the Emperor 
Leopold,' published at Frankfort in 1660. 

MERIAN, Jan MatthaCs, was the son of 
Matthaiis Merian the younger. He was a minia- 
ture painter, and died at Frankfort in 1716. 

MERIAN, Maria Sibylla, the daughter of 
Matthaiis Merian the elder, was born at Frankfort 
in 1647. Siie lost her father when she was only 
four years of age, but her mother having some 
time afterwards married Jacob Marel, a fruit and 
flower painter, he encouraged the disposition she 
discovered for drawing, and taught her the first 
rudiments of the art. Her father-in-law placed her 
uhder the care of Abraham Mignon, who had been 
his scholar, and who excelled in paintinginsects ; and 
it was not long before she arrived at a perfection 
little short of her instructor. She usually painted 
in water-colours, on vellum. In 1665 she married 
Joliann Andreas Graff, an artist of Nuremberg, who 
had been a scholar of Marel and settled in that 
city. She died in 1717. The British Museum 
possesses two volumes of her drawings. 

MERIAN, MatthaOs, the elder, an eminent 
draughtsman and engraver, was born at Basle in 
1593. Having discovered an early disposition for 
art he was sent to Zurich, and placed under the 
tuition of Dietrich Meyer, a glass painter and en- 
graver, with whom he studied four years. On 
leaving that master he was employed to make an 
etching of the frieze representing the ^ Entry of 
the Duke of Lorraine into Nancy,' which he exe- 
cuted in twelve plates. From Zurich he visited 
Paris and Stuttgart. He also passed a short time 
in the Netherlands, and subsequently married the 
daughter of Theodor de Bry, an engraver at Oppen- 
heim. He then worked at Basle until 1624, and 
etched a considerable number of landscapes, battles, 
and hunts ; in the same year he returned to Frank- 
fort, and engraved topographical plates of Heidel- 
berg, Stuttgart, Schwalbach, &c., which he afterwards 
Eublished at Frankfort, and which are the best of 
is works. They are etched from his own designs, 
in a slight free style, and finished with the graver, 
and give a perfect idea of the places they repre- 
sent, though without much taste in the execution. 
He has the credit of having been the master o£ 
Hollaf. Merian died at Schwalbach in 1650. 
Among the important works which he illustrated 
were, the Bible, Gottfried's *Chronik,' Zeillere 
'Topographia' (1640-88), and *Theatrum Euro- 
paBum.' The following are his principal prints, 
which are sometimes marked with M Moi one of 

these ciphers, jj^ or J^, 

portraits. 

David Parens, Prof. Academia Heidelberg, 

Daniel Senertas ; oval. 

Arnold AVeickerdus, Med. Doo. 1626. 

• SUBJECTS. . 

A set of plates from Sacred History. 

The Last Supper, inscribed, Aecepit Jesus partem; a 

large plate. 
A large plate of the Picture of Hamau life ; inscribed. 

Tabula Metis, continens totius vita humana descrip- 

tionem. 
A set of seven Views in France. 
Six Views in Germany. 
Sixteen Views in Germany and Switzerland. 
Twelve Views of Gardens, &c. 
Twenty-four Picturesque Landscapes, with figures. 



ICeriaxi 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERa 



H^ryon 



MERIAN, MATTHAtJs, the younger, the eon of 
Mattha&s the elder, was born at Basle in 1621. 
At the age of fourteen he came to Frankfort, 
where he learnt the principles of painting from 
Joachim von Sandrart, whom he accompanied 
to Amsterdam in 1637 and to England in 1640. 
In the latter country ho followed the style of Van 
Dyck, and after having travelled in the Nether- 
lands, he went to Paris and Rome, and studied 
there, under Sacchi*s direction, after the works of 
the old masters. He painted history and portraits, 
and in the latter line he was employed by the most 
distinguished personages in Germany. After the 
death of his father in 1650 he continued his busi- 
ness as a printseller at Frankfort, and engraved 
several plates for the * Theatrum Europaeum.' He 
died at Frankfort in 1687. Bartholomaus and 
Philipp Kiliaii, M. Eiissel, and several others have 
engraved after his works. His son Caspar was 
bom in 1627. He was an engraver and assisted 
his father. Among the best works of Matthaiis 
we may name : 

Bamberg. CMhedrai. Martyrdom of St. Lawienoe. 
Bade. Toten Library. The Besttrrection. 

M Herr Burkhardh. Artemisia. 

His best portraits are those of : 

His Father. 

His sister Maria ISbylla. 

The Electors of Brandenburg, Mentz, and the Palatinate. 

The Count Serini. 

A Family Picture. (Basle.) 1641. 

MERICA, Petrus A., generally called Mkrecinus, 
(MiRiCBNiJS, Mijricinis, &c.,) was a Flemish en- 
graver, a native of Merica (perhaps Meereyck or 
Meeryck), and flourished about 1560-70. He en- 
graved several eccentric and strange compositions, 
after Jerome Bosch, Brueghel, and others. There is 
also a portrait of Albrecht Diirer at the age of 
fifty-six, copied by him from a larger print. He 

marked his plates with the cipher f^^* The 

name appears on several prints published by Jerome 
Cock ; one has the date 1567, and is signed Pet. 
Merecinu$ sc. This artist is said to be the same 
as Pieter Martini, a printseller of Antwerp. Among 
other plates there are by him : 

A Bird's-eye View of Antwerp in four plates. 

The Twelve Apostles ; after M. de Vo$. 

The Seven Mortal Sins ; after P. Brueghel. 

A P^ar sleeping, surrounded by sportive Monkeys 

{his beat plate). 
Master Hans, the Quack ; after P. Brueghel, 
The Two Blind Men ; after J. Boseh, 
The Adoration of the Shepherds. 

MERIGI (or Merighi). See Amerigi. 

MERIM^E, Jean FRANgois LfeONORE, a French 
painter, was bom in 1765. He was a pupil of 
Vincent. He went to Rome, and on his return 
was appointed secretary of the Ecole des Beaux 
Arts. He painted portraits and historical subjects, 
among which were the portrait of Poussin and the 
' Resurrection * of Hippolytus^ He died in Paris in 
1836. 

MERKEL, Conrad, (Merklin,) was a German 
historical, portrait, and still-life painter, born at 
XJlm. He was a contemporary and friend of 
Albrecht Diirer. He died in 1518 or 1526. 

MERKURIEFF, Ivan, a Russian painter, was 
sent by Peter the Great to Italy, where he made 
copies of the works of the best masters, and then 
returned to St Petersburg, where he painted for 
the churches. He died at Moscow about 1710. 



MERLE, HuGUES, was a French genre painter, 
bom at le^res in 1823. His best known produc- 
tion is 'The Beggar-woman.* He died in 1881. 

MERLEN, Abraham von, an engraver who 
worked in the Netherlands in 1620. 

MERLEN, JoHANN VAN. This artist, conjointly 
with Theodor VAN Merlen, who was probably 
his brother, engraved a few plates after Mai tin de 
Vos and others abont the year 1600. 

MERSION, Madeleine de, author of a ' Landscape 
with Cattle/" engraved in the ' Berghem ' style of 
Danckerts : it has no date. 

MERTENS, Jan, a Flemish painter who resided 
at Antwerp in the 15th century. He was a pupil 
of Jan de Mabuse, and was inscribed as master in 
the registers of St. Luke in 1505. 

MERTENS, Jan Cornelis, portrait painter, was 
bom at Amsterdam in 1745. He was a pupil of 
Quinkhard. He died in 1821. 

MERTER, Hans Michel, a German landscape 
painter. He was a pupil of J. Dorner, but died 
still young in 1790. 

MERYON, Charles, sailor, engraver, and etcher, 
was bom in Paris in 1821. His father, Charles 
Lewis Meryon, was an English physician, and his 
mother, Pierre Narcisse Chaspouz, a dancer at the 
opera. At five he went to school at Passy, and 
afterwards was taken by his mother to the south 
of France. In 1837 he entered the naval school at 
Brest, and two years later went to sea. While in 
the navy he had an opportunity of accumulating 
materials for use in the new profession which he 
finally adopted in 1846. In that year he settled 
in Paris, and became the pupil for a time of a 
painter named Phelippes, who was employed at 
the Minist^re de Gudrre. It was while he was 
struggling to paint a large historical picture on 
the strength of the hints given to him by Phelippes, 
that he was discovered to be suffering from the 
affection of the eyes known as Dtiltonism, which 
made him quite unfit to be a painter. He then 
entered the atelier of M. E. B14ry, the engravefj 
with whom he stayed six months, and after that 
began the series of etchings from the streets of Paris 
with which his name will always remain associated. 
In 1856 he went to Belgium on the invitation of 
the Due d* Aremberg, of whose chdteau at Enghien 
he made some drawings, but returned to Paris 
early in 1858, the mental disease by which he had 
long been threatened having then greatly de- 
veloped itself. Two months later he was placed 
in the asylum at Charenton, the certificate declaring 
him to be '* suffering from melancholy madness, 
aggravated by delusions." Here his health im- 
proved, and at the end of 1859 he left the asylum. 
For seven years he worked on, leading a curiously 
fitful life with the few whom he called his friends ; 
but in 1866 his malady increased, and a second 
confinement became necessary. Meryon died at 
Charenton at the beginning of 1868, and was 
buried in the cemetery of the asylum. The 
following is a complete list of his etchings : 

1. La Sainte Face. (His first attempt.) 

2. The Cow and the Ass. 

8. A Soldier ; after Salvator Bosa. 

4. A Shepherd ; iifler Stefano delta Bella. 

5. Sheep and Flies ; after Karel du Jardin. 

6. Three Pigs ; after the same. 

7. Two Horses ; afier the same. 

8. Parillon de Mademoiselle ; after Zeeman. (Louvre. ) 

9. Entrance to Faubourg St. Marceauz ; after the same. 

10. Water-mill near St. Denis ; after the same. 

11 . The Seine at the Angle de Mail ; after the same. 

12. Galliot of Jan Van Vy\ ; after the same^ reversed. 

141 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Ittesquida 



13. Amsterdam-Haarlem boat ; after Z^tman^ reversed, 

14. South-sea Fishermen ; after the same, reversed, 

15. Calais to Flushing ; after the same, reversed, 

16. Entrance to the Gapucin Convent, Athens. 

17. The Salle des Pas Perdiis. 

18. Chenonceau. (In ' Flnventaire des meubles, ^., d 
Chejionceau^ hy Frince Auyutte Galitzin, 1856.) 

19. The Pont Neuf. 

20. The Pont-au-Change about 1784 ; after Nicolle. 

21. The Battle of Sinope ; after a drawiiuf by an English 
naval officer. 

22. View of San Francisco. 

23. Ruins of the Chateau de Pierrefonds ; after a sketch 
by Viollet le Dwc. 

24. Kue Pirouette-aux-Halles ; after a drawing hy one 
Monsieur Laurence. 

25. Presentation to Louis XI. of ' Valere Maxime/ a 
book printed in Paris in 1475 ; after an old miniature 
belonging to the late M. Niel. 

26. Apse of St. Martin-sur-Benelle ; after a dramtig hy 
Poly des Langlois, 

27. Passerelle du Pont-au-Change (after the fire of 1621). 

28. Part of the Qiti, Paris. 

29. Le Grand Chiltelet ; after an old drawing, 

30. The old Louvre ; after Zeetnan. 

31. The Title to his ' Etchings of Paris.' 

32. Portrait of Zeemau. 

33. The old Gateway to the Palais de Justice ; frontis- 
piece to the Pans etchings. 

34. * Qu*ume pure rougisse.' 

35. Symbolical arms of Paris. 

36. * Fluctuat nee mergitur ; ' the ship of Paris. 

37. Le Stryge. 

38. Jj& Petit Pont. 

39. LArche du Pout Notre-Dame. 1850. 

40. La Galerie de Notre-Dame. 

41. La Kiie des Mauvais-Gar^ons. 

42. La Tour de THorloge. 

43. Tower in the Kue de la Tixurauderie, demolished 
in 1851. 

44. Saiut-£tienne-du-Mont. 

45. La ponipe Notre-Dame. 

46. La petite pompe . 

47. Le Pout Neuf. 

48. Le Pout-au-Change. 

49. L'Esp^rance. 

0. La Morgue. 

1. L'h6tellerie de la Mort. ( Verses.) 

2. L'abside de Notre-Dame. 

53. Le Tombeau de Moliere. 

54. * Estampes ancionnes, Rochoux, Qua! de Thorloge, 
No. 19.' {Book-plate.) 

55. Tourelle, Rue de ri!x;ole do MMecine. 

56. Rue de Chantres, Paris. 

57. Carved Doorway to an old House at Boarges. 

58. Rue des Toiles, Bourges. 

59. Old House at Bourges. 

60. The Tongan Pilot. 

61. An Akaroan Fungus. 

62. Head of a New Holland Dog. 

63. New Zealand ; native huts at Akaroa. 

64. New Caledouia ; native barrack. 

65. Natives of Uvea fishing. 
QQ. Fishing in a Creek, Akaroa. 

67. Title-page to ' Etchings of New Zealand.' 

68. Akaroa. 

69. In the Mulgrave Islands. 

70. * Petit Prince Dito.' 

71. ' A Mon.sieur Eugene B16ry.' 

72. * La Loi Lunaire.' 

73. A second plate of the same subject. 

74. * La Loi Solaire.' 

„Q \ Trials for engraving in relief. 

Ig > Rebuses. 

79. Design for a Frame. 

80. Frontispiece for a Catalogue of the works of Thomas 
de Tjcu. 

81. View of the old Louvre ; after Zeeman. 

82. La Miuistcre de la Marine. 

83. College Henri IV. 

84. Bathing-shed on the Seine. 

85. Portrait of ELimself, before his Easel. 
142 



86. Portrait of M. Decourtive. 

87. Portrait of M. Eugene Blery ; after Buttera. 

88. Portrait of M. Casimir Lecomte. 

89. Portrait of Evariste Boulay-Paty; after David 
d^ Angers. 

90. Portrait of Francois Vi^te ; after an old frontis^ 
piece. 

91. Portrait of Pierre Nivelle, Bishop of Lacon ; after 
an old engraving, 

92. Portrait of T. Agrippa d'Aubign6; after a litho- 
graphic reproduction of a portrait preserved at Geneva, 

93. Portrait of Jean Besley ; after L (? J.) I sac. 

94. Portrait of Ken6 de Burdigale ; after Crispin de Pas, 

95. Portrait of Armand Gu^raud. 

96. Louis Jacques Marie Bizeul. 

97. Benjamin Fillon. 

(The last three from photographs. The numbers are those 
of M. Burty*s List.) Yi.k. 

MERZ, Caspar Heinrich, an engraver, was bom 
at St Galle in Switzerland in 1806. In 1821 he 
entered the studio of Jacob Lips in Zurich, and in 
1825 the Munich Academy. In 1829 he became 
the pupil of Amsler, who was professor of en- 
graving in the Academy, and to tliis time belongs 
his fine engraving of the Madonna^ after the altar- 
piece in the church of All Saints m Munich. He 
died from a fall on the Kaiser mountain in 1875. 
His cartoon engravings are picturesque. His chief 
plates are : 

The Destruction of Jerusalem. 
The Portrait of Amsler ; after Kaulbach. 
The Mad-house ; after the same. 
Egmont and Clara ; after the sarne. 1835. 
The Night ; after Cornelius. 1838. 
The Last Judgment ; after the same. 
The Nativity and Crucifixion ; after the same. 
The Destruction of Troy ; after the same 
Five plates, the Life of a Witch ; after Genelli. 
Ten plates, the Life of an Artist ; afier the same. 
Schultheiss Wengi ; after Bosshardt, 
The Bepentant Smner, or the Joy of the Angels ; after 
Gwtav Kdm'g, 

MERZ, Jakob, a Swiss painter, designer, and 
engraver, was bom at Buch (Zurich) in 1783. 
Among his paintings may be mentioned a portrait 
of J. J. L. Billwiller, and, among his engravings, a 
* Cupid in the Chariot of Victory,' after Doineni- 
chino. J. J. L. Billwiller has engraved after him. 
Merz died in 1807. 

MESA, Alonso de, according to Palomino, was 
born at Madrid in 1628, and was a scholar of 
Alonso Cano. He painted several historical works 
for the public edifices in that capitiil, among them 
a series of pictures of the life of St. Francis, in 
the cloister of the Franciscans. He died at Madrid 
in 1668. 

MESA, Juan de, was a Spanish painter, who 
resided at Madrid at the commencement of the 
17th century. He painted for the college of the 
Jesuits de Alcald de Henares a series of pictures 
illustrative of the *Life of St. Ignatius Loyola' 
by Father Ribadeneyra, which were engraved in 
Flanders. 

MESLIN, Charles, called Lb Lorrain, was a 
French landscape and historical painter and en- 
graver. He was a pupil of Vouet, but spent most 
of his time in Italy. lie died in 1650. 

MESMER. See Mussmer. 

MESNIL, Elias du, (Mi^nil,) a French engraver, 
was bom at Troyes in 1726. He was a pupil of 
Fessard, and engraved several plates after Mieris, 
Karel de Moor, and other Dutch masters. 

MESQUIDA, GuiLLEUMO, the son of a merchant 
of Minorca, was born at Palma about 1676, and 
studied at Rome under Carlo Maratti. So close 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Hetsa 



was his imitation that his works were often con- 
founded with his master's. At Venice he studied 
under an animal painter of local reputation. He 
went to Brussels, where he married, and met with 
Bome success. On his return to Italy he worked 
extensively at Bologna and Rome. In the latter 
city he became the master of Rosalba Salvioni. 
He died at Palma in 1747. Cean Bermudez praises 
his colouring. There are several paintings by him 
in the cathedral, in Sant' Eulalia, and in San Jaime, 
in his native town, where he spent the latter part 
of his life, and died in 1747. 

MESSA, Alonso db. See Meba. 

MESSINA, Ant. da, See Antonio, Anto- 

NELLO D*. 

MESSINA, Onofbio da. See Gabbiello. 

MESSINA, Pino da, was living in the 16th 
century, and is said to have been a pupil of 
Antonello da Messina. It is recorded of this artist 
that he painted a panel of St. Sebastian (now lost) 
for the church of San Giuhano, Venice. 

MESSINA, Salvo da, was, according to Hakert, 
in his *• Memorie de* Pittori Messinesi,* the nephew 
of Antonello da Messina, and flourished about the 
year 1511. He is said by that author to have 
been a successful follower of the style of Raphael ; 
and he mentions with distinction a picture by him, 
in the sacristy of the cathedral at Messina, repre- 
senting the ' Death of the Virgin.' 

MESSINESE, II. See Avellino, Giulio d\ 

MESSMER, Franz, was bom at Antholz, in the 
Puster Valley, in 1729, and studied under Martin 
von Mytens, and was one of the best portrait 
painters of his time. In 1765 he was at the court 
at Innspruck, and in 1767 became a member of the 
Academy at Vienna, where we meet with his por- 
trait of Schmutzer. He died at that city in 1773. 
Schmntzer engraved after him the portrait of J. 
von Sonnenfels. 

MESSYS. See Massys. 

METGER, J. J., is tlie name of an engraver, 
affixed to a portrait of Cardinal Giovanni Nitardo, 
in Priorata's * History of the Emperor Leopold,' 
published in 1672. 

METHODIUS, a monk of the Order of St. Basil, 
who in 863 went with St. Cyril to the court of the 
Duke Ratislaus of Bulgaria. He studied painting 
at Rome, and was employed by the Duke to 
decorate his palace with pictures. Whereupon the 
artist, we are told, painted a * Last Judgment ' with 
such power as to cause the Duke and his subjects 
to be baptized on the spot I 

METRANA, Anna, according to Orlandi, was a 
native of Turin. She flourished about the year 1718, 
and distinguished herself as a painter of portraits. 

METRODORUS, the elder, was a Greek painter, 
philosopher, and probably writer on art. He 
flourished about B.C. 168. He was painter to 
Lucius Paulus ^milius, the conqueror of Perseus 
of Macedonia, and tutor to his children. 

METSU, Gabriel, a Dutch painter of genre, 
was bom at Leyden in 1630. He was the son of 
Jacob Metsu, a native of Belle in Flanders, and of 
his tliird wife Jacomina Gamijerns, widow of a 
painter, Willem Fremault. His first teacher in 
art was probably his father, but he afterwards 
studied under Dou, though in his style he more 
resembled Terborch, for his pictures deal, as a rule, 
with the more refined sides of domestic life. In 
1648 he was admitted into the Painters' Guild at 
Leyden, but two years later he left that city and 
went to Amsterdam, where he probably spent the 



Amsterdam. 


Museum, 


»» 


>» 


n 


»» 


w 


>» 


BerUn. 


Museum, 


»> 


it 


BninBwick. 

BrussniH. 

GasBel 


Gallery. 

Museum^ 

Gallery, 


M 


ft 


l« 


j> 


Dorking. 


J)eepdene. 


»» 
Dresden. 


Gallery, 



>» 



It 



n 



W 



rest of his life. In 1658 he married Isabella Wolff, 
and had to submit to the operation of lithotomy. 
Twelve months later he obtained the rights of a 
citizen of Amsterdam. He was buried at Amster- 
dam on the 24th October, 1667. His pictures are 
to be found in all the principal European galleries, 
as the subjoined list will show. 



The Breakfaat. 

The Old Toper. 

An Old Woman. 

The Sportsman's Present. (In 

the Van der ffoop Collection.) 
The Family of tne Merohant 

GelfiDff. 
The Cook. 
Portrait of a Lady. 
A Dutch Woman. 
The Luncheon Party. 
A Woman purchadng Game. 
A Yoimg Woman giving Alms. 
A Young Woman playing a 

Lute. 
The Letter. 
The Letter-writer. 
A Man and his Wife in an Ale- 
house. 
A Foultty-scUer offering a Fowl 

to a Lady. 
An Old Woman bargaining with 

a Poaltry-woman. 
The Game-seller bargaining wi th 

a Cook. 
A Man smoking by a Fire. 
A Young Woman with a Lace 

Cushion. 
A Woman reading a Letter. 
Old Woman eating {ascribed to 

Brekelenkamp) . 
Domestic Scene. 
A Lady and a Cavalier. 
The Huntsman. 
The Amateur Musicians. 
Justice protecting the Widow 

and Orphan. 
The Duet. 
The Music Lesson. 
The Drowsy Landlady. 
The Fish-wife. 

A Lady caressing her Lap-dog. 
The Stirrup Cup. 

A Lady with a Wine-glass. 

A Man playing and a Lady. 

Le Corset bleu (a copy). 

The Artist painting. 

Four good Pictures. 

A Dead Hen. 

The Writer. 

Fisherwoman. 

A Cook with a Fowl. 

A Feast. 

The Woman taken in Adultery. 

The Vegetable Market at Am- 
sterdam. 

An Officer entertaining a Young 
Lady. 

The Music Lesson. 

The Chemist at a Window. 

A Dutch Woman. 

A Dutch Cook. 

Portrait of AdmiralVan Tromp. 

A Man and a Lady. 

Interior of a Public-house 
(known as *The Prodigal 

Son'). 
The Sick Woman. 
The Concert. 
The Breakfast of Oysters. 
The Repast. 
A Priest in his Study. 
The Lace-maker, 
^e Smoker. 

143 



» 


>» 


f» 


?> 


Dulwich. 


Gallery, 


Florence. 


Uffizi, 


Hague. 


Gallery, 


n 


n 


>» 


n 


London. 


Nat. Gallery, 


w 


n 


„ Bridgewater Ho. 


n 


n 




Buckingham 
Palace, 


If 


n 


»» 


ff 


„ Hertford House. 
Madrid. Gallery, 
Montpellier. Museum. 


Munich. 


Gallery. 


Paris. 


Louvre. 



] 



n 



n 



» 



a 



}> 


>» 


»> 


It 


1) 


»» 


>f 


>» 


Pesth. 
Petersburg. 


Gallery. 
Hermitage. 


ft 


tt 


it 


t» 


» 


» 


Kottenlam. 


Museum. 


Vienna. 


Belvedere. 


M 


Czernin VoU, 



Metajni 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Meu8 



METSYS. See Massts. 

METTAY, Pierre, a painter, was a native of 
Normandy, and a pupil of Boucher in Paris. He 
afterwards studied at Rome, and became a member 
of the Paris Academy. He painted genre pictures, 
mythological and historical scenes, and sea-views 
after the style of Vemet, several of which were 
engraved. He died about 1750. 

METTENLEITER, Johann Evangelist, an en- 
graver, the nephew of Johann Michael Mettenleiter, 
was bom at Grosskuchen in 1792. He studied 
under his uncle. 

METTENLEITER, Johank Jakob, was bom at 
Grosskuchen, Wiirtemberg, in 1760. He went to 
Spiers and Holland, where he enlisted as a soldier 
for the Cape. After his return he established him- 
self for a time at Augsburg, but went to St. Peters- 
burg in 1786, and died there in 1825. Some 
of his paintings are in the Augsburg Cathedra], 
viz., a * Resurrection ' (1786) and two conversation 
pieces, with portraits of the Von Oberwexer Family. 
As an engraver he executed among others the 
following plates : 

A Peasant with a Hat and Stick. 

Peasant at Table with Jng and Pipe ; afttr D. Teniers. 

Peasants Drunk and another Laughing ; after the same. 

METTENLEITER, Johann Michael, was bom 
at Grosskuchen, Wiirtemberg, in 1766, and ac- 
companied his brother Johann Jakob to Rome 
when only ten years of age, but returned after- 
wards to Augsburg. He continued his studies 
under Domer at Munich in 1782, and next etched 
for the bookseller Strobel at Augsburg, and in 
1790 became court engraver. The paintings in 
the Hirschgarten at Munich are by him. He en- 
graved in the style of Chodowiecki ; amongst 
others four plates for the * History of Germany * 
by Klein, and many plates from Bavarian history 
for Westenrieder's Almanac (1787—1815). He 
signed with his full name, or the initials JM M, or 
a monogram. He died at Pockau in 1853. 

METZ, Caroline M., subject painter, t^e daughter 
of Johann Martin and sister of Conrad Metz. She 
came to London with her family, and there her 
works, which appeared at the Academy from 
1773 to 1794, included portraits, fruit, and land- 
scapes. 

METZ, Conrad Martin, an eminent engraver in 
the chalk manner and in aquatint, was bom at 
Bonn in 1755, but received his education in art in 
London, under Bartolozzi. His principal works are 
imitations of and facsimiles from the drawings of 
the old Italian masters, of which he published a 
great number. In 1801 he left England for Rome, 
where he continued to exercise his ready talent at 
imitation, and otherwise engraving from works of 
the highest order till the time of his decease, which 
occurred in London in 1827. One Of his chief 
works was Michel angel o*s ' Last Judgment,* in 
twelve plates (1808). 

METZ, Franz, a Benedictine brother of the 
cloister of Prifling near Kheims, who went to 
Seeben in the Tyrol about 1630, and painted three 
altar-pieces. In the library at Innsprack is the 
drawing of a * Magdalene ' by this artist. 

METZ, Gbrtraud, a 6ower painter, was the 
daughter and pupil of J. M. Mbtz of Cologne. She 
studied at the Academy of Diisseldorf about 1766, 
and with her father and brother came to England 
soon after. She painted some figure pictures, 
besides flowers, fruit, and insects. 

144 



METZ, Gustav, painter and sculptor, was born 
at Brandenburg in 1817. He first tried sculpture 
under Ranch at Berlin, and followed his scnool- 
f ellow Rietschel to Dresden, but being disappointed 
in his hopes of obtaining the grand medal of the 
Berlin Academy, he devoted all his attention to 
painting. Metz died of a severe attack of cholera 
in 1853, in London. A * Betrothal of Tobias' by 
him is in the Berlin National Gallery. 

METZ, Johann Martin, was bom about 1730, 
and was received a member of the Guild at 
Cologne in 1768. He was long court painter to 
the Elector Clemens August at Bonn, and made 
drawings of his castles, which were engraved by 
Nikolaus Mettel and Peter Wyon ; but he especially 
distinguished himself as a painter of flowers. In 
1771 he went to England, and died about 1800. 
Several of his still-ltfe and genre pieces are at 
Cologne, in the Wallraf-Richartz Museum. 

METZGER, Christoph, an engraver of Frank- 
fort on the Main, who lived in Sie latter part of 
the 17th century. 

METZGER, Johann Jakob, a German engraver 
who flourished in 1670. Six portraits engraved by 
him are known. 

MEUCCI, ViNCENZO, was bom at Florence in 
1694, and studied under Giachetto Fortini and 
Sebastiano Galeotti at Piacenza, and Giuseppe dal 
Sole at Bologna. He died in 1766. Gregori en- 
graved a * Madonna * after him. He has left the 
following works among others : 

Florenoe. OeriniGall. A Ceiling with the Histoiy of 

Achilles. 
„ S. Lorenzo. FVeeooea in the CapoUL 

MEULEMANS. Adriaan, (Meulmans,) a painter, 
was bom at Dorarecht in 1766. He studied with 
Versteeg. He lived at Dordrecht, and painted 
water pieces, night scenes, and cabinet pictures. 
He died about 1834. 

MEUNIER, Louis, (Meusnier, or Mubnikr,) an 
architectural designer and engraver, flourished 
about 1666. His prints, which number eighty-six, 
consist of landscapes and architectural views in 
Spain, Portugal, Italy, France, and Belgium, in all 
of which countries he appears to have travelled. 
His manner of engraving resembles that of Perelle 
and I. Silvestre, and in some of his pieces that of 
Thierry Stoop. ^ 

MEURER, Joseph, was bora at Miinster, West- 
phalia, about 1740, and was instmcted in the art 
of painting by an artist at Frankfort He next 
studied in Paris, and afterwards lived at Miinster 
and Verden, but his works, representing still-life, 
laodsrapes, devastations by fire, genre, mythology, 
scenes from the Bible, and portraits, seem modelled 
on Rembrandt. He died at Verden in 1817. He 
etched several plates, among which the best are : 

The Boy with the Bird. 
The Hermit praying. 
Andromeda. 

MEURS, Cornelis Hubert van, an engraver, 
was a native of Holland, andresided at Amsterdam 
about the year 1760. According to Basan he en- 
graved several plates after Mieris, Van der Werf, 
and other masters. 

MEURS, Jakob tan, an engraver, was bom 
at Amstordnm about 1640. His name is affixed 
to a portrait of Tycho Brahe, the astronomer. 
He was chiefly employed by the booksellers, and 
engraved several frontispieces, &c. 
I MEUS, Livius, or LiEVEN. See Mehus. 



KeoBnier 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Meyer 



MEUSNIER, Philippe, a French painter of 
perspective and architectural views, was born in 
JParia in 1655. He was a scholar of Jacques Rous- 
seau, and on leaving that master went to Rome, 
where he passed several years in the study of 
painting and in other work. On his return to 
Paris he was patronized by Louis XIV. and his 
successor. In 1680 he executed the decorations of 
the roof of the chapel at Versailles. He became 
a member of the Royal Academy in Paris in 1702, 
one of its council in 1703, and its treasurer in 1719. 
He died in i'aris in 1734. His son Philippe, a 
pupil of Largilliere, died in England. 

MEVES, Augustus, a miniature painter who 
practised in the 19th century. He died in Shore- 
ditch in 1818. 

MEVIUS, JoHANN Georo Ambrgs, was a land- 
scape painter, native of Frankfort on the Main. 
He was bom in 1710, and when he was sixty years 
of age he went to Amsterdam, where he died. 
His son JoHANN Fribdrich was bom at Worms 
in 1727, and died about 1796. He also painted 
landscapes. 

MEYER, Andreas, according to Professor Christ, 
was a native of Zurich. He is said to have 
been a painter, and to have engraved some views 
of towns, which are marked with a curious mono- 
gram '^ . 

METER, Christian Gottlieb, a painter, was 
bom at Dresden m 1730, and died in 1755. He 
was court portrait painter. 

MEYER, C. H., painter, was bom at Aurich in 
East Friesland. He studied at the Academy of 
Berlin. He painted views and landscapes, and 
died in 1836. 

MEYER, Daniel, painter and etcher, was bom 
at Frankfort in 1570, and died there in 1630. The 
following etchings are by him : 

ISghty plates, * Axchitectora, Vonn AustheyluDg der 
funff Seulen,' published in 1612. 

Fifty platefl, * Arcbitectura, oder Verzeiehniss aller- 
hand Einfassongen an Tbiiren, Fenstern. Alles 
erstlichen new erfunden und geetzt durcb Daniel 
Meyem, Mahlem vu Biirgem zn Frankfurt am Main 
MDOIX, nen aufgelegt im Jabr 1659. 

MEYER, Dietrich (or Theodor), a Swiss painter 
and etcher, was born at Eglisau in 1572, and 
obtained a reputation for portraiture, historical 
and glass painting, as well as by several designs 
in Indian-ink and black and red chalk. A series 
of plates which he published in 1599 show that at 
that time he had not yet discovered the " soft etch- 
ing-ground " which at a later period he employed 
in all his plates. He died at Zurich in 1658. 
The following are the best of his plates : 

Six plates of Peasants dancing. 

A Festival Procession witb fireworks, in Paris, on the 

occasion of a Double Wedding between members of 

the French and Spanish Courts. 
Six plates of Mythological figures. 

He used the monogram ]^X' 

MEYER, Elias, a flower and landscape painter, 
was bom at Copenhagen in 1763. He was a 
fellow of the Academy, and died in 1809. 

MEYER, Ernst, genre painter, was born at 
Altona in 1795. He attended the Academy at 
Copenhagen, studied at Munich under Cornelius, 
went in 1824 to Naples and Amalfi, and settled in 
1833 at Rome. He became a member of the 
Copenhagen Academy in 1843, and died at Rome 
in 1861. There are by him : 

VOL. II. L 



I 



Berlin. J^Tat. Gallery. A Lazzaroni Funily. 1881. 

Stuttgart. Bosenstein, A House at Tivoli. 

MEYER, Felix, painter and etcher, was bom at 
Winterthur in Switzeriand in 1653. He was the 
son of a clergyman, who was desirous of bringing 
him up to the Church; but his inclination for 
drawing interfered with his studies, and he was at 
length permitted to indulge his propensity. He 
possessed an uncommonly fertile imagination, and 
an extraordinary readiness of hand, of which he 
made the fullest use. Decamps says that during 
his travels through Germany, he visited the famous 
Abbey of St. Florian just when two halls had to be 
decorated in fresco. An obscure artist of the 
neighbourhood, who had been applied to, had taken 
months to prepare a scheme, while Meyer, in the 
course of a few minutes' talk with the abbot, 
sketched out a complete series of pictures, drawing 
them in the while on the blank wall with a piece of 
charcoal tied to a stick. In the result he was en- 
gaged to carry out the work. There is an excellent • 
landscape by Meyer in the Belvedere at Vienna. 
Meyer had his figures inserted usually by M. Roos 
and G. P. Rugendas. He died at Weyden in 1713. 
He etched several plates from his own designs. 
Among them are : 

A set of twelve 'Views of Switzerland ; Fdis Meyer fee. 
Four Landscapes, with mins and figures ; tame tignature, 

1701. 
Four Views in Switzerland, with figures. 
Four Mountainous LaQds(a^)es, wi& buildings. 
The Falls of the Rhine. 

MEYER, Franz Anton, (or Mbterle,) was bom 
at Prague in 1710. According to Lanzi he resided 
several years at Turin, where he took the name of 
Francesco Antonio Meyerle. He painted small 
highly-finished pictures of domestic subjects and 
portraits, and was less successful when he painted 
on a larger scale. He passed the latter part of 
his life at Vercelli, where many of his works are 
to be found. He died in 1782. 

MEYER, Geobo Friedrich, painter, was bom 
at Mannheim in 1735. His first master was Daniel 
Hein, and then he went to Paris, where he studied 
under Casanova, and had the good fortune to meet 
with Duke Christian IV., who took him with him 
to Mannheim, where in the summer he studied 
nature on the banks of the Rhine and Neckar, and 
in the winter pursued his studies at the Academy. 
He died in 1809. 

MEYER, Hendrik, (Meijer,) a landscape and 
cattle painter, chiefly in water-colours and tempera, 
was bom at Amsterdam in 1737. He was one of 
the directors of the Academy at Haarlem, where 
he resided. Late in life he became implicated in 
the Revolution of 1788, and had in consequence to 
leave Holland, upon which he visited England, in 
company with W. Hendriks, the painter of dead 
game, and established himself in London, where 
he died in 1793. He had exhibited at the Academy 
in the two previous years, executing principally 
Dutch scenes. His landscapes were in the style 
of Izaak van Ostade. 

MEYER, Henry, bom in London in 1782, was 
a nephew of Hoppner and a pupil of Bartolozzi. 
He engraved in mezzotint and in the dotted manner, 
and was very skilful in his management of por- 
traits, on which he was principaUy engaged. He 
was one of the foundation members of the Society 
of British Artists, and contributed to some of their 

145 



Meyer 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



ezhibitionB from 1824 (their first) to 1831. In the 
latter portion of his career he sometimes drew 
portraits, and that with great success. He died in 
1847. Among his plates there are : 

Adminl NelBon and Lord Cathcart ; after Hoooner, 
The Prinoeu Oharlotte and Prince Leopola; after 

Chahn. 
MiM O'Neal in the character of Belvidera ; after Devis. 
Mr. Mathews in various characters ; after Harlow, 
Sir John NichoU ; after Owen, 
BCazy anointing the feet of Jesus ; after Hilton, 
Bir Roger de Ooverley ; after Leslie. 
The Proposal and the Gougratulation ; after Harlowe, 
The Stolen Kiss ; after Kidd. 
The Dancing Bear ; after Witkerington, 

MEYER, Jeremiah, (or Meier,) English minia- 
ture painter, was horn at Tubingen, in Wurtem- 
berg, in 1735. He came to this country with his 
father at the age of fourteen. He was long a 
member of the St. Martin's Lane Academy. In 
1767-8 be had two years* pupilage under Zincke, 
for which he paid £200 premium. In 1762 he was 
naturalized, and in 1764 appointed on the house- 
holds both of the King and Queen. On the founda- 
tion of the Boyal Academy in 1769 he was invited 
to become a member, and for fourteen years he 
was a constant contributor to its exhibitions. 
Meyer was a great student of Reynolds, from 
whom he caunit not a little of his grace and 
refinement, and some of his power as a colourist 
His miniatures were among the best of their 
time. Mever married Barbara Marsden, herself 
an artist ox some ability. He died at Eew in 1789. 

MEYER, Joachim, was a native of Strasburg, 
and flourished about the year 1570. We have by 
him a set of sixty-two woodcuts, representing 
combats with the sword. 

MEYER, JoHANN, was probably of the same 
family with Dietrich Meyer. He was a painter, 
and usuaUy resided at Nuremberg. We have 
several prints by him, some of which are from his 
own designs. Among others, a set of battles, 
etched in a spirited style. He also engraved a set 
of the principal fountains at Rome, which were 
published at Nuremberg in 1600. 

MEYER, JoHANN, the son of Eonrad Meyer, was 
bom in 1665. He was a painter and engraver. He 
died in 1712. Nagler gives a long list of his plates. 

MEYER, JoHANN, flower painter, was bom in 
Switzerland in 1614, and died in 1666. 

MEYER, JoHANN Hbinrich, also called Goethe- 
Meter, was bom at Stafa on the Lake of Zurich 
in 1760. He was first instructed by Johann Kaspar 
Fiissli at Zurich, from whence he returned home 
and studied by himself in 1781-4. He went to 
Italy in the latter year, and there made Qoetiie's 
acquaintance in 1786. At Naples, which city he 
visited in 1787, he studied the collections of the 
old vases and antiquities of the Museum at Her- 
culaneum. From Rome, where he went in 1788, 
he returned to Switzerland in 1789, and became 
drawing-master at the Academy at Weimar in 
1792. He undertook a second journey to Italy in 
1795, and stayed principally at Rome and Florence. 
He returned to Weimar in 1797, and shortly after 
gave himself up to writing upon art He assisted 
Goethe a great deal in his works upon art, and was 
also in communication with Schiller. He died at 
Jena in 1832. His productions as an artist consist 
chiefly of water-colour and other drawings from 
antique remains, or from the works of the great 
Italian painters. 
146 



MEYER, Johann Heinrich Ludwig, (or Meijer,) 
painter, was bom at Amsterdam in 1819. He was 
a pupil of Jan Willem Pieneman. During the 
early part of his career he devoted himself to 
landscape and history. In 1843 and 1844 he ex- 
hibited with success at the Salon, and in 1855 was 
awarded a prize at the Paris Intemational Exhibi- 
tion. He died in 1866 at Utrecht.. Among his 
best productions we may name : 

A Storm in the Channel. {Amelerdam Mmeum.) 

Burning of the ' India' at Sea. 

Dutch VeaselB off Flushing. 

A Ship Btrilcing on the English Ckutft. 

A Storm off Soheveniagen. 

Shipwreck on the Dutch Shore. 

MEYER, Johann Jakob, bom at Zurich, in 1749, 
was a designer, painter, and engraver, and was 
instmcted in art by Baltiiasar Biulinger and Job. 
E. Fiissli. He came afterwards to Vienna, and 
worked a great deal for the Hungarian nobility. 
He died in 1812. 

MEYER, KoNRAD, the elder, the younger son of 
Dietrich, and the younger brother of Rudolph 
Meyer, was bom at Zurich in 1618. After receiv- 
ing some instruction from his brother Rudolph 
and L. Stadler, he went to Frankfort, where he 
became a scholar of Matthaus Merian, and studied 
the works of Bloemaert, Jordaens, and Sandrart. 
Subsequently he went to Augsburg, and in 1643 to 
Zurich, in both of which towns he was chiefly 
occupied in the painting of portraits, including 
that of his father, which is considered his best. 
He died at Zurich in 1689. As an engraver he 
may be considered as one of the most laborious 
artists of his time, and the number of his prints 
is very considerable. Kaspar Fiissli, who had 
endeavoured to collect an entire set of them, had 
got together upwards of 900, without having 
them neariy complete. Among the best we may 
enumerate : 

A series of ninety portraits of his fellon-citiaens. 

A series of 103 portraits of writers and chorohmen. 

A * Dance of Death ' (61 plates). 

The * Mirror of a Christian ' (15 plates). 

The Sports of Children (26 plates). 

The ages of Man (10 plates). 

Scenes from the New Testament (102 plates). 

Meyer used the signatures C MfedU C, Mf^ &c. 

MEYER, LuDWiQ, called Meyer of Knonau, was 
bora at Knonau in 1705. He was an en^ayer, and 
painted portraits and landscapes. He died in 1785. 

MEYER, Melchior, the unknown author of a 
plate of * Apollo and Marsyas ' (Bartsch xvi. 146). 

MEYER, Rudolph, the son and^ scholar of 
Dietrich Mever, was bom at Zurich in 1605, and 
died in 1638. He painted history and portraits, 
but was more distinguished as an engraver than as a 
painter. We have by him several plates of emblem- 
atical subjects and portraits, some of which were 
published with those of his brother Eonrad. He 
made the designs for the ' Dance of Death,' which 
were engraved by Konrad. 

MEYER, WiLHELM, was bom at Zurich in 1806, 
and studied decoration under S. Quaglio at Munich. 
In 1833 he worked at Nuremberg, and from 1837 
to 1840 at Zurich, Heme, and Lucerne. He sub- 
sequently visited Italy and Spain, and in these 
countries devoted himself to architectural painting, 
in which branch he became deservedly esteemed. 
He died at Zurich in 1848. 

MEYERHEIM, Eduard Franz, who was bom 
at Berlin in 1838, first studied painting under his 
father F. E. Meyerheim, and in the Academy at 



Keyeiingli 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Mezsadri 



Berlin, but afterwards travelled much in search of 
subjects for his pictures, which are mostly of a 
genre character. For a short time he held the 

Sost of professor of anatomical drawing at the 
terlin Academy, but in 1878 his ill health com- 
pell^ him to resign, and he died in 1880 at Marburg 
on the Lahn. The following are a few of his best 
works : 

Children and Gats. 1859. 
Maternal Loye. 1862. 
Market Day. 1863. 
The Young Mother. 1866. 
Hessian Peasant Family. 1868. 

MEYERINGH, AALBKBT,(MEiJEBiNGH,)was bom 
at Amsterdam in 1645. He was instructed in the 
elements of design by his father, Frederik Meijeb- 
INGH, who was chiefly employed in painting screens, 
and other articles of furniture. Albert was, how- 
ever, destined to exercise his talents in a higher 
line. Whilst he was yet young he formed the 
project of travelling in search of improvement, 
and before he was twenty years of age he visited 
Paris, where he resided some time, but with no 
great encouragement. By assiduity and labour he 
procured the means of continuing his journey to 
Italy, where his abilities procured him the esteem of 
Jan Glauber and others, and he met with sufficient 
employment to induce him to reside for some time at 
Rome. On his return to Holland, after an absence 
of ten years, he was employed by William, Prince 
of Orange. His views are agreeably varied, and 
are frequently embellished with the ruins of 
ancient architecture, and decorated with figures 
representing historical or fabulous subjects, in the 
style of Gerard de Lairesse. He died at Amster- 
dom in 1714. 

MEYERLE. See Meyer. 

MEYLENER, P., a little known Dutch painter 
of landscapes. He flourished about 1645. 

MEYNERT, Class, was commissioned in 1507 
to paint a St Matthew, for the Church of St Bavon, 
at Haarlem, for the sum of 40 florins. 

MEYNIER, Charles, a French historical and 
battle painter, bom in Paris in 1768. He studied 
under Vincent, and shared the prix de Rome with 
Girodet in 1789. The Revolution, however, caused 
his premature return from Italy, and he im- 
mediately began to practise in Paris. Much of 
his time was engaged in decorative work. He 
painted several frescoes for the Louvre and for 
the Paris Bourse. He was elected a member of 
the Institute in 1815, and in 1822 was decorated 
with the Legion of Honour, becoming an officer in 
1830. Two years later he died in Paris of cholera. 
Amongst his chief works are : 

Museum. CEdipns. 1814. 
Museum, Erato. 1800. 
Miueum. l^moleon. 
Louvre. Phorhas and (Edipus. 1814. 
Cathedral, Dedication of dt Denis. 1812. 
St. ICichael conquering Satan. 
Gallery, fiestoration of its colours to 
the 68th Regiment at Inns- 
pruck. 1808. 
„ Entry of the French into Berlin. 



Amiens. 

Bordeaux. 

Hontpellier. 

Fans. 

St. Denis. 

St lCand6. 

Versailles. 



MEYSSENS, CoRNBLis, (Mytens, &o.,) the son 
of Jan Meyssens, was bom at Antwerp about the 
year 1640, and was instructed in engraving by his 
father. His principal plates are portraits, many 
of which are from the designs ox Jan Meyssens. 
They are executed with the graver, in a stiff, 
tasteless style* He also engraved several frontis- 

L2 



pieces, and other book ornaments. The following 
are his best works : 

• A set of Portraits of the Austrian Emperors ; entitled 
< EfSgies Imperatorum domiis Austriacaa, deUneatss 
per Joannem Meyssens, et aari insculpts per filium 
suum Oomelium Meyssens.' * 
The Portraits of the Sovereign Princes and Dukes of 
Brabant; entitled, *Les Effigies des Souverains 
Princes et Dues de Brabant.' A part of these are 
engraved t^ P. de Jode, Waumans, and others. 

SINGLE PORTRAITS. 

Charles U. ; for the History of Leopold. 

Octavins, Duke of Aremberg ; C. Meyssens sc. 

Cardinal Antonio Barberini. 

Cardinal Binaldo, Principe Estense. 

John de Witt, Grand Pensionary of Holland. 

David, Count of Weissenwolff, io. 

MEYSSENS, Jan, often confused with Aart 
Izaak Mytens, was a Flemish painter and en- 
graver, bom at Brussels in 1612. He was first 
a scholar of Anthonie van Opstal,.and afterwards 
of Nicolas van der Horst, both obscure artists. 
He attempted both historical subjects and portraits, 
but was generally employed in the latter. The 
greater part of his life was passed in Holland. Tor 
many years he resided at Amsterdam, where he 
carried on an extensive commerce in prints, and 
engraved many plates from his own designs, as 
well as after other masters, amone; which are 
several portraits of artists. He died about 1670. 
Among nis plates we may name : 

Portrait of Charles I. 

Portrait of Henrietta llaria, his Queen. 

Portrait of Hendrik de Keyser, architect and sculptor ; 

J. Meyssens fee. 
. Portrait of Guide Beni ; se ipse pinx. J. Meyssens fee. 
Portrait of Francesco Padovanino, painter ; se ipse pinx. 
Portrait of Daniel Segers, flower-painter ; after Ltevens, 
Portrait of Cornelia de Bie ; after Eras. Qudlinus. 
Portrait of liViniam de Nieulant, painter. 
Portrait of Mary Buthven, wife of A. van Dyck ; after 

Van Dyck. 
Portrait of himself ; se ipse pinx. 
The Virgin and Child ; after Titian. 
Meleager presenting the Boar's Head to Atalanta; 

after Runens. 

MEYTENSj Martin van, (Mijtens or Mytens,) 
a Swedish painter, was born at Stockholm in 1695 
or 1698. He was instructed by his father, Peter 
Martin Mbttens, and visited for improvement 
Holland, England, and France. In the last country 
he learned enamelling under Boit, and painted at 
Paris the portrait of the Duke of Orleans, Louis 
XV., and the Czar Peter. Subsequently he was 
employed by August I. at Dresden. In 1721 he 
went to Vienna, afterwards to Venice and Rome, 
and there studied oil painting. On his return to 
Vienna in 1726 he became painter to the emperor, 
and in 1759 director of the Academy. He died at 
Vienna in 1770. Though his portraits were good 
likenesses, he followed the taste of his time in 
other respects, and fell into mannerism. There is 
an equestrian portrait of the Emperor Charles VI. 
by him in the National Museum at Stockholm. 

MEYVOGEL, Matthieu (?), a Dutch painter 
who was at work in Rome early in the 17th century. 

MEZIOS, M., is mentioned by Strutt as having 
engraved a few portraits ; among others, that of 
a physician and poet, Joannes retrus Lothicus, 
prefixed to his works, which were published in 
1626. 

MEZZADRI, Antonio, was a native of Bologna, 
and flourished about the year 1688. According to 
Lanzi he excelled in painting fruit and flowers. 

147 / 



y 



/ 



Meszastri 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Miohelangelo 



MEZZA8TRI, Pieb-antonio, born at Foligno in 
1457, painted in fresco in the churches of that 
town. He died at Foligno in 1606. His son 
Bernardino Mezzastri followed the art of his 
father. 

MICARINO (Mecarino, &c.). See Becgafumi. 

MICCO, Spadaro. See Gargiuoli. 

MICHAEL, Master. See Schwarz. 

MICHAELIS, Gerard Jan, a Dutch landscape 
painter and engraver, was bom at Amsterdam in 
1776. He was a pupil of Jurian Andriessen, and 
the miniature painter G. N. Ritter. He died at 
Haarlem in 1857. 

MICHAELIS, J. W., an engraver, resided at 
Frankfort about the year 1700, and engraved 
several heads for a work entitled, * Notitia Univer- 
sitatis Francofertanse/ published in 1707. 

MICHALLON, Achille Etna, a French land- 
scape painter, bom in Paris in 1795. When quite 
Soung he lost his father, the sculptor Claude 
[ichallon. At the early age of fifteen his pictures 
attracted attention, and he received a pension from 
the Russian Prince Issoupof^. His studies were 
directed by David, Valenciennes, Bertin, and 
Dunouy. He was but sixteen years of age when 
he obtained a second class medal at the Salon of 
1812. Five years after he won the grand prix for 
his * Democritus and the Abderans.* After a stay 
of four years at Rome he returned and settled 
down in Paris to the practice of his profession. 
The promise of his career was, however, cut short 
by his premature death, which occurred in Paris 
in 1822. Amongst the few works which he left 
are: 

Landscape near Frascati. 1822. {Louvre.) 

The Isle of LemDos. 1822. {Ifontpeilier Museum.) 

Boland at BonceBvalles. 

The Centaurs and the Lapitbse. 

MICHALOWSKI, a Polish water-colour painter 
of military scenes, was bom at Cracow in 1804. 
He took refuge in France, where he became 
the friend of Hora/se Vemet and Charlet. He 
died in 1866. 

MICH A U, Theobald, was bom at Toumay in 
1676, but resided chiefly at Bmssels. He studied 
under W. Schellinks, and painted landscapes and 
merry-makings, in which he imitated Pieter and 
Jan Breughel, David Teniers, and Pieter Bout. 
In 1699 he was residing at Bmssels, and was 
received into the Corporation of St Luke. He 
died at Antwerp in 1766. There are by him : 

Augsburg. 



99 

n 

Vienna. 



Gallery. The Ford. 

The Cattle Market. 
A Fair. 

March of Troops. 
„ Street Scenea 

Belvedere. Several paintings. 



>• 



n 



MICHAULT, Georges, a French engraver, was 
bom at Abbeville in 1762. He was a pupil of 
Francois Aliamet, and engraved several plates in 
the style of his instmctor ; among them some 
views in the neighbourhood of the Pare Monceau, 
Paris. He died about 1810. We have also the 
following by him : 

Acis and Qalatea ; after Lafosse. 
The dead Christ ; afUr Schiavone ; in the Orleans 
Galleiy. 

MICHEL, Georges, landscape painter, was 
bom in Paris about 1763. His father was em- 
ployed in the Paris markets, but his son found 
a protector who placed him, in childhood, in the 

148 



house of a village curate on the plain of St 
Denis, and afterwards apprenticed him to the 
painter Leduc. When he was sixteen, Michel 
formed an alliance, it is uncertain whether a 
legal one or not, with a girl of his own age, 
who bore him eight children before he was out 
of his first youth. In 1827 she died, when he 
married Anne Maria Charlotte Claudier-Vallier, who 
survived him, and to whom we owe most of what 
is known of his life. This seems to have been a 
sufiBciently adventurous one in a small way. At 
one time he was the painting companion of Louis 
Bruandet, at another he was living in the house 
of a noble amateur, whose pictures he finished. 
His favourite subject was the great plain which 
stretches from Montmartre out to the north of St 
Denis. There he found subjects for the hundreds 
of pictures which he left behind, and which are 
only now emerging from obscurity. As a rule 
they are painted on prepared paper, and in style 
may be compared, at a respectful distance, to the . 
work of Old Crome. In spite of the small prices 
he received, Michel contnved to pass his life in 
modest comfort He died in Paris in 1843. The 
following two pictures are to be seen in the new 
gallery at the Luxembourg : 



Auz environs de Montmartro. 
Int^eor de Fdret 



W.A. 



MICHEL, Jean Baptiste, an engraver, was bom 
in Paris in 1738 or 1748. He is said to have been 
a scholar of Chenu, whom he gpreatly surpassed. 
He came to England about the year 1780, and was 
employed on several plates for Bo^dell. He died 
in 1804. The following are his prmcipal prints : 

PORTRAITS. 

Sir Thomas Gresham ; after Sir A. More. 
Babens*s Wife ; after Rubens. 
Frans Hals ; after a picture by himtdf, 
Jjbl Joconda ; after Leonardo aa Vinet. 
M. F. A. de Voltaire. 

SUBJECTS AFTER YARIGUS MASTERS. 

Two prints of the Bath of Yenns ; after Botteher. 

The Death of Dido ; after M. A. Challes. 

The Death of Hercules ; after the same. 

Abraham, Sarah, and Hagar ; after Pietro da Cortona, 

The Prodigal Son ; after Salvator Rosa. 

Hercules and Omphale ; <ifter Romarielli, 

Venus and Cupid ; after Carlo Maratti, 

The Death of St. Joseph ; after Velazquez, 

The Three Qraces ; after Bubens. 

Faith, Hope, and Charity ; after the same. 

The Nativil^ ; after Carlo Oignani. 

The Adoration of the Shepherds ; after Guido. 

Clytie ; a circular print ; after Atmib. Carraeci. 

Cupid stung by a Bee ; after West. 

Alfred dividing his last lioaf with a Pilgrim ; after the 

same. 
The Continence of Alfred ; «ifter the same. 

MICHEL, Jean, a French historical painter, who 
flourished at Rouen in 1664. In conjunction with 
his father he executed a picture for the church of 
St Jean at Rouen, representing the * Passion.* 

MICHEL, Louis, (Michiel,) a fruit and flower 
painter, flourished at the Hague in 1675. He wAs 
a pupil of Wieling and Hermann Verelst. 

MICHELANGELO. See Buonarroti. 

MICHELANGELO, Francesco, called II Aqui- 
LANO, was an historical painter, who flourished at 
Aquila in 1700. He was a pupil of B. LutL He 
died young. 

MICHELANGELO da LUCCA. See Anselmi. 






PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Miel 



MIGHELANQELO <dblle Battaglib/ Se 

MICHELANGELO Di Todb. See Ricciolini. 

MICUELE DA PARMA. See RoccA. 
^MICHELB DA PAVIA was an historical and 
portrait painter, who flourished about 1460. In 
1459 he worked for Pius II., and was painter to 
the court of Mantua from 1468 to 1465. 

MICHELE DA Verona, painted in that city at 
the beginning of the 16th century. We know that 
he existed because a series of frescoes and canvases 
bearing his name have come down to us. Of these 
the most important is a * crucifixion ' dated 1500, 
formerly in the refectory of San Giorgio at Verona, 
but now in San Stefan o, at Milan. Pictures by him 
are also to be found in Sant' Anastasia, Verona ; 
Santa Maria in Vanzo, Padua ; Santa Chiara, 
Verona; and in churches at Selare and Villa di 
Villa, near Este. In his art he was allied but far 
inferior to Cavazzola. His latest known picture is 

* The Madonna enthroned/ at Villa di Villa, which 
is dated 1523. There is a fair example of his work 
in the National Gallery. The subject is the en- 
counter between Coriolanus and his wife and 
mother, Virgilia and Volumnia. 

MICHELE DEL GHIRLANDAIO. See Bigobdi. 

MICHELE di MATTEO. See Lambertini. 

MICHELE, Andb^, called Vicbntino, an his- 
torical painter, was bom at Vicenza in 1539. He 
was a pupil of Palma the elder. He died in 1614. 
At Florence there are by him * The Queen of Sheba ' 

* Banquet of Solomon,' * The Visitation ' ; at Munich 

* The Assembly of Crowned Heads ; * at Paris * The 
Reception of Henri III. at Venice in 1574; ' and 
at Brussels * The Marriage of Cana in Galilee.* 

MICHELE, Parrasio, was a native of Venice, 
and flourished about the Year 1590. He was a 
pupil first of Titian and then of Paolo Veronese, 
whose style he followed with some success. There 
are several of his woriss in the churches at Venice ; 
among them a 'Pieta' in San Giuseppe. The 
Academia has by him a portrait of a Venetian 
noble. 

MICHELIN, Jban, a French historical painter, 
bom at Langres in 1623. He died in Jersev in 1696. 

MICHELINO DA MILANO, see Milano. 

MICHELINO, DoM. di. See Domenioo. 

MICHELIS, Alexander, landscape painter, was 
bom at Miinster in 1823. He entered the Academy 
at Diisseldorf in 1843, and studied landscape 
painting under Schirmer. He died at Weimar in 
1868. 

MICHEUX, Michel Nicolas, a French flower 
painter, bom in 1688. He was received in the 
Academy in 1725, and died in 1733. 

MICHU, BenoIt, a Flemish historical and por- 
trait painter, bom in 1610. He settled in Paris, 
where he died in 1703. His son did some work in 
the chapel of Versailles. 

MICUSB, Pedro, was an Italian, who flourished 
as a painter at Saragossa in the 17th century, and 
amassed a considerable fortune, which at his death 
he bequeathed to the churches for which he had 
painted. One Pablo Micier, an amateur, who 
lived at the same time at Saragossa, seems to have 
been a distinct person. Pedro died in 1659. 

MICOCARD. Papillon mentions a woodcut by 
this artist, representing * Diogenes,* after Parmi- 
giano. It is probably a copy of the print in 

* chiaroscuro ' by Ugo da Carpi. 

MICON, a Greek painter and sculptor, flourished 
about 460 B.C., and assisted Polygnotus. He 



painted ' The Battle of the Amazons * and a part 
of *The Battle of Marathon' in the Poecile at 
Athens. He also painted some pictures in the 
Temple of Theseus, but we have no account of 
their subjects. He was an excellent painter of 
horses. His pictures were purchased by the 
Athenians at large prices. 

MICONE, Nicolas, called II. Zopfo, an obscure 
landscape painter, bom at Genoa in 1750. He 
was a pupil of Javella, and died in 1830* 

MIDDIMAN, Samuel, a distinguished English 
engraver, was bom in 1750. He was a pupil of 
Byrne, and is said to have also studied under 
Woollett and Bartolozzi. His forte was in land- 
scape, of which he left many beautiful examples ; 
two of the large prints for Boydeirs Shakspeare, 
* A Scene from the Winter's Tale,' and the melan- 
choly * Jaques,' may vie with the productions of 
Woollett. He engraved several other plates for 
the same work, and landscapes after Berchem, 
Gainsborough, Barret, Zuccarelli, and Heame. He 
exhibited at the Free Society in 1781, at Spring 
Gardens in 1773 and 1775, and at the Academy 
in 1780 and some of the subsequent years up to 
1797, producing for 1780 some stained drawings. 
His etchings also were much admired ; in this 
branch he worked for Pyne. His * Select Views 
in Great Britain ' (1784-92) is a charming work, 
and was very popular both in England and on the 
continent; it was followed in 1807-11 by ' Pictur- 
esque Views and Antiquities of Great Britain.' 
Middiman died in London in 1831. 

MIDDLETON, Charles, was an architectural 
draughtsman and engraver. From 1766 to 1790 
he was a member of the Incorporated Society of 
Artists, and up to 1790 contributed to the Royal 
Academy. He published several works, and made 
many designs. He died about 1818. 

MIDDLETON, J. J., an English draughtsman 
and landscape painter of the 19th century. In 
1812 he published * Grecian Bemains in Italy.' 

MIDDLETON, John, landscape painter, was 
bom at Norwich in 1828. He received lessons in 
painting from J. B. Crome, and also from Stannard. 
From 1849 to 1855 he was a fairly constant ex- 
hibitor at the Royal Academy, and also at the 
British Institution. He painted illustrations of 
the seasons, especially of early spring. ' A Study 
in March, on the Norfolk Coast' maybe mentioned 
as a specimen of his style. His death occurred 
in 1856. 

MIDIAS, a Greek painter, executed the design 
upon the vase found in Campania representing 
the Rape of the daughters of Leucippus by the 
Dioscuri. 

MIEL, Jan, ^Miele, or Meel,) also called 
Bicker, and by the Italians Giovanni della Vitb 
and Jamielli, was a painter and etcher, bom in the 
castle of Ulaerdingen near Antwerp in 1599. He 
was a scholar of Gerard Seghers, and on leaving 
that master went to Rome, where he attached him- 
self to Andrea Sacchi, and was shortly entrusted to 
assist his master in some of his most considerable 
works. Being, however, employed by Sacchi to 
co-operate with him in a picture for the Palazzo 
Barberini, representing a Procession of the Cavalry 
of the Pope, Miel, whose disposition naturally led 
him to the grotesque, introduced something which 
was deemed inconsistent with the gravity of the 
subject. This occasioned a sharp rebuke, and a 
consequent separation. Stung with the reproach 
of his master, and encouraged by tlie advice of his 

149 



MieUch 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Mieris 









Stockholm. Gallery. 
St. Petersburg. Her- 
mitage. 



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friend Bernini, Miel determined to improve and 
strengthen his powers by visiting North Italy for 
the purpose of studying the works of Correggio and 
the Carracci ; and he passed some time at Parma and 
Bologna. On his return to Rome he was employed 
by Alexander VIL to paint a picture of ' Moses 
striking the Rock/ for the gallery of Monte Cavallo. 
He also painted for the churches of San Martino 
de' Monti, the ' Baptism of St. Cyrillio ' ; and in 
Santa Maria delP Animi, some frescoes of the life 
of St. Lamberti, and the * Annunciation/ His best 
performances, however, are his easel pictures, re- 

S resenting fairs, markets, huntings, festivals of the 
amival, and similar subjects. Miel was made a 
member of the Academy of St. Luke in 1648. He 
was invited to the court of Turin by Charles 
Emanuel, Duke of Savoy, who retained him in his 
service for the remainder of his life, and conferred 
on him the order of St. Maurice. Miel died at 
Turin in 1664. Le Bas, Beaumont, and others have 
engraved after him. Among his extant paintings 
are the following : 

Berlin. Qallery, Landscape— a Dead Am. 

Dresden. Gallery. Shepherd Playing. 

Madrid. Gallery. The Violin Player ; and others. 

Paris. Louvre. The Beggar. 

The Barber. 

Landscape. 

Military Halt. 
Rotterdam. Gallery. Italian Peasants. 

Landscape. 

Preaching of St. John the Baptist. 

I The Charlatan. 

Peasant Dance. 
Italian Scene. 
Mountain Landscape. 

Jan Miel has etched several plates from his own 
designs in a masterly style. He sometimes signed 
with his name in full, and sometimes with a 
monogram and date. We have the following by 
him: 

The Holy Family. 

The Assumption of the Virgin. 

A set of Four Pastoral Subjects ; in one of them a 

figure seated on a bank, picking a thorn from his foot. 
Three Battle Pieces ; for the History of the Wars in 

Flanders, by Flaminius Strada. 

MIELICH See MtJLicH. 

MIEREVELT, Michiel Jakszen, (Mibeveldt, 
&c.,) was bom at Delft in 1567. He was the son 
of a goldsmith, who, perceiving his disposition for 
drawing, placed him under the care of Jerome 
Wierix, with the intention of his becoming an 
engraver. When he was twelve years of age he 
executed a plate of ' Christ and the Woman of 
Samaria * ; and soon afterwards another of * Judith 
with the Head of Holofemes.* These juvenile 
performances attracted the attention of Anthonie 
van Montfoort, called Blocklandt, who persuaded 
him to apply himself to painting, and offered to 
receive him into his school at Utrecht. This in- 
duced him to quit the graver for the pencil, and for 
some years he studied historical painting under 
that master. His first productions on leaving the 
school of Blocklandt were some altar-pieces for the 
churches at Delft ; but having painted the portraits 
of some of the princes of the house of Nassau, they 
were so universally admired, that he afterwards 
met with continual employment in that branch, 
and as he lived to an advanced age, he is supposed 
to have painted a greater number of portraits than 
any other artist of his country. He is said, by 

LW 



Descamps, to have been invited to England by 
Charles I., and to have declined the proposal on 
account of the plague, which at that time raged 
in London. Mierevelt entered the Guild of St. 
Luke at the Hague in 1626, and died at Delft in 
164L 

Amsterdam. Museum. 



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Gallery. 



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Berlin. Gallery. 

Copenhagen. Gallery. 

Delft? Town Hall. 

Dresden. Gallery. 

Madrid. Gallery. 

Paris. Louvre. 

Rotterdam. Gallery, 

n n 

» ft 

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Portrait of Prince Manrice. 

„ Prince Frederic Henri. 

Frederich V., Prince 

Palatine and King of 

Bohemia. 

the wife of Admiral 

Tromp. 
Jacob C&ts. 
General Smeltsing. 
William the Silent. 
Prince Philip William. 
„ John yan Oldenbame- 

velt. 
„ J. Uytenbogaert. 
Portrait of Wilham the Silent. 
Louise de Golligny. 
Prince Philip William. 
Prince Maurice. 
Prince Frederick Henry 
— and four others. 
Portrait of an old Woman. 
Portraits of a Man and Woman. 
Portrait of a young Lady. 
Series of Pictures. 
Several Portraits. 
Portrait of a Woman. 
A Female Portrait. {La Cau eoHec- 

tion.) 
Portrait of Philip of Nassau. 
Portraits of Prince Frederic Henri 

and his Wife. 
Portraits of William the Silent 

and his Wife. 
Portrait of Maurice of Nassau, 
and others. 

MIEREVELT, Jan, the son of Michiel Mierevelt, 
also a portrait painter, died insane in 1683. 

MIEREVELT, Pikter, the son and pupil of 
Michiel J. Mierevelt, was bom at Delft m 1595, 
and practised portrait painting in the style of lus 
father. One of his most esteemed works is a large 
picture in the Hall of the Surgeons at Delft, con- 
taining the portraits of the principal members of 
that society at the time ; other productions of his 
are at Brunswick, Copenhagen, and Dresden. He 
died young, at Delft, m 1632. 

MIERIS, Frans van, was bom at Delft in 1635. 
He was one of twenty-three children of his father, 
who was a lapidary. In early youth he was appren- 
ticed to the glass painter, Abraham Torenvliet, 
whose studio he soon abandoned for that of Gerard 
Dou, who called him the prince of his pupils. 
Later on he studied historical painting under 
Abraham Tempel. He painted genre pictures, and 
loved to represent silks and satins, plate and jewels. 
He was painter to the Prince, and in every way 
he enjoyed the unusual good fortune of being 
thoroughly appreciated during his life. His best 
pictures, on me rare occasions of their changing 
hands, fetch enormous prices. He died at Leyden 
■in 1681. Among his pictures are : 

Amsterdam. Muaeum, The Letter. 

The Lute Player. 

Jacob's Dream. 

The lost Bird. 

Portrait of a Young Man. 

A Yonng Woman before a Glass. 

An Officer. 

A Dutch Peasant's Boom. 

Three Portraits. 

The Magdalen. 



19 
M 

W 

Berlin. 



tt 



It 
Museum, 



Copenhagen. Gallery. 



tt 



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Dresden. 



Gadi 



try. 



Mieris 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERa 



ICietseh 






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Dresden. Gallery. A Girl sitting at a Table. 

A Ladv playing the Lute. 
An Old Woman placing a Pink in 

a Flower-pot. 
An Old Man. 
A Soldier Smojdng. 
A Young Lady with a Dog. 
A Man in a Coirafls. 
The Tinker. 
A Man mending a Pen. 
Portrait of Himself. 
The Painter's Studio. 
A Girl with a Parrot. 
The Cloth Merchant. 
Poetry. 
Ufflti, Portrait of Himself. 

Portrait of bis Son Jan. 
Portrait of Himself. 
A Young Woman. 
The old Lover. 
An old Man and old Woman. 
The Drinkers. 
Portrait of Himself. 
Portrait of Himself and his 
Family. 
Hague. OaUery, Soap Bubbles. 

„ „ Portrait of Florentius Schuijl, 

Professor of Medicine and 
Botany at Leyden. 
„ ^ Portrait of Himself and his Wif e. 

London. Nat. (Sail. A Lady in a Orimson Jacket. 
„ Bwdd-ngham Fal. Portrait of Himself and his Wife. 

(Two versions.) 
„ ^ A Oountrr Woman. 

^ „ Soap Bilbbles. 

Collection of the Barl Le Chevalier Amonrenx. {Fet' 

of Dudley. hajn his tnasterjneee.) 
Mootpellier. Musde. Soap Bubbles. 
„ „ Genre Scene. 

Munich. QalUry. A Soldier Smoking. 

„ „ A Boy beating a Drum. 

■ A Lady playing with her Dog. 
The Sick Woman. 
Portrait of Himself. 
Portrait of a Woman. 
The Painter talking to the Land- 
lord of an Inn. 
Interior of an Inn. 
A Lady playing the Lute. 
A Lady with a Parrot. 
Interior of a Cottage. 
f, „ A Lady at her Ghiss. 

I, n The Breakfast. 

„ „ A Soldier Smoking and Drinking. 

Paris. Ijouvts. Portrait of a Man. 

n „ A Lady at her Toilet. 

„ ,, The Tea Party. 

„ M A Dutch Family. 

St. Petersburg. lierm. An Literior. 

M f. An Oyster Breakfast. 

n n A Peasant Woman with Eggs. 

9t M A Lady seated at a Table. 

M » The Guitar Player. 

n „ A Lady Writing. 

Turin. GalUry. Portrait of Himself . 

Vienna. Gallery. A Doctor feeling a Lady's 

Pulse. 

• 

MIERIS, Fbans van, 'the younger,* the son of 
Willem van Miens, was bom at Leyden in 1689, 
and was instructed by his father. He painted 
portraits and conversation pieces, but was inferior 
to his father in every respect, as became very 
evident when he attempted to copy his works. 
He died at Leyden in 1763. He has left an etching 
of 'The Muse Erato,' and in the capacity of a 
numismatist and historical writer he prepared and 
famished the medal-illustrations for a book on 
the privileges of the Counts of Holland, &c., and 
for some similar works. 

MIERIS^ Jan, the elder son of Frans Mieris the 
elder, was bom at Leyden in 1660, and received 



» 






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his first instruction in art from his father. Despair- 
ing of being able to equal him in the minuteness 
and delicacy of his finishing, he devoted himself to 
a different pursuit, and attempted historical paint- 
ing and portraits as large as life. After the death 
of his father he went to Italy, and on his arrival at 
Rome applied himself to his studies with an assidu- 
ity which proved fatal to him. He died in 1690. 

MIERIS, Willem van, the younger son of Frans 
Mieris the elder, was bom at Leyden in 1662. He 
studied under his father, whose style he adopted 
so far as he could. At the age of nineteen, when 
Ym father died, he was already an able artist His 
best pictures represent subjects taken £rom ordinary 
life, such as confectioners' shops, women selling 
game or vegetables, the interiors of apartments, 
and conversations. In these, every minute object 
is finished with painful care. The works of Q^rard 
de Lairesse had at that time excited imiversal 
admiration ; and Mieris was encouraged by his 
friend and patron, M. de la Court, to aim at a more 
elevated style, and to paint landscapes with his- 
torical or fabulous subjects. One of the best 
attempts in the style thus forced upon him is in 
the collection of Sir R. Wallace. His pictures of 
domestic subjects are to be found in the best 
collections. In his last years he became blind. 
He died at Leyden in 1747. The following list 
includes most ot his more important works : 
Amsterdam. Muteum. The Poulterer. 

„ „ An Arcadian Landscape. 

„ „ A laA^ and G^^OLtleman. 

Antwerp. „ The Fishmonger. 

Dresden. „ Musician and Girl. 

M ft The Game Dealer. 

A Woman pouring out Wine for 

a Man. 
A Baker blowing a Trumpet. 
Cephalus and Procris. 
Venus asleep. 
Bacchus and Ariadne. 
Fortune-teller. 
Man looking at a Girl who brings 

him Drink. 
Preciosa recognized by her 

Motiier. 
Venus and Paris. 
Apes in Human dress. 
The Cook. 
Hague. „ The Grocer's Wife. 

London. Nat. Gallery. The Poulterer's Shop. 
„ Bridaewater Gall. Woman and Violinist. 
„ Bueldngham Pal. An Oyster Feast. 
„ Hertford House. A Classical subject. 
Paris. Loutre. Blowing Bubbles. 

„ „ The Game Dealer. 

n ,» The Oook. 

Vienna. Bdvedert, A Spanish Soldier. 
„ „ Female portrait. 

„ „ An old Man offering monigy to a 

Woman. 

Few large collections are without examples of this 
painter. Mieris etched one plate, which is very 
rare ; the subject is ' The fate of ^sculapius.' 

MIEROP, Frans van Cuyck van, a Flemish 
painter, was bom in Bruges in 1640.. He settled 
in Ghent where he painted many historical nictures. 
introducing portraits of the leading merchants of 
the town. He particularly distinguished himself 
by his pictures of animals, and A fish, many of 
which are scarcely inferior to those of Snyders. 

MIERS, E. H., a Dutch landscape painter, who 
settled in London, where he died in 1793. 

MIETSCH, Christian Gottlieb, painter and 
etcher, was bom at Dresden in 1742. In 1756 be 
entered the Academy at Dresden, and studied under 

161 



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ICiger 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Mig^nard 



Silvestre and Hutin, and in 1763 became a teacher 
himsell Among his etchings are : 

The Pool of Betheeda. 
Christ healing the Sick. 
Luna and Antheus. 
The Sleeping Endymion. 

He died in 1800. 

MIGER, Simon Charles, a French engraver, was 
bom in Paris in 1747. He was a pupil of Charles 
Nicolas Cochin, the younger, and nas engraved 
several plates of historical subjects and portraits. 
He was a member of the old * Academic Roy ale.* 
He died in 1805. The following are some of his 
best plates : 

PORTRAITS. 

David Hume, ; after Cochin, 
John Stanley, Musician : after the same. 
Count Maurice de Brum ; after the tame. 
Christopher Qluck ; after Dupleesis. 
Laurent Oars, EngraTer ; after Perenneau. 
Jean Jacques Rousseau ; after Lt Moyne. 
VnuB Mieris ; after a picture by himself. 

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS. 

Heroules strangling Antaras ; after Voiriot / engraved 
for his reception into the Academy in 1777. 

The Flaying of Marsyas ; after C. van Loo ; pendent to 
the last, 

Hercules and Omphale ; after Dumont, 

The Bape of Europa ; after HalU. 

A View of the Coast near Oivita Vecchia ; after Vemet. 

MIGLLA.RA, Giovanni, Cavaliere, was bom at 
Alessandria in 1785, and studied decoration and 
perspective under Albertolli and Levati, and the- 
atrical painting under Galeari at the Brera at 
Milan. He painted a considerable number of 
scenes for the theatre, pictures of genre, and 
views of Milan Cathedral. He was painter to the 
Sardinian Court and member of several academies. 
He died at Milan in 1837. Works : 



Monioh. 
Hamburg. 



Gallery, Cloisters of San Maurixio, Milan. 
„ Cloisters of Sant' Ambrogio, 

Milan. 
OaUery, Church Interior. 



MIGLIARA, Thbodelinda, an Italian painter, 
flourished at Milan at the beginning of the present 
century. She painted city views, one of the best a 
view of the Piazza del Duomo, at Como (Vienna). 

MIGLIONICO, Andrea, according to Dominici, 
was a native of Naples, and a pupil of Luca 
Giordano. He painted historical subjects, and 
there are several of his works in the churches of 
his native city, the best, perhaps, a * Descent of the 
Holy Ghost,* in the SS. Nunziata. He died soon 
after Luca Giordano (1705). 

MIGLIORI, Francesco, an historical painter, 
bom at Venice in 1684. He died in 1734. In the 
Dresden Gallery are the following pictures by him : 

Joseph interpreting Dreams in Friaon. 

Baoohus and Ariadne. 

Cain and Abel. 

Europa. 

Boman Piety. 

Lot and his Daughters. 

The Sacrifice of Abraham. 

MIGNARD, Nicolas, called Miqnard d* Avignon, 
was bom at Troyes, in Champagne, in 1605 or 
1608. He received his first instruction in art from 
an obscure painter of his native city ; but he soon 
afterwards went to Fontainebleau, where he had the 
advantage of studpng the works of Primaticcio, 
Fr6minet, II Rosso, and others, and the antique 
statues whioh had been collected by Francis I. 

152 



He afterwards visited Italy, and passed two years 
at Rome, where he studied Alhani and Anni- 
bale Carracci On his return to France he passed 
some time at Avignon, where he married, and from 
his long residence in that city was called * Mignard 
d*Avignon,' to distinguish him from his brother 
Pierre Mignard, called * Le Remain.' By the 
recommendation of Cardinal Mazarin, he was in 
1660 invited to the court of Louis XIV., and 
employed in several works for the palace of the 
Tuileries, among which were * Apollo crowning the 
Muses of Poetry, Painting, and Music'; 'Apollo 
and Daphne * ; and ' Mercury presenting a Lyre to 
Apollo. He was also much employed as a portrait 
painter ; some of his best works in that genre have 
been admirably engraved by Antoine Masson. 
His own portrait is in the Museum at Lyons. 
Mignard was a member of the Paris Academy. He 
died in that city in 1668. Mignard etched eight 
plates after Annibale and Agostino Carracci's works 
m the Famesina. 

MIGNARD, Paul, portrait painter and engraver, 
was a son of Nicolas Mignard. He was bom at 
Avignon in 1639, became a member of the Lyons 
Academy, and died there in 1691. 

MIGNARD, Pierre, a French historical and 
portrait painter, born at Troyes in 1610. Intended 
by his f atlier for the medical profession, he showed 
so strong a predilection for art, that at the a^e of 
twelve he was placed for a year with a painter 
named Boucher, who enjoyed a considerable local 
reputation at Bourges. He then spent two years 
in study amongst the treasures of art which had 
been collected at Fontainebleau. Returning to 
Troyes, he began the practice of his profession by 
painting some decorative works for the Mar^chal 
de Vitry in the chapel of his chateau at Coubert- 
en-Brie. The promise he showed in the execution 
of this commission was such that the Mar^chal 
sent him to Paris to complete his art education in 
the studio of Vouet, the nursery of French art in 
the 17th century. That the master had a high 
opinion of Mignard* s future is shown by the fact 
that he offered him his daughter in marriage. 
But the pupil's desires were centred on Italy, and 
in 1635 he set out for Rome. Here he renewed 
acquaintance with his fellow-student Du Fresnoy, 
and the two painters henceforth became inseparable, 
living and studying together on terms of the closest 
friendship. Twenty-two years of Mignard*s life 
were spent in Italy : chiefly in Rome, whence he 
acquired the cognomen of *Le Remain,' to 
distinguish him from his elder brother, Nicolas 
Mignard, d' Avignon. During this Italian sojourn 
he diligently studied the antique, and gradually 
obtained a great reputation. His practice as a 
portrait painter was very large : three successive 
popes, Urban VIII., Innocent X., and Alexander 
Vll., sat to him. In 1653 his friend Du Fresnoy 
left him to return to France. Taking a circuitous 
route, he was joined at Venice by Mignard, who 
embraced the opportunity to make a lengthened 
tour through some of the chief c'.ties of Italy. 
After this excursion he again settled down in 
Rome, and in 1656 married the daughter of an 
architect. At this period he produced many 
pictures of the Virgin and Child, in which he 
reproduced the features of his wife, whence 
such Madonnas were called *' Mignardes.** His 
reputation had now spread so widely that in 
1657 he received a royal command to return to 
France. On his journey he was struck down by 



Kignard 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Uihes 



a dangerous illness, which' necessitated a sojouni 
of some months with his brother at Avignon, where 
he formed an intimacy with Moli^re. Arrived in 
Paris, he settled down again with his old friend 
Du Fresnoy, and obtained a large practice as a 
portrait painter. He was patronized by royalty, 
and was especially regarded as the painter of the 
court beauties. But he aimed at higher things than 

Portraiture, and undertook various decorative works, 
he chief of these were the great frescoes repre- 
senting Paradise in the dome of the Val-de-Gr&ce, 
which he painted for Anne of Austria, and some 
works at the palaces of St. Cloud and Versailles. 
On the completion of the Val-de-GrAce commission, 
he felt his status sufBciently assured to send to 
Italy for his wife and children to rejoin him. For 
many years a keen rivalry existed between him 
and Le Brun. So great was the jealousy, that 
Mignard declined to become a member of the 
Academy^ as he would have had to occupy an 
inferior position to his rival. He joined the 
Academic de St. Luc, of which he became the head, 
and thence led the opposing faction. The death 
of Colbert, and the accession of Louvois to power, 
at length enabled Mignard to outstrip his rival; 
and after Le Brun's death he was received into 
the Academy, all the honours of that body being 
conferred on him at a single sitting. He had now 
no competitor to fear, and during the remaining 
years of his life his supremacy in French art was 
unquestioned. The last great work on which he 
was engaged was a design for the decoration of 
the dome of the Invalides, but he did not live to 
carry it out. He continued painting till the year 
of lus death, which took place in Paris in 1695. 
There are many specimens of Mignard's art in the 
French provincial galleries. The following is a 
list of his works in some of the chief public 
collections of Europe : O.J.D. 

Berlin. Gallery, Portrait of Marie Mancini. 

Florence. TTgizi, Portrait of Mad. de Sevignd. 

„ „ ComteBse de GrigDon. 

London. ■B««^^^|portrait of Louis XIV. 

„ „ Louise de Qu^oaille, Duchess of 

Portsmouth. (1682. ) 
„ Hcmfion Court. Massacre of the Innocents. 
„ Windsor Castle. Henrietta, Duchess of Orleans. 
Madrid. Museum. St. John in the Desert. 

„ „ Portrait of a French Prince. 

Mayence. Oallery. Poetry, History, and Painting. 

„ „ The Ood of Time. 

Paris. Louvre. The Way to Calvary. (1684.) 

Virgin with Grapes. 
Ecce Homo. 
' Mater Dolorosa.' 
St. Cecilia. (1691.) 
Faith. (1692.) 
Hope. (1692.) 

Neptune offering riches to Fiance. 
St. Luke painting the Virgin. 

(1695.) 
Portrait of Himself , &c. 
Rome. Pal. Conserv. Holy Family. 
Bt. Petenburg. ^H^ | g^^^ „, j^^^ 

Magnanimity of Alexander the 

Great. (1680.) 
Death of Cleopatra. 
„ Portrait of his Daughter. 
Toiin. Jfuseum. Portrait of Louis XIV. 

„ „ Portrait of the Dauphin. 

Versailles. Gallery. Portrait of his Daughter. 

„ „ Seven other Portraits. 

Vienna. Belvedere. St. Anthony. 



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Vienna. LiecktenMn^^^^^^^^^ 

" In-ih^^G^ll^^]^''''^^'^^^^^^' 
f, y, Three Angels. 

MIGNARD, Pierre, * the younger,* was the son 
of Nicolas. He treated historical subjects, and 
was painter to Maria Theresa of Austria, knight of 
the Order of Christ, and member of the Academy 
of Architecture. He died at Avignon at the age of 
thirty-five years. 

MI(3^NERET, Adrian, an engraver, bom in Paris 
in 1786. He was a pu^il of Langlois, and in 1817 
received a gold medal for an engraving of VafiBard s 
dying Moliere. Among his engravings are also : 

Portrait of Moliere ; after Mignard. 
Peter the Great ; after Steuben, 
Young Woman ; afier Metm. 
Portrait of Cardinal Fleury. 

MIGNON, Abraham, (or Minjon,) was bom at 
Frankfort in 1639. He was the son of a merchant, 
who designed him for his own profession, but in 
view of his inclination for art, placed him under the 
tuition of Jacob Marel, a painter of still-life, with 
whom he continued till he was seventeen years of 
age. Marel carried on a considerable commerce 
in works of art, and his business leading him to 
Holland, he was accompanied by his pupil, whom 
he recommended to the c&Yq of Jan Davidsz de 
Heem, at Utrecht Mignon soon became popular, 
and with the greatest industry scarcely managed 
to keep pace with the demand for his works. He 
died at Wedzlar in 1697. He was the instructor 
of Maria Sibylla Merian, whose mother, the widow 
of Matthaiis Merian, he had married. 

A dead Cock hun^ up by the Feet. 
Louvre, A Bouquet of Wild Flowers. . 
Flowers and Fruit. 



Frankfort. 
Peris. 



If 



» 



Vienna. Liechtenstein 

Gall 



'.} 



Fruit. 



Other works by him are to be met with at 
Amsterdam, Carlsruhe, Cassel, Dresden, Munich, 
Paris, St. Petersburg, and Stockholm. 

MIGNON, Jkav, is mentioned by Stratt as the 
author of a coarse etching, representing * Abra- 
ham purchasing the Cave oi Machpelah from the 
Children of Heth.' It is inscribed, lo Mignon fee 
He is said to have been working at Fontainebleau 
in 1630. 

MIGNON, Gaspard, a French painter of the 17th 
century, of whose life no details are known. 

MIGNOT, Daniel, probably a Frenchman, was 
a designer, engraver, and goldsmith. He worked 
at Augsburg about 1590, and has left 150 excellent 
and very rare plates from goldsmith^s work. 

MIGNOT, Jennin, an obscure painter of Bruges, 
who was active in that city in 1468. 

MIGNOT, Louis Remy, was a creole. He was 
bom in 1831 in South Carolina, and passed most of 
his life in New York and London. He painted 
tropical landscapes, and in 1859 was elected a 
mejnber of the American Nat. Academy. He died 
at Brighton in 1871. 

MIGUEL el Flamengo. See Amberes. 

MIHES, Julie, painter and lithographer, was 
bom at Breslau in 1786, and studied at Vienna. 
Here she was married in 1823 to the custos Pri- 
misser, but was left a widow in 1827, and betook 
herself to a nunnery. She died in 1855. She 
was clever in reproducing the characteristics of 
the old masters, as in copies of a 'Christ,' by 
Bellini, and a * Madonna,' after Annibale Carracci 

153 



MM 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP 



Miller 



(both at Dresden). She lithographed *The Ador- 
ation of the Holy Trinity/ after Albrecht Diiren 

MIJ. See Van deb Mij. 

MIJIN, Henbi Abnauld, (Mtin,) was bom at 
Antwerp in 1760, and instructed by B. P. Omme- 
ganck, whose manner he followed both in his land- 
scapes and animals. He married Ommeganck's 
sister, and died in 1826. 

MIJN. See Van dbb Mun. 

MIJRICINUa SeeMEBiCA. 

MIJRTILL. See Glaubeb, J. G. 

MIJTENS, Mabtin van. See Meytkns. 

MIKCEER, Jan, a landscape painter, lived in 
the early part of the 17th century, and is said to 
have been one of the masters of J. B. Weenix. He 
painted well-wooded landscapes ornamented with 
buildings, in a low tone of colour. 

MILANESE, Cbsabb. See Sesto. 

MILANESE, Felice, who was probably a painter, 
has left a small upright etching, representing the 
♦Virgin and Infant seated on a pedestal, with a 
Bishop and several Children before her.' 

MILANESE, IL. See Cittadini. 

MILANI, AUBBLIANO, the nephew of Qiulio 
Cesare Milani, was bom at Bologna in 1675, and 
was a scholar of Cesare Gennari, and afterwanls of 
Lorenzo Pasinelli. He did not, however, attach 
himself to their manner, but devoted himself to an 
littentive study of the style of the Carraccl His 
principal works at Bologna are, his ' San Girolamo,' 
m Santa Maria della Vita; *The Stoning of 
Stephen,' in Santa Maria Mascarella; and *The 
Resurrection,' in La Purita. He died in 1749. 

MILANI, GiULio Cesabe, was bora at Bologna 
in 1621, and was a disciple of Flaminio Torre, of 
whose style he was a successful follower. Of his 
works in the churches at Bologna the best are, a 
' Marriage of the Virgin,' in San Giuseppe ; a ' S. 
Antonio di Padova,' m the church of Santa Maria 
del Costello ,- and a * Holy Family with St John,' 
at the Servi. He died in 1678. 

MILANI, Giuseppe Mabia, was bom at Pisa in 
1678, and was a scholar of Camillo Gabrielli. 
Following the example of his instractor, he imi- 
tated the style of Pietro da Cortona and Ciro Ferri. 
He afterwards applied himself with great assiduity 
to the study of architecture, and excelled in mag- 
nificent buildings, which he embeUished with well- 
drawn figures. Several of his frescoes are in 
the churches at Pisa. 

MILANO, Bbamante da, is the name given to 
an artist stated to have been bom at Milan towards 
the end of the 14th century. His very existence 
has been denied by some, but those who have 
accepted it assert that he was a painter and archi- 
tect at the above town, and that he executed a 
*Pietk,' in the church of Sant' Angelo there in 
1418, and afterwards a < Martyrdom of St. Sebas- 
tian,' and two large frescoes in other Milanese 
churches. His latest work was that of ' Christ in 
the Tomb,' over the door of San Sepolcro, which 
Philip II. had copied for the Escoriai. His death 
is said to have occurred about 1470. 

MILANO, Giovanni da, properly Giov. Jaoobi, 
was a Milanese painter of the 14ui century, bom 
in Milan about 1300. He leamt his art in Florence, 
in the studio of Taddeo Gaddi, but died at Milan at 
a good old age. Among his works we may name : 

Florence. Uffizi. An altar-pieoe in ten compart- 

ments {Jormerly in the church 
of the OfffusianH), 
154 



Florence. Academy. PietA. (Formerly in S.CHrolamo 

sulla Costa.) 
„ S. Croce. Scenes from the lives of the 

Virgin and of the Saviour. 

(In the Binuecini Chapel; 

formerly ascribed to T. Gaadi.) 

Prato. Com. Oallery. An altar-piece in five compart- 
ments {signed boo Johannes 

DB MbDIOLANO PUfXI HOO 
OFUS). 

MILANO, MiCHELiNO DA, lived in the 15th 
century. Count Giorgio Giulini in his ^ Memorie ' 
states of him, that he was famous as a painter of 
animals. He decorated the court and other parts 
of the Casa Borromeo, Milan; but unfortunately 
his frescoes have been nearly all whitewashed 
over. The Casa Vendramin at Venice formerly 
possessed a book with coloured sketches of animals 
by Michelino. 

MILATZ, F. A., a Dutch painter, bom at Haar- 
lem in 1763. He painted landscapes and executed 
some engravings. He was also a physician, and 
died in 1808. 

MILBOURN, John, an English portrait painter, 
in the latter part of the 18th century. He was a 
pupil of F. Cotes, and was awarded a premium by 
the Society of Arts in 1764. Some of his works 
were exhibited at the Academy in 1773-4. T. 
Gaufl^ain engraved after him. 

MiLDE, Kabl Fbiedrich AuGUffr, a painter bom 
at Gorlitz in 1788. He worked at Dresden, made 
copies of famous pictures, and painted portraits. 

MiLDE, Earl Julius, a German painter, was 
bom at Hamburg in 1803. He painted omamental 
pieces, historical subjects, landscape, and sea pieces. 
He lived at Lubeck, where he died in 1876. 

MILDORFEB, Michael Ignaz, was a painter of 
Innsbrack, who iSourished in the first part of the 
18th century, and painted sacred subjects. His 
son, Joseph Iqnaz, studied at Vienna under Paul 
Troger, and in 1742 gained a first prize for 
painting. In 1761 he was painter to the Duchess 
Emanuela of Savoy. His (laughter, Maria Eliza- 
beth, bom in 1713. was a miniature painter of some 
repute. She Uvea some time at Rome, but after- 
wards retumed to Innsbmck. She became blind, 
and died in 1792. 

MILE. SeeMiLLiT. 

MILA, N., a portrait painter, who flourished in 
Brabant in the l7th century. He was a pupil of 
E. E. Biset 

MILES, Edward, an English miniature painter, 
bom at Yarmouth about 3ie middle of the 18th 
century. He practised in London, becoming minia- 
ture painter to Queen Charlotte and the Duchess of 
York, and exhibited at the Academy from 1786 to 
1797. He died at Yarmouth early in the present 
century. 

MILLAN, Sebastian, a Spanish portrait and 
genre painter, was bom at Seville towards the 
middle of the 17th century. He was a pupil of 
Escobar. He died very old in 1731. 

MILLA, Jan Baptist, was a Flemish painter of 
the 18th century. He was a pupil of Van Helraont, 
and was received into the Acaaemy of St. Luke at 
Brussels about 1718. He painted figures in the 
landscapes of Coppens. 

MILLER, Andrew, an engraver, is believed to 
have been of Scotch descent, but was bom in 
London, and lived in Dublin from about 1740 
till his death some ten years later. He studied 
under Faber. He engraved the designs of Frank 



Killer 



PAINTERS AND ENQRAVERa 



KiUet 



Hayraan, and like him was given to drink, through 
which his life was materially shortened. His 
best known works were portraits in mezzotint, 
which are by no means destitute of merit. Among 
others, we have the following : 

Dean Swift ; a^tr F. BiruUm. 1748. 

Robert Boyle, philosopher. 

Charles Lacas, M.D., of Dublin. 

Robert Josleyn, Lord Newport, Ohanoellor of Ireland. 

1747. 
Josiah Hort, Aicbbishm) of Taam. 
Eaten Stannard, Becorder of Dublin. 
Joseph Baudin, Painter. 

Joseph Miller, Actor, in the character of * Teagae.' 
John Harper, in the character of ' Jobeon.' 
Snowdon, in the character of ' Oaled,' in the * Siege of 

Damascus.' 
Turbntt, in the character of ' Sosia/ in * Ampbytiion.' 

MILLER, Jambs, an English landscape painter 
of the early water-colour school, who exhibited at 
the Academy from 1773 to 1776. At the South 
Kensington Museum there are by him : 

Entrance to Greenwich Park. 
View in St. James's Park. 

MILLER, John, an English engraver, flourished 
about the year 1760. We have a variety of prints 
by him, chiefly portraits, among many others 
the following : 

King George III. ; ad vivum. 

Queen Charlotte ; the same, 

Jeffery, Lord Amherst. 

George Bridges, Lord Bodney. 

Gharks Townsend, Chancellor of the Exchequer. 

Thomas Gray. 

Charles Churchill. 

Sir John Yanbmgh. 

John Wilkes, M.P. 

MILLER, John, an English flower painter and 
engraver, bom in London about 1750. He was 
awarded a Society of Arts* premium in 1766. 
Between 1770 and 1789 he illustrated and pub- 
lished two books on the system of Linnseus, the 
'Ilhistratio systematis sezualis Linn»i (1770-7X' 
and the * lUustratio terminorum Linn»i (1789).' 

MILLER, John Sebastian. See MOllbr. 

MILLER, William, engraver, was born at 
Edinburgh, 28th May, 1796. His father, who 
belonged to an old Scottish family, sent him to 
London to study engraving under George Ck)oke. 
After some years in London he returned to the 
family home, Millerfield, near Edinburgh, and 
settled down to the practice of his art. The great 
bulk of his work is after Turner. Ruskin sneaks 
of him as the best of Turner's engravers. In the 
last half of his life he travelled a good deal, and 
also practised painting in water-colour. He was an 
honorary member of the Royal Scottish Academy, 
and occasionallv sent water-colour drawings to its 
exhibition. Miller was a member of the ' Society 
of Friends ; ' he was twice married ; he lived at his 
home of Millerfield for about eighty years, and 
died there on the 20th of January, 1882. The 
following list includes all his best work : 

The Grand Canal, Venice ; I The Rhine at Felzen ; after 
after Turner. \ the same, 

IN turner's ENGLAND AND WALES SERIES: 



IN THE PROBE WORKS 0» SIR WALTER 8C01T: 



Carew Castle. 

Chatham. 

Dover. 

Durham Cathedral. 



IN 



Llewellyn's Hall. 
The Rialto. 



Stamford. 
Windsor Castle. 
Varmonth. 



ROGERS'S poems: 

Loch Lomond. 



Dumbarton Castle. 

Brussels. 

Hongnemont. 

Jerusalem. 

Norham Castle. 

New Abbey (near Dumfries). 

Hotel de Vme, Paris. 

Brienne. 

PiAoenza. 

Yeuioe. 

Verona. 

Vinoennes. 

Craigmillar Castle. 

Dunstaffnage. 

linlithgow. 

Glencoe. 



St. Cloud. 
Mayence. 
The Simplon. 
Fere la Chaise. 
Malmaison. 
Fontaineblean. 
Field of Waterloo. 
Chief swood Cottage. 
Bhjmer's Glen. 
Edinburgh, from St. An- 
thony's Chapel. 
Stirling. 
KiUiecrankie. 
Inverness. 
Fort Augustus. 



IN THE POETICAL WORKS OF SIR WALTER SCOTT: 

Dryburgh. 
Melrose. 
Loch Katrine. 



Edinburgh. 



Loch Achray. 

Skiddaw. 

Berwick-on-Tweed. 



RIVERS OF FRANCE: 

dairmont. 
ChAteaa de Nantes. 
Rouen. 



Rouen (looking down the 
Pont Neuf. Seine). 

Meudon (?) 



CAMPBELL'S POEMS 



Oran. 

Tower of London ; after 

The Shepherd; after the 
$ame. 



Loch an Eilan; after H. 

MaaUlocK 
Illustrations to Hood's 

Poems ; after Birket 

Foster, 



MILLER, William, an English portrait and 
historical painter, bom about 1740. He was em- 
ployed on the Shakespeare Gallery for Alderman 
Boydell, whose portrait he painted. His works 
were exhibited at the Academy from 1790 to 1803. 
He died about 1810. 

MILLET, Fran<^is, (or Mil^) sometimes known 
as Francisque. The family of this artist was 
originally French, though he was bom at Antwerp 
in 1644. His father was a turner of ivory, bora at 
Dijon, and accompanied the Prince de Cond^, to 
whom he was attached, into the Netherlands, at the 
time of the revolt and settled at Antwerp. Having 
shown an early inclination for art, the young Millet 
was placed as a pupil of Laurent Franck. His father 
dying when he was still young, he had no other 
resource than the exercise of his talents ; and when 
he was eighteen years of age, he had acquired 
sufficient reputation to induce his master to give 
him his daughter in marriage. He soon afterwards 
went to Paris, where he painted history and 
heroic landscapes, with figures representing some 
historical or fabulous subject. He is stated by M. 
d*Argenville to have visited Holland and England, 
in both of which countries he left proofs of his 
ability. On his return to Paris he was received into 
the Academy, and his works were held in high 
estimation. Millet died in 1680. His sons Henri 
and Jean Francois were also painters. The latter 
died in 1723. Among Millet's works are : 

OaUery. Landscape Buins. 

Best of the Holy Family during 

the Flight to Egypt. 
Landscapes. 
Landscapes. 
Sea Views. 
View of a Harbour. 

We have a few etchings by this artist ; among 
them, the following : 

155 



Bordeaux. 
Brussels. 

Dresden. 
Munich. 

Petersburg. 



n 



» 



» 



MiUet 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP 



Milon 



A Landscape, with Egyptian Bains, with the subject of 

Moses saved from the waters of the Nile : Franeisque 

inv. 
Another Landscape, with the History of Gephalos and 

Procris. 
A Mountainous Landscape, with figiires, and a town in 

the middle. 
Les deux Amants. 
Le Voyageur. 
Yille antique. 

MILLET, Fr^dAric, a French miniature painter, 
bom at Charlieu (Loire) in 1786. His art instruc- 
tion was due to F. Aubry, Pemot, and Isabey. He 
first exhibited at the Salon in 1806, and received 
medals in 1817, 1824, and 1827. His practice was 
very extensive : almost all the eminent personages 
of the time were his sitters. He died m Paris in 
1859. His son AiMii was also an artist. 

MILLET, Jean Franqgis, a French painter of 
landscape and peasant life, bom at Gruchy, near 
Cherbourg, in 1814. His parents were Norman 
peasants, who industriously cultivated a small 
f ann« Amid these rustic surroundings he received 
a simple yet sound education from his grand- 
mother and his great-uncle, a priest without cure 
of souls, who both lived under the family roof. A 
taste for art early developed itself in him, and his 
first systematic instmction was received from 
Langlois at Cherbourg, where he was sent in 1834. 
His progress was such that he was granted a small 
pension by the Municipal Council to enable him to 
pursue his studies in Paris. Tliither he went in 
1837, and entered the studio of Delaroche, where 
Diaz, Rousseau, and Corot were among Jiis 
fellow-pupils. During the period of student life 
he frequently suffered great privations through 
the slendemess of his resources. His first appear- 
ance at the Salon was in 1840, when he exhibited 
a portrait In the same year he returned to his 
native country, and for some time earned a living 
by painting sign-boards at Cherbourg. While 
thus engaged he met his first wife, whom he 
married in 1841. He went back to Paris in the 
next year to renew bis stmggles, which were 
increased by the ill-health of his wife, who died 
after a short married life of three years. Return- 
ing once more to Normandy, he entered the married 
state again, and his second wife proved a devoted 
companion. The newly-married couple spent 
some time at Havre, where he earned a scanty 
subsistence by painting portraits, small genre 
pictures, &c. He sought Paris again in December 
1845, and during the next few years his struggle 
for existence was very arduous : he and his family 
being frequently in need of the barest necessities 
of life. This was an important period in the 
development of his art. Still under the influence 
of the Delaroche studio, he wavered for some time 
between historical and landscape painting. The 
appearance of his * Winnower ' in 1848 and of * The 
Sower* in the following year showed his trae 
vocation, and henceforth he adhered strictly to 
subjects taken from peasant life. In 1849 he 
removed fcom Paris to Barbizon, a village in the 
beautiful Fontainebleau country with which his 
name became inseparably connected. He settled 
in a peasant's cottage of three rooms, which he 
gradually enlarged to meet the requirements of his 
growing family. Here, in the midst of the scenery 
and peasant life so dear to him, he found no lack 
of congenial subjects. His circumstances for many 
years still continued straitened. His pictures only 
brought small prices, and were but little appreci- 
156 



ated, save by a few. Although he was awarded 
medals at the Salons of 1853 and 1864, it was not 
until 1867 that his means began to improve. In 
that year he was awarded a first class medal at the 
Paris Universal Exhibition, and he also received the 
unasked-for distinction of the Legion of Honour. 
During the remainder of his career he felt less of 
the carking cares of poverty, but he continued his 
same simple rustic life at Barbizon, where he died 
on the 20th January, 1875. Since his death his 
works have fetched enormous prices, but his widow 
and family were left comparatively poor, and were 
granted a pension of 1200 francs by the State. ThB 
following is a list of some of his works : OJ.D. 

The Angelus. (3f. LecreUm, Fans.) ' 

The Sower. 1849. 

Moses. (Cherbourg 3fuseum.) 

Peasant grafting a Tree. 1855. 

Woman pasturing a Oow. (^Bourg Muteum.) 

A Park with Sheep : Moonhght. 

The Gleaners. 1837- 

The Potato-Harvest. 1863. 

Death and the Woodcutter. 

Woman shearing Sheep. 1861. 

Pla